Republic of Karakalpakstan
Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası / Қарақалпақстан Республикасы (Karakalpak)
Qoraqalpogʻiston Respublikasi / Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси (Uzbek)
Motto: Jayhun jagasinda o'sken bayterek (Karakalpak)
Anthem: Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikasınıń Mámleketlik Gimni (Karakalpak)
"State Anthem of the Republic of Karakalpakstan"
Karakalpakstan in Uzbekistan
Karakalpakstan in Uzbekistan
CapitalNukus[1]
Official languagesKarakalpak, Uzbek
Ethnic groups
(2021[2])
Autonomous republic of Uzbekistan
Leaders
• Chairman of Parliament
Amanbai Orynbaev
• Chairman of the Council of Ministers
Kakhraman Sariyev
LegislatureSupreme Council of Karakalpakstan
Established
19 February 1925
20 July 1932
• Republic of Karakalpakstan
9 January 1992
• Constitution adopted
9 April 1993
Area
• Total
166,590 km2 (64,320 sq mi)
Population
• 2022 estimate
1,948,488
• Density
11.26/km2 (29.2/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+5:00 (Uzbekistan Standard Time)

Karakalpakstan,[a] officially the Republic of Karakalpakstan,[b] is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. It occupies the whole northwestern part of Uzbekistan. The capital is Nukus (Nókis / Нөкис). The Republic of Karakalpakstan has an area of 166,590 km2 (64,320 sq mi),[3] and a population of about two million. Its territory covers the classical land of Khwarezm, which in classical Persian literature was known as Kāt (کات).

History

Ancient fortress of Kyzyl-Kala (1st–4th century AD), under restoration (2018). Karakalpakstan
Ancient fortress of Kyzyl-Kala (1st–4th century AD), under restoration (2018). Karakalpakstan

From about 500 BC to 500 AD, the region of what is now Karakalpakstan was a thriving agricultural area supported by extensive irrigation.[4] It was strategically important territory and fiercely contested, as is seen by the more than 50 Khorezm Fortresses which were constructed here. The Karakalpak people, who used to be nomadic herders and fishers, were first recorded by foreigners in the 16th century.[5] Karakalpakstan was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Khanate of Khiva in 1873.[6] Under Soviet rule, it was an autonomous area within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic before becoming part of Uzbekistan in 1936 as the Karakalpak ASSR.[7] The region was probably at its most prosperous in the 1960s and 1970s, when irrigation from the Amu Darya was being expanded.[citation needed] However, the evaporation of the Aral Sea has made Karakalpakstan one of Uzbekistan's poorest regions.[5] The region is suffering from extensive drought, partly due to climate patterns, but also largely because the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers are mostly diverted in the eastern parts of Uzbekistan. Crop failures have deprived about 48,000 people of their main source of income and shortages of potable water have created a surge of infectious diseases.[8]

Geography

Karakalpakstan is now mostly desert and is located in western Uzbekistan near the Aral Sea, in the lowest part of the Amu Darya basin.[1][8][9] It has an area of 164,900 km2[10] and is surrounded by desert. The Kyzyl Kum Desert is located to the east and the Karakum Desert is located to the south. A rocky plateau extends west to the Caspian Sea.[4]

Politics

See also: List of Chairmen of the Parliament of the Republic of Karakalpakstan

The Republic of Karakalpakstan is formally sovereign and shares veto power over decisions concerning it with Uzbekistan. According to the constitution, relations between Karakalpakstan and Uzbekistan are "regulated by treaties and agreements" and any disputes are "settled by way of reconciliation". Its right to secede is limited by the veto power of Uzbekistan's legislature over any decision to secede.[10] Article 74, chapter XVII, Constitution of Uzbekistan, provides that: "The Republic of Karakalpakstan shall have the right to secede from the Republic of Uzbekistan on the basis of a nationwide referendum held by the people of Karakalpakstan."

In July 2022, large protests broke out in the region over a proposed constitutional change which would strip Karakalpakstan of its autonomy.[11][12] The proposed change was later scrapped in response to the demonstrations.[13]

Demographics

The population is estimated 1,948,488 (2022), with 51% living in rural areas.[14][15] In 2007 it was estimated that about 400,000 of the population are of the Karakalpak ethnic group, 400,000 are Uzbeks and 300,000 are Kazakhs.[5] The Karakalpak language is closer to Kazakh than to Uzbek.[16] The language was written in a modified Cyrillic in Soviet times and has been written in the Latin alphabet since 1996.

Other than the capital Nukus, major cities include Xoʻjayli, Taxiatosh, Chimboy, Qoʻngʻirot (Kungrad) and Moynaq.

The crude birth rate is 2.2%: approximately 39,400 children were born in 2017. Nearly 8,400 people died in the same period. The crude death rate is 0.47%. The natural growth rate is 31,000, or 1.72%.

The median age was 27.7 years old in 2017, which is younger than the rest of Uzbekistan (median age of 28.5 countrywide). Men are 27.1 years old, while women are 28.2 years old.

Dynamics of the number and ethnic composition of the population of Karakalpakstan according to the All-Union censuses of 1926–1989:

Nationality 1926  (people) % 1939  (people) % 1959  (people) % 1970  (people) % 1979  (people) % 1989  (people) %
Total 304 539 100.00% 469 702 100.00% 510 101 100.00% 702 264 100.00% 905 500 100.00% 1 212 207 100.00%
Uzbeks 84 099 27.62% 116 054 24.71% 146 783 28.78% 212 597 30.27% 285 400 31.52% 397 826 32.82%
Karakalpaks 116 125 38.13% 158 615 33.77% 155 999 30.58% 217 505 30.97% 281 809 31.12% 389 146 32.10%
Kazakhs 85 782 28.17% 129 677 27.61% 133 844 26.24% 186 038 26.49% 243 926 26.94% 318 739 26.29%
Turkmens 9686 3.18% 23 259 4.95% 29 225 5.73% 37 547 5.35% 48 655 5.37% 60 244 4.97%
Russians 4924 1.62% 24 969 5.32% 22 966 4.50% 25 165 3.58% 21 287 2.35% 19 846 1.64%
Koreans 7347 1.56% 9956 1.95% 8958 1.28% 8081 0.89% 9174 0.76%
Tatars 884 0.29% 4162 0.89% 6177 1.21% 7619 1.08% 7617 0.84% 7767 0.64%
Ukrainians 621 0.20% 3130 0.67% 2201 0.43% 2316 0.33% 2005 0.22% 2271 0.19%
Bashkirs 29 0.01% 381 0.08% 571 0.11% 854 0.12% 920 0.10% 1090 0.09%
Kyrgyz 277 0.09% 181 0.04% 177 0.03% 400 0.06% 1955 0.22% 867 0.07%
Moldovans 10 0.00% 16 0.00% 57 0.01% 343 0.04% 632 0.05%
Belarusians 30 0.01% 214 0.05% 328 0.06% 517 0.07% 852 0.09% 567 0.05%
other 2072 0.68% 1697 0.36% 1874 0.37% 2691 0.38% 2650 0.29% 4038 0.33%
Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1979 904,315—    
1989 1,214,000+2.99%
2000 1,503,000+1.96%
2010 1,632,000+0.83%
2020 1,898,351+1.52%
Source: Citypopulation[17]

Economy

Cotton picking near Kyzyl-Kala, Karakalpakstan.
Cotton picking near Kyzyl-Kala, Karakalpakstan.

The economy of the region used to be heavily dependent on fisheries in the Aral Sea. It is now supported by cotton, rice and melons. Karakalpakstan is well known for its fruits, such as plums, pears, grapes, and apricots, in addition to all kinds of melons. Hydroelectric power from a large Soviet-built station on the Amu Darya is also important.

The Amu Darya delta was once heavily populated and supported extensive irrigation based agriculture for thousands of years. Under the Khorezm, the area attained considerable power and prosperity. However, the gradual climate change over the centuries, accelerated by human induced evaporation of the Aral Sea in the late 20th century has created a desolate scene in the region. The ancient oases of rivers, lakes, reed marshes, forests and farms are drying up and being poisoned by wind-borne salt and by fertilizer and pesticide residues from the dried bed of the Aral Sea. Summer temperatures have risen by 10 °C (18 °F) and winter temperatures have decreased by 10 °C (18 °F). The rate of anemia, respiratory diseases and other health problems has risen dramatically.[18]

Administrative divisions

Districts of Karakalpakstan before 2017.
Districts of Karakalpakstan before 2017.
Largest cities of Karakalpakstan
Largest cities of Karakalpakstan

The autonomous republic of Karakalpakstan consists of 16 districts (listed below) and one district-level city: Nukus.[3]

District name District capital
1 Amudaryo District Mangʻit
2 Beruniy District Beruniy
3 Chimboy District Chimboy
4 Ellikqala District Boʻston
5 Kegeyli District Kegeyli
6 Moʻynoq District Moʻynoq
7 Nukus District Oqmangʻit
8 Qanlikoʻl District Qanlikoʻl
9 Qoʻngʻirot District Qoʻngʻirot
10 Qoraoʻzak District Qoraoʻzak
11 Shumanay District Shumanay
12 Taxtakoʻpir District Taxtakoʻpir
13 Toʻrtkoʻl District Toʻrtkoʻl
14 Xoʻjayli District Xoʻjayli
15 Taxiatosh District Taxiatosh
16 Boʻzatov District Boʻzatov

Taxiatosh District was created in 2017 from part of Xoʻjayli District.[19] Boʻzatov District was created in September 2019 from parts of the Kegeyli District and the Chimboy District.[20]

There are 12 cities (Nukus, Mangʻit, Beruniy, Xalqobod, Qoʻngʻirot, Moʻynoq, Taxiatosh, Toʻrtkoʻl, Xoʻjayli, Chimboy, Shumanay, Boʻston) and 26 urban-type settlements in Karakalpakstan.[3][21]

Media

Radio

In 2009, the first radio station of Karakalpakstan was opened. The station is called Nukus FM, which broadcasts on radio frequency 100.4 MHz, only in Nukus.

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^
    • Karakalpak: Qaraqalpaqstan / Қарақалпақстан
    • Uzbek: Qoraqalpogʻiston / Қорақалпоғистон
  2. ^
    • Karakalpak: Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası / Қарақалпақстан Республикасы
    • Uzbek: Qoraqalpogʻiston Respublikasi / Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси

References

  1. ^ a b Batalden, Stephen K.; Batalden, Sandra L. (1997). The newly independent states of Eurasia: handbook of former Soviet republics. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 187. ISBN 0-89774-940-5. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  2. ^ "Permanent population by national and / or ethnic group, urban / rural place of residence". Open Data Portal. Retrieved 15 September 2022.
  3. ^ a b c "Oʻzbekiston Respublikasining maʼmuriy-hududiy boʻlinishi" [Administrative-territorial division of the Republic of Uzbekistan] (in Uzbek). The State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on statistics. July 2021. Archived from the original on 4 February 2022.
  4. ^ a b Bolton, Roy (2009). Russian Orientalism: Central Asia and the Caucasus. Sphinx Fine Art. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-907200-00-7. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  5. ^ a b c Mayhew, Bradley (2007). Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan. Lonely Planet. p. 258. ISBN 978-1-74104-614-4. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  6. ^ Richardson, David; Richardson, Sue (2012). Qaraqalpaqs of the Aral Delta. Prestel Verlag. p. 68. ISBN 978-3-7913-4738-7.
  7. ^ Europa Publications Limited (2002). Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia. Taylor & Francis. p. 536. ISBN 1-85743-137-5. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  8. ^ a b Thomas, Troy S.; Kiser, Stephen D.; Casebeer, William D. (2005). Warlords rising: confronting violent non-state actors. Lexington Books. pp. 30, 147–148. ISBN 0-7391-1190-6. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  9. ^ Merkel, Broder; Schipek, Mandy (2011). The New Uranium Mining Boom: Challenge and Lessons Learned. Springer. p. 128. ISBN 978-3642221217. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
  10. ^ a b Roeder, Philip G. (2007). Where nation-states come from: institutional change in the age of nationalism. Princeton University Press. pp. 55, 67. ISBN 978-0-691-13467-3. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  11. ^ "Uzbekistan's new constitution: More for Mirziyoyev, less for Karakalpakstan". eurasianet.org. Archived from the original on 2 July 2022. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
  12. ^ "Жители Узбекистана вышли на митинги после конституционной реформы". www.kommersant.ru (in Russian). 1 July 2022. Archived from the original on 1 July 2022. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
  13. ^ "Uzbekistan scraps plans to curb Karakalpak autonomy after protest". Reuters. 2 July 2022. Archived from the original on 2 July 2022. Retrieved 2 July 2022.
  14. ^ "O'zbekistonda eng ko'p aholi qaysi viloyatda yashaydi?". Qalampir.uz (in Uzbek). Archived from the original on 5 July 2022. Retrieved 10 February 2022.
  15. ^ "Urban and rural population by district" (PDF) (in Kara-Kalpak). Karakalpakstan Republic department of statistics. Archived from the original on 5 July 2022. Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  16. ^ Karakalpakstan: Uzbekistan's latent conflict Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, 6 January 2012
  17. ^ "Uzbekistan: Provinces". Archived from the original on 31 March 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  18. ^ Pearce, Fred (2007). When the Rivers Run Dry: Water, the Defining Crisis of the Twenty-first Century. Beacon Press. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-8070-8573-8. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  19. ^ "New Takhiatash region formed in Karakalpakstan" (in Russian). 14 August 2017. Archived from the original on 23 June 2018.
  20. ^ "About creation of Boʻzatov district of the Republic of Karakalpakstan" (in Uzbek). 5 September 2019. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  21. ^ "Classification system of territorial units of the Republic of Uzbekistan" (in Uzbek and Russian). The State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on statistics. July 2020. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 5 February 2022.

Coordinates: 43°02′N 58°52′E / 43.04°N 58.86°E / 43.04; 58.86