This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article or section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. (August 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help improve it by rewriting it in a balanced fashion that contextualizes different points of view. (August 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Parts of this article (those related to documentation) need to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (February 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Banner of Siberian regionalism
Banner of Siberian regionalism

Siberian regionalism (Russian: Сибирское областничество, romanizedSibirskoye oblastnichestvo, lit.'Siberian oblast movement') is a political movement which advocates for the formation of an autonomous Siberian polity. The idea originated in the mid-19th century and reached a high tide with the White movement military activities of Aleksandr Kolchak (1874-1920) and Viktor Pepelyayev (1885-1920) during the Russian Civil War of 1917-1922.

19th century

Siberian regionalism, according to Susan Smith-Peter, was the first political regionalist movement in a European country.[1] Following the activities of Afanasy Shchapov (1830-1876) in Siberia, a movement advocating a far-ranging autonomy for the region took shape under the name of "regionalism" (oblastnichestvo). In the 19th century Siberian students in Saint Petersburg: Grigory Potanin (1835-1920), Nikolay Yadrintsev (1842-1894) and people with other backgrounds founded the movement.[2] Some radical members in 1863 presumably[original research?] prepared a revolt in Siberia together with exiled Poles and Ukrainians, trying to achieve independence and to begin the development of a Siberian state, similar to the United States.[citation needed] Tsarist authorities arrested and imprisoned forty-four members of the group in May 1865, after watch-officers of the Siberian Cadet Corps searched cadet Arseny Samsonov, aged 16, for illicit items and found a proclamation entitled "To Patriots of Siberia", attributed to a collective authorship of Grigory Potanin, Nikolay Yadrintsev, Serafim Serafimovich Shashkov [ru] (1841-1882), et al.[3] The Russian revolutionary Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876) supported the idea of an autonomous Siberia in the hope it would become a democratic state, prosperous within a union with United States and leading to the collapse of Imperial Russia.[4] Local thinkers and settlers saw Siberia as means of escape from the oppression of the Russian Empire, and as the seed of a possible free and democratic country that would spread freedom across Asia.

In the end of the 19th and at beginning of the 20th century, Siberian regionalists led by Potanin and Yadrintsev formed a legal opposition to Russian colonialism in Siberia; they wrote many books and articles, and organized research into Siberian cultures, economics, ethnicities, races, etc. Yadrintsev's greatest book, Siberia as a colony (Сибирь как колония),[5] envisaged the future of Siberia as domination of the white race and a European way of development, similar to the U.S., claiming that the Siberians already had many differences from their Russian and East-Slavic ancestors — especially cultural differences such as love of freedom and private initiative.[2]

During the Russian civil war

Main article: Siberian Republic (1918)

After the February Revolution, the development of oblastnichestvo gained momentum, as on May 21, 1917, when the oblastniks convened their first general meeting in Irkutsk, where they heard and discussed the report delivered by I.I. Serebrennikov "On the autonomy of Siberia". In August, the oblastniks convened the Conference of Public Organizations based on the decision of Tomsk Provincial People's Assembly as of May 18, 1917.[6] On August 5, 1917, the Conference approved "The Regulations for the Autonomy of Siberia" and heard the report by P.A. Kazantsev "On the Siberian National Banner", which it also unanimously approved:

The National Siberian Banner shall be a combination of two colours: white and green. White colour means Siberian snow, whilst green colour – Siberian taiga. The banner shall be rectangular, split into two parts diagonally from the left top to right bottom. thus, the upper triangle shall be of green colour, and the lower one – of white colour.

[7][8][9]

On January 28, 1918, the Siberian Regional Duma was convened in Tomsk in secret, fearing suppression by the Bolsheviks, who occupied the city. The members elected the members of the Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia from the four political factions. SR delegated P.Ya. Derber to be the Chairman of the Government, colonel A.A. Krakovetsky to take the Ministry of Defence, A.Ye. Novosyolov – Minister of Internal Affairs, N.Ye. Zhernakov – State Controller and Ye.V. Zakharov, S.A. Kudryavtsev and M.B. Shatilov to be ministers with no charge. The Oblastniks delegated P.V. Vologodsky to become the Minister of Foreign Affairs, V.M. Krutovsky – Minister of Public Health, G.B. Patushinsky – Minister of Justice, I.I. Serebrennikov – Minister of Supply and Food, I.A. Mikhailov – Minister of Finance, L.A. Ustrugov – Minister of Railways. The ethnic minorities delegated V.T. Tiber-Petrov to take the position of the Minister of Native Affairs, D.G. Sulima – Minister of Exterritorial Peoples, E.D. Rinchino – Minister of Public Education, G.S. Neometullov to be a minister with no charge. And at last, Mensheviks delegated two members: M.A. Kolobov to become the Minister of Trade and Industry and I.S. Yudin to become the Minister of Labour. Curiously enough, only a handful of them agreed to take part in the Government. Fairly soon, most of the ministers had to flee to the Far East and stayed there until July, when they went to Vladivostok after it was liberated from the Bolsheviks by the Czechs.[6]

Meanwhile, on May 27, 1918, colonel A.N. Grishin-Almazov, who undertook his best efforts to unite the officer resistance against the Bolsheviks, ordered a full scale uprising, which proved to be a total success, as the Whites managed to defeat the Reds and cleared many Siberian cities of their presence. On June 13, 1918, colonel A.N. Grishin-Almazov issued an order to form the West Siberian Army (later to become Siberian Army). In a matter of months, he managed to accumulate over 10,000 volunteers across Siberia and Urals, which allowed some of the Siberian ministers headed by P.V. Vologodsky to come back.

On June 23, 1918, Vologodsky formed a new Provisional Siberian Government instead of the previously elected Government of Autonomous Siberia, which had virtually no influence and authority whatsoever. He took the chair and ministry of foreign affairs assisted by many of his former member ministers I.I. Serebrennikov, who again became the Minister of Supply, while I.A. Mikhailov was chosen to be the Minister of Finance and M.B. Shatilov – the Minister of Native Affairs. Colonel A.N. Grishin-Almazov was appointed Minister of Defence.

Under the control of the regionalists, there was a short-term state formation, so-called "Siberian Republic".[2][6] On July 11, 1918, the Provisional Siberian Government published the Declaration, declaring its authority over territory of Siberia, and restoration of the Russian state as the ultimate goal of the Siberian government. Decision on the status of Siberia was left to the future All-Russian and Siberian constituent assemblies.

On November 3, 1918, the Provisional Siberian Government sacrificed own independence for the sake of consolidation of all possible forces to fight against the Bolsheviks. Thereby it merged with the Ufa Directory, forming Provisional All-Russian Government.[6]

Modern movements

In 2014, an artist, Artyom Loskutov, wrote in his blog about an idea to create a Siberian Republic within the Russian Federation[10] and attempted to organize a mock demonstration called Monstration for Siberian Federalisation to take place on August 17 in Novosibirsk. Russian authorities banned the march and attempted to censor media coverage about the event, citing a recently passed law against "calls to mass unrest, extremist activities or participation in illegal public events."[11] The purpose of the protest was to "ridicule the Kremlin's hypocrisy in the Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation and to raise the issue of Siberia's delayed development".[12] He claimed that Western Siberia provides most of Russia's oil and gas, but the region gets very little benefit since the taxes go to Moscow.[12][13]

See also

References

  1. ^ Smith-Peter 2018, p. 17.
  2. ^ a b c Watrous 1993, pp. 113–132.
  3. ^ Slezikini, Y. Arctic Mirrors: Russia and the Small Peoples of the North, Chapter 4, pages 95–130, Cornell University Press
  4. ^ Mark Bassin "Imperial Visions: Nationalist Imagination and Geographical Expansion in the Russian Far East, 1840–1865
  5. ^ Yadrintsev, Nikolai Mikhailovich (1892). Siberia as a colony: in regard to geographic, ethnographic and historical repests Сибирь как колония: в географическом, этнографическом и историческом отношении [Sibir' kak koloniya: v geografichesom, etnograficheskom i istoricheskom otnoshenii] (in Russian) (2, corrected and expanded ed.). Saint Petersburg: И.М. Сибиряков. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  6. ^ a b c d Sushko 2009, pp. 174–179.
  7. ^ The A.S. Pushkin Tomsk Regional Universal Scientific Library: Siberian Oblastnichestvo. Chronicle
  8. ^ The flags of the national entities in Russia in 1917–1920
  9. ^ V.V. Zhuravlev (2000) The National Symbols of the "White" Russia
  10. ^ Maynes, Charles (5 August 2014). "As Snowden looks on, Russia cracks down on Internet freedom". PRI. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  11. ^ Goble, Paul (2020). "Siberian Regionalism Is a Growing Threat to Moscow".((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  12. ^ a b Luhn, Alec (5 August 2014). "Russia bans Siberia independence march". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  13. ^ "Meanwhile, at the Other End of the Empire ... Putin Scrambles to Squash Siberian Autonomy Movement".((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)

Bibliography