Christogram with the Jesus Prayer in Romanian: Doamne Iisuse Hristoase, Fiul lui Dumnezeu, miluieşte-mă pe mine păcătosul ("Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, the sinner")

The Jesus Prayer,[a] also known as The Prayer,[b] is a short formulaic prayer, esteemed and advocated especially in Eastern Christianity:

"Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner."

It is often repeated continually as a part of personal ascetic practice, its use being an integral part of the eremitic tradition of prayer known as hesychasm.[c] The prayer is particularly esteemed by the spiritual fathers of this tradition (see Philokalia) as a method of cleaning and opening up the mind and after this the heart (kardia), brought about first by the Prayer of the Mind, or more precisely the Noetic Prayer (Νοερά Προσευχή), and after this the Prayer of the Heart (Καρδιακή Προσευχή). The Prayer of the Heart is considered to be the Unceasing Prayer that the Apostle Paul advocates in the New Testament.[d] Theophan the Recluse regarded the Jesus Prayer stronger than all other prayers by virtue of the power of the Holy Name of Jesus.[3]

Though identified more closely with Eastern Christianity, the prayer is found in Western Christianity in the Catechism of the Catholic Church.[4] It also is used in conjunction with the recent innovation of Anglican prayer beads.[5] The prayer has been widely taught and discussed throughout the history of the Eastern Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church. The ancient and original form did not include the words "a sinner", which were added later.[3][6] The Eastern Orthodox theology of the Jesus Prayer as enunciated in the 14th century by Gregory Palamas was generally rejected by Latin Church theologians until the 20th century. Pope John Paul II called Gregory Palamas a saint,[7] a great writer, and an authority on theology.[8][9][10] He also spoke with appreciation of hesychasm as "that deep union of grace which Eastern theology likes to describe with the particularly powerful term "theosis", 'divinization'",[11] and likened the meditative quality of the Jesus Prayer to that of the Catholic Rosary.[12]

Origins

The prayer's origin is the Egyptian desert, which was settled by the monastic Desert Fathers and Desert Mothers in the 5th century.[13] It was found inscribed in the ruins of a cell from that period in the Egyptian desert.[14]

A formula similar to the standard form of the Jesus Prayer is found in a letter attributed to John Chrysostom, who died in AD 407. This "Letter to an Abbot" speaks of "Lord Jesus Christ, son of God, have mercy" and "Lord Jesus Christ, son of God, have mercy on us" being used as ceaseless prayer.[15]

What may be the earliest explicit reference to the Jesus Prayer in a form that is similar to that used today is in Discourse on Abba Philimon from the Philokalia. Philimon lived around AD 600.[16] The version cited by Philimon is, "Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy upon me," which is apparently the earliest source to cite this standard version.[17] While the prayer itself was in use by that time, John S. Romanides writes that "We are still searching the Fathers for the term 'Jesus prayer'."[2]

A similar idea is recommended in the Ladder of Divine Ascent of John Climacus (circa 523–606), who recommends the regular practice of a monologistos, or one-worded "Jesus Prayer".[6] The use of the Jesus Prayer according to the tradition of the Philokalia is the subject of the 19th century anonymous Russian spiritual classic The Way of a Pilgrim, also in the original form, without the addition of the words "a sinner".[18]

Eastern Orthodoxy

See also: Eastern Orthodox theology

The hesychastic practice of the Jesus Prayer is founded on the biblical view by which God's name is conceived as the place of his presence.[19] Orthodox mysticism has no images or representations. The mystical practice (the prayer and the meditation) doesn't lead to perceiving representations of God (see below Palamism). Thus, the most important means of a life consecrated to praying is the invoked name of God, as it is emphasized since the 5th century by the Thebaid anchorites, or by the later Athonite hesychasts. For the Orthodox the power of the Jesus Prayer comes not only from its content, but from the very invocation of Jesus' name.[20]

Scriptural roots

The Jesus Prayer combines three Bible verses: the Christological hymn of the Pauline epistle Philippians 2:6–11 (verse 11: "Jesus Christ is Lord"), the Annunciation of Luke 1:31–35 (verse 35: "Son of God"), and the Parable of the Pharisee and the Publican of Luke 18:9–14, in which the Pharisee demonstrates the improper way to pray (verse 11: "God, I thank thee, that I am not as other men are, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even as this publican"), whereas the Publican prays correctly in humility (verse 13: "God be merciful to me a sinner").[e]

Palamism, the underlying theology

Icon of the Transfiguration of Jesus by Theophanes the Greek (15th century, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow). Talking with Christ: Elijah (left) and Moses (right). Kneeling: Peter, James, and John

Main article: Palamism

Apophatism[22] (negative theology) is the main characteristic of the Eastern theological tradition. Incognoscibility is not conceived as agnosticism or refusal to know God, because the Eastern theology is not concerned with abstract concepts; it is contemplative, with a discourse on things above rational understanding. Therefore, dogmas are often expressed antinomically.[23] This form of contemplation is experience of God, illumination, called the vision of God or, in Greek, theoria.[24][clarification needed]

For the Eastern Orthodox the knowledge or noesis of the uncreated energies is usually linked to apophatism.[25][26]

Repentance in Eastern Orthodoxy

See also: Eastern Orthodox view of sin

The Eastern Orthodox Church holds a non-juridical view of sin, by contrast to the satisfaction view of atonement for sin as articulated in the West, firstly by Anselm of Canterbury (as debt of honor)[need quotation to verify]) and Thomas Aquinas (as a moral debt).[need quotation to verify] The terms used in the East are less legalistic (grace, punishment), and more medical (sickness, healing) with less exacting precision. Sin, therefore, does not carry with it the guilt for breaking a rule, but rather the impetus to become something more than what men usually are. One repents not because one is or isn't virtuous, but because human nature can change. Repentance (Ancient Greek: μετάνοια, metanoia, "changing one's mind") isn't remorse, justification, or punishment, but a continual enactment of one's freedom, deriving from renewed choice and leading to restoration (the return to man's original state).[27] This is reflected in the Mystery of Confession for which, not being limited to a mere confession of sins and presupposing recommendations or penalties, it is primarily that the priest acts in his capacity of spiritual father.[19][28] The Mystery of Confession is linked to the spiritual development of the individual, and relates to the practice of choosing an elder to trust as his or her spiritual guide, turning to him for advice on the personal spiritual development, confessing sins, and asking advice.

As stated at the local Council of Constantinople in 1157, Christ brought his redemptive sacrifice not to the Father alone, but to the Trinity as a whole. In the Eastern Orthodox theology redemption isn't seen as ransom. It is the reconciliation of God with man, the manifestation of God's love for humanity. Thus, it is not the anger of God the Father but His love that lies behind the sacrificial death of his son on the cross.[28]

The redemption of man is not considered to have taken place only in the past, but continues to this day through theosis. The initiative belongs to God, but presupposes man's active acceptance (not an action only, but an attitude), which is a way of perpetually receiving God.[27]

Distinctiveness from analogues in other religions

The practice of contemplative or meditative chanting is known in several religions including Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam (e.g. japa, zikr). The form of internal contemplation involving profound inner transformations affecting all the levels of the self is common to the traditions that posit the ontological value of personhood.[29]

Although some aspects of the Jesus Prayer may resemble some aspects of other traditions, its Christian character is central rather than mere "local color". The aim of the Christian practicing it is not limited to attaining humility, love, or purification of sinful thoughts, but rather it is becoming holy and seeking union with God (theosis), which subsumes all the aforementioned virtues. Thus, for the Eastern Orthodox:[30]

  • The Jesus Prayer is, first of all, a prayer addressed to God. It is not a means of self-deifying or self-deliverance, but a counterexample to Adam's pride, repairing the breach it produced between man and God.
  • The aim is not to be dissolved or absorbed into nothingness or into God, or reach another state of mind, but to (re)unite[f] with God (which by itself is a process) while remaining a distinct person.
  • It is an invocation of Jesus' name, because Christian anthropology and soteriology are strongly linked to Christology in Orthodox monasticism.
  • In a modern context the continuing repetition is regarded by some as a form of meditation, the prayer functioning as a kind of mantra. However, Orthodox users of the Jesus Prayer emphasize the invocation of the name of Jesus Christ that Hesychios describes in Pros Theodoulon which would be contemplation on the Triune God rather than simply emptying the mind.[citation needed]
  • Acknowledging "a sinner" is to lead firstly to a state of humbleness and repentance, recognizing one's own sinfulness.
  • Practicing the Jesus Prayer is strongly linked to mastering passions of both soul and body, e.g. by fasting. For the Eastern Orthodox it is not the body that is wicked, but "the bodily way of thinking"; therefore salvation also regards the body.
  • Unlike "seed syllables" in particular traditions of chanting mantras, the Jesus Prayer may be translated into whatever language the pray-er customarily uses. The emphasis is on the meaning, not on the mere utterance of certain sounds.
  • There is no emphasis on the psychosomatic techniques, which are merely seen as helpers for uniting the mind with the heart, not as prerequisites.

A magistral way of meeting God for the Orthodox,[31] the Jesus Prayer does not harbor any secrets in itself, nor does its practice reveal any esoteric truths.[32] Instead, as a hesychastic practice, it demands setting the mind apart from rational activities and ignoring the physical senses for the experiential knowledge of God. It stands along with the regular expected actions of the believer (prayer, almsgiving, repentance, fasting etc.) as the response of the Orthodox Tradition to Paul the Apostle's challenge to "pray without ceasing" (1 Thess 5:17).[21][30]

Practice

Eastern Christian prayer rope
Christ the Redeemer by Andrei Rublev (c. 1410, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow)

Techniques

There are no fixed rules for those who pray, "the way there is no mechanical, physical or mental technique which can force God to show his presence" (Metropolitan Kallistos Ware).[31]

In The Way of a Pilgrim, the pilgrim advises, "as you draw your breath in, say, or imagine yourself saying, 'Lord Jesus Christ,' and as you breathe again, 'have mercy on me.'"[18]

The Jesus Prayer can be used for a kind of "psychological" self-analysis. According to the Way of the Pilgrim account and Mount Athos practitioners of the Jesus Prayer,[33] "one can have some insight on his or her current psychological situation by observing the intonation of the words of the prayer, as they are recited. Which word is stressed most. This self-analysis could reveal to the praying person things about their inner state and feelings, maybe not yet realised, of their unconsciousness."[34]

Also, a person might want to consciously stress one of the words of the prayer in particular when one wants to express a conscious feeling of situation. So in times of need stressing the 'have mercy' part can be more comforting or more appropriate. In times of failures, the 'a sinner' part, etc....)."[34]

Levels of the prayer

Icon of The Ladder of Divine Ascent (the steps toward theosis as described by John Climacus) showing monks ascending (and falling from) the ladder to Jesus

Paul Evdokimov, a 20th-century Russian philosopher and theologian, writes[35] about beginner's way of praying: initially, the prayer is excited because the man is emotive and a flow of psychic contents is expressed. In his view this condition comes, for the modern men, from the separation of the mind from the heart: "The prattle spreads the soul, while the silence is drawing it together." Old fathers condemned elaborate phraseologies, for one word was enough for the publican, and one word saved the thief on the cross. They only uttered Jesus' name by which they were contemplating God. For Evdokimov the acting faith denies any formalism which quickly installs in the external prayer or in the life duties; he quotes Seraphim of Sarov: "The prayer is not thorough if the man is self-conscious and he is aware he's praying."

"Because prayer is a living reality, a deeply personal encounter with the living God, it is not to be confined to any given classification or rigid analysis", says the GOARCH.[21] As general guidelines for the practitioner, different number of levels (3, 7 or 9) in the practice of the prayer are distinguished by Orthodox fathers. They are to be seen as being purely informative, because the practice of the Prayer of the Heart is learned under personal spiritual guidance in Eastern Orthodoxy which emphasizes the perils of temptations when it's done by one's own. Thus, Theophan the Recluse, a 19th-century Russian spiritual writer, talks about three stages:[21]

  1. The oral prayer (the prayer of the lips) is a simple recitation, still external to the practitioner.
  2. The focused prayer, when "the mind is focused upon the words" of the prayer, "speaking them as if they were our own."
  3. The prayer of the heart itself, when the prayer is no longer something we do but who we are.

Once this is achieved the Jesus Prayer is said to become "self-active" (αυτενεργούμενη). It is repeated automatically and unconsciously by the mind, becoming an internal habit like a (beneficial) earworm. Body, through the uttering of the prayer, mind, through the mental repetition of the prayer, are thus unified with "the heart" (spirit) and the prayer becomes constant, ceaselessly "playing" in the background of the mind, like a background music, without hindering the normal everyday activities of the person.[34]

Others, like Father Archimandrite Ilie Cleopa, one of the most representative spiritual fathers of contemporary Romanian Orthodox monastic spirituality, talk about nine levels. They are the same path to theosis, more slenderly differentiated:[36]

  1. The prayer of the lips.
  2. The prayer of the mouth.
  3. The prayer of the tongue.
  4. The prayer of the voice.
  5. The prayer of the mind.
  6. The prayer of the heart.
  7. The active prayer.
  8. The all-seeing prayer.
  9. The contemplative prayer.

Variants of repetitive formulas

A number of different repetitive prayer formulas have been attested in the history of Eastern Orthodox monasticism: the Prayer of St. Ioannikios the Great (754–846): "My hope is the Father, my refuge is the Son, my shelter is the Holy Ghost, O Holy Trinity, Glory unto You," the repetitive use of which is described in his Life; or the more recent practice of Nikolaj Velimirović.

Similarly to the flexibility of the practice of the Jesus Prayer, there is no imposed standardization of its form. The prayer can be from as short as "Lord, have mercy" (Kyrie eleison), "Have mercy on me" ("Have mercy upon us"), or even "Jesus", to its longer most common form. It can also contain a call to the Theotokos (Virgin Mary), or to the saints. The single essential and invariable element is Jesus' name.[31]

  • Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner. (a very common form)
  • Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me. (a very common form in the Greek tradition)
  • Lord Jesus Christ, have mercy on me. (common variant on Mount Athos[37])
  • Jesus, have mercy.[38]
  • Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on us.[39]
  • Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the living God, have mercy on me, a sinner.[40]

Catholic Church

The Jesus Prayer is widely practiced among the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches.

Part four of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, which is dedicated to Christian prayer, devotes paragraphs 2665 to 2669 to prayer to Jesus.

To pray "Jesus" is to invoke him and to call him within us. His name is the only one that contains the presence it signifies. Jesus is the Risen One, and whoever invokes the name of Jesus is welcoming the Son of God who loved him and who gave himself up for him. This simple invocation of faith developed in the tradition of prayer under many forms in East and West. The most usual formulation, transmitted by the spiritual writers of the Sinai, Syria, and Mt. Athos, is the invocation, "Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on us sinners." It combines the Christological hymn of Philippians 2:6–11 with the cry of the publican and the blind men begging for light. By it the heart is opened to human wretchedness and the Savior's mercy. The invocation of the holy name of Jesus is the simplest way of praying always. When the holy name is repeated often by a humbly attentive heart, the prayer is not lost by heaping up empty phrases, but holds fast to the word and "brings forth fruit with patience." This prayer is possible "at all times" because it is not one occupation among others but the only occupation: that of loving God, which animates and transfigures every action in Christ Jesus.[41]

Similar methods of prayer in use in the Catholic Church are recitation, as recommended by John Cassian, of "O God, come to my assistance; O Lord, make haste to help me" or other verses of Scripture; repetition of a single monosyllabic word, as suggested by the Cloud of Unknowing; the method used in Centering Prayer; the method used by The World Community for Christian Meditation, based on the Aramaic invocation Maranatha; the use of Lectio Divina; etc.[42]

The Catechism of the Catholic Church says:

The name of Jesus is at the heart of Christian prayer. All liturgical prayers conclude with the words "through our Lord Jesus Christ". The Hail Mary reaches its high point in the words "blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus". The Eastern prayer of the heart, the Jesus Prayer, says: "Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner." Many Christians, such as Joan of Arc, have died with the one word "Jesus" on their lips.[43] The most usual formulation, transmitted by the spiritual writers of the Sinai, Syria, and Mt. Athos, is the invocation: "Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on us sinners."[4]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Greek: προσευχὴ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ, romanizedprosefchí tou iisoú, lit.'prayer to Jesus'; Syriac: ܨܠܘܬܐ ܕܝܫܘܥ, romanizedslotho d-yeshu'; Amharic, Geez and Tigrinya: እግዚኦ መሐረነ ክርስቶስ, romanizedigizi'o meḥarene kirisitosi. John Romanides uses Greek: προσευχή εν Πνεύματι, romanizedprosefchí en Pneúmati, lit.'prayer by the Spirit', or Greek: νοερά προσευχή, romanized: noerá prosefchí, lit.'noetic prayer'.[1] "Note: We are still searching the Fathers for the term 'Jesus prayer'. We would very much appreciate it if someone could come up with a patristic quote in Greek."[2]
  2. ^ Greek: η ευχή, romanizedi efchí, lit.'the wish'.
  3. ^ Ancient Greek: ἡσυχάζω, isycházo, 'to keep stillness'.
  4. ^ 1 Thes 5:17: Pray without ceasing.
  5. ^ "Orthodox tradition is aware that the heart, besides pumping blood, is, when conditioned properly, the place of communion with God by means of unceasing prayer, i.e. unceasing memory of God. The words of Christ", his Beatitudes in Matthew 5:3–10 (verse 8: "Μακάριοι οἱ καθαροὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ, ὅτι αὐτοὶ τὸν θεὸν ὄψονται", lit.'Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God'), "are taken very seriously because they have been fulfilled in all those who were graced with glorification both before and after the Incarnation. […] In the light of this one may turn to" the exhortations of Paul about "unceasing prayer" (Greek: "αδιάλειπτος προσευχή") in his 1 Thessalonians 5:16–22 (verse 17: "ἀδιαλείπτως προσεύχεσθε", lit.'pray unceasingly'). "Luke was a student and companion of Paul, his writings presuppose and reflect this esoteric life in Christ."[1] Closely related to Luke­'s Pharisee and the Publican of 18:9–14 (verse 13: "ὁ Θεός, ἱλάσθητί μοι τῷ ἁμαρτωλῷ", lit.'God be merciful to me a sinner') are his Ten Lepers of 17:11–19 (verse 13: "Ἰησοῦ ἐπιστάτα, ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς", lit.'Jesus, Master, have mercy on us') and his Blind near Jericho of 18:35–43 (verse 38: "Ἰησοῦ, υἱὲ Δαυίδ, ἐλέησόν με", lit.'Jesus, thou son of David, have mercy on me'). Similar: Matthew 9:27–31, 20:29–34 (verses 9:27 and 20:30–31: "ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς, υἱὲ Δαυίδ", lit.'son of David, have mercy on us'), Mark 10:46–52 (verse 47: "υἱὲ Δαυὶδ Ἰησοῦ, ἐλέησόν με", lit.'Jesus, thou son of David, have mercy on me').[4][21]
  6. ^ Unite if referring to one person; reunite if talking at an anthropological level.

References

  1. ^ a b Ρωμανίδης, Ιωάννης Σ. (5–9 February 1982). Ο Ιησούς Χριστός-η ζωή του κόσμου [Jesus Christ-The Life of the World] (in Greek). Translated by Κοντοστεργίου, Δεσποίνης Δ. The Romans: Ancient, Medieval and Modern. Archived from the original on 13 August 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2019. Original: Romanides, John S. (5–9 February 1982). "Jesus Christ-The Life of the World". The Romans: Ancient, Medieval and Modern. Archived from the original on 8 February 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  2. ^ a b Romanides, John S. "Some underlying positions of this website reflecting the studies herein included". The Romans: Ancient, Medieval and Modern. Archived from the original on 19 November 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  3. ^ a b On the Prayer of Jesus by Ignatius Brianchaninov, Kallistos Ware 2006 ISBN 1-59030-278-8 pages xxiii–xxiv
  4. ^ a b c "Catechism of the Catholic Church, § 2667". Vatican.va. Archived from the original on 7 January 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  5. ^ "Anglican Prayer Beads". King of Peace Episcopal Church. Archived from the original on 1 February 2019.
  6. ^ a b Frederica Mathewes-Green (2009). The Jesus Prayer: The Ancient Desert Prayer that Tunes the Heart to God. Paraclete Press. p. 76–. ISBN 978-1-55725-659-1.
  7. ^ Pape Jean Paul II (30 November 1979). "Messe à Ephèse". Vatican.va (in French). Archived from the original on 29 August 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  8. ^ Pope John Paul II (14 November 1990). "The Spirit as 'Love Proceeding'". Vatican.va. Archived from the original on 20 August 2002. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  9. ^ Pope John Paul II (12 November 1997). "General Audience". Vatican.va. Archived from the original on 29 August 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  10. ^ Pope John Paul II (25 May 2000). "For the Jubilee of Scientists". Vatican.va. Archived from the original on 29 August 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  11. ^ Pope John Paul II (11 August 1996). "Eastern Theology Has Enriched the Whole Church". CatholicCulture.org. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  12. ^ Pope John Paul II (16 October 2002). "Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae". Vatican.va. Archived from the original on 27 October 2002. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  13. ^ Antoine Guillaumont reports the finding of an inscription containing the Jesus Prayer in the ruins of a cell in the Egyptian desert dated roughly to the period being discussed – Antoine Guillaumont, Une inscription copte sur la prière de Jesus in Aux origines du monachisme chrétien, Pour une phénoménologie du monachisme, pp. 168–83. In Spiritualité orientale et vie monastique, No 30. Bégrolles en Mauges (Maine & Loire), France: Abbaye de Bellefontaine.
  14. ^ Stroumsa, Gedaliahu G. (1980). "GUILLAUMONT, ANTOINE, Aux origines du monachisme chrétien: Pour une phénoménologie du monachisme, Spiritualité orientale 30 - F 49720 Bégrolles en Mauge, Editions de l'Abbaye de Bellefontaine, 1979, 241 p". Numen. 27 (2): 287–288. doi:10.1163/156852780x00099. ISSN 0029-5973.
  15. ^ Epistula ad abbatem, p. 5
  16. ^ McGinn, Bernard (2006). The essential writings of Christian mysticism. New York: Modern Library. p. 125. ISBN 0-8129-7421-2.
  17. ^ Palmer, G.E.H. (15 September 2011). The Philokalia, Volume 2. London: Faber. p. 507. ISBN 9780571268764.
  18. ^ a b French, R. M. (1930). French, R. M. (ed.). The Way of a Pilgrim. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. Retrieved 2016-02-05.
  19. ^ a b (in Romanian) Vasile Răducă, Ghidul creştinului ortodox de azi (Guide for the contemporary Eastern Orthodox Christian), second edition, Humanitas Ed., Bucharest, 2006, p. 81, ISBN 978-973-50-1161-1.
  20. ^ (in Romanian) Sergei Bulgakov, Ortodoxia (The Orthodoxy), translation from French, Paideia Ed., Bucharest, 1997, pp. 161, 162–163, ISBN 973-9131-26-3.
  21. ^ a b c d Tsichlis, Steven Peter (9 March 1985). "The Jesus Prayer". GOARCH. Archived from the original on 23 May 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  22. ^ Eastern Orthodox theology doesn't stand Thomas Aquinas' interpretation to the Mystycal theology of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite (modo sublimiori and modo significandi, by which Aquinas unites positive and negative theologies, transforming the negative one into a correction of the positive one). Like pseudo-Denys, the Eastern Church remarks the antinomy between the two ways of talking about God and acknowledges the superiority of apophatism. Cf. Vladimir Lossky, op. cit., p. 55, Dumitru Stăniloae, op. cit., pp. 261–262.
  23. ^ (in Romanian) Vladimir Lossky, Teologia mistică a Bisericii de Răsărit (The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church), translation from French, Anastasia Ed., Bucharest, 1993, pp. 36–37, 47–48, 55, 71. ISBN 973-95777-3-3.
  24. ^ The Vision of God by Vladimir Lossky SVS Press, 1997. (ISBN 0-913836-19-2)
  25. ^ (in Romanian) Fr. Dumitru Stăniloae, Ascetica şi mistica Biserici Ortodoxe (Ascetics and Mystics of the Eastern Orthodox Church), Institutul Biblic şi de Misiune al BOR (Romanian Orthodox Church Publishing House), 2002, p. 268, ISBN 0-913836-19-2.
  26. ^ The Philokalia, Vol. 4 ISBN 0-571-19382-X Palmer, G.E.H; Sherrard, Philip; Ware, Kallistos (Timothy) On the Inner Nature of Things and on the Purification of the Intellect: One Hundred Texts Nikitas Stithatos (Nikitas Stethatos)
  27. ^ a b John Chryssavgis, Repentance and Confession - Introduction Archived 2008-03-17 at the Wayback Machine, Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. Retrieved 21 March 2008.
  28. ^ a b An Online Orthodox Catechism, Russian Orthodox Church. Retrieved 21 March 2008.
  29. ^ Olga Louchakova, Ontopoiesis and Union in the Jesus Prayer: Contributions to Psychotherapy and Learning, in Logos of Phenomenology and Phenomenology of Logos. Book Four – The Logos of Scientific Interrogation. Participating in Nature-Life-Sharing in Life, Springer Ed., 2006, p. 292, ISBN 1-4020-3736-8. Google Scholar: [1].
  30. ^ a b (in Romanian) Hristofor Panaghiotis, Rugăciunea lui Iisus. Unirea minţii cu inima şi a omului cu Dumnezeu (Jesus prayer. Uniting the mind with the heart and man with God by Panagiotis K. Christou), translation from Greek, second edition, Panaghia Ed., Rarău Monastery, Vatra Dornei, pp. 6, 12–15, 130, ISBN 978-973-88218-6-6.
  31. ^ a b c (in Romanian) Puterea Numelui sau despre Rugăciunea lui Iisus (The Power of the Name. The Jesus Prayer in Orthodox Spirituality) in Kallistos Ware, Rugăciune şi tăcere în spiritualitatea ortodoxă (Prayer and silence in the Orthodox spirituality), translation from English, Christiana Ed., Bucharest, 2003, pp. 23, 26, ISBN 973-8125-42-1.
  32. ^ (in Romanian) Fr. Ioan de la Rarău, Rugăciunea lui Iisus. Întrebări şi răspunsuri (Jesus Prayer. Questions and answers), Panaghia Ed., Rarău Monastery, Vatra Dornei, p. 97. ISBN 978-973-88218-6-6.
  33. ^ "greek news: Οι τρόποι της ευχής". Dailygreece.com. 1999-02-22. Retrieved 2010-07-03.
  34. ^ a b c "On the Jesus Prayer". Prayercraft.byethost8.com. 2004-11-27. Retrieved 2010-07-03.
  35. ^ (in Romanian) Paul Evdokimov, Rugăciunea în Biserica de Răsărit (Prayer in the Church of the East), translation from French, Polirom Ed., Bucharest, 1996, pp. 29–31, ISBN 973-9248-15-2.
  36. ^ (in Romanian) Ilie Cleopa Archived 2011-09-16 at the Wayback Machine in Dicţionarul teologilor români (Dictionary of Romanian Theologians), electronic version, Univers Enciclopedic Ed., Bucharest, 1996.
  37. ^ [2] Archived 2009-01-05 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ "The Gurus, the Young Man, and Elder Paisios" by Dionysios Farasiotis
  39. ^ "The Rule of St. Pachomius".
  40. ^ "The Prayer of the Trinity". 5 April 2016. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
  41. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church, §§ 2666–2668". Vatican.va. Archived from the original on 7 January 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  42. ^ Thomas Keating, Centering Prayer and the Christian Contemplative Tradition (Monastic Interreligious Dialogue, Bulletin 40, January 1991) Archived 2012-03-10 at the Wayback Machine
  43. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church, § 435". Vatican.va. Archived from the original on 7 January 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.

Further reading