A stateless nation is an ethnic group or nation that does not possess its own state and is not the majority population in any nation state. The term "stateless" implies that the group "should have" such a state (country). Members of stateless nations may be citizens of the country in which they live, or they may be denied citizenship by that country. Stateless nations are usually not represented in international sports or in international organisations such as the United Nations. Nations without state are classified as fourth-world nations. Some of the stateless nations have a history of statehood, some were always a stateless nation, dominated by another nation.
The term was coined in 1983 by political scientist Jacques Leruez in his book L'Écosse, une nation sans État about the peculiar position of Scotland within the British state. It was later adopted and popularized by Scottish scholars such as David McCrone, Michael Keating and T. M. Devine.
Stateless nations either are dispersed across a number of states (for example, the Yakthung Limbu People residing in east of Nepal, includes (Sikkim and Darjeeling) India and north-western part of Bangladesh as the Yakthung Limbuwan nation and Yoruba people are found in the African states of Nigeria, Benin and Togo) or form the native population of a province within a larger state (such as the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region within the People's Republic of China). Some stateless nations historically had a state, which was absorbed by another; for example, Tibet's declaration of independence in 1913 was not recognized, and it was reunited in 1951 by the People's Republic of China which claims that Tibet is an integral part of China, while the Tibetan government-in-exile maintains that Tibet is an independent state under an unlawful occupation. Some ethnic groups were once a stateless nation that later became a nation state (for example, the nations of the Balkans such as the Croats, Serbs, Bosniaks, Slovenes, Montenegrins and Macedonians were once part of a multinational state of Yugoslavia; since the breakup of Yugoslavia many nation states were formed).
Stateless nations can have large populations; for example the Kurds have an estimated population of over 30 million people, which make them one of the largest stateless nations. Multiple stateless nations can reside in the same geographical region or country; for example, the Assamese, Brahui, Maithils, Kashmiri, Sikhs, Tamils and Santhals in South Asia, or Chin, Kachin, Karen, Mon, Rakhine, Rohingya and Shan in Myanmar, and Amazighs within Algeria in North Africa. However, not all peoples within multi-cultural states have the same awareness of being a stateless nation.
As not all states are nation states, there are ethnic groups who live in multinational states without being considered "stateless nations".
The symbiotic relationship between nations and states arose in early modern Western Europe (18th century) and it was exported to the rest of the world through colonial rule. Whereas the Western European nation-states are at present relinquishing some of their powers to the European Union, many of the former colonies are now the zealous defenders of the concept of national-statehood.
Only a small fraction of the world's national groups have associated nation-states. The proportion was estimated to be 3 percent by Minahan. The rest are distributed in one or more states. While there are over 3000 estimated nations in the world, there were only 193 member states of the United Nations as of 2011, of which fewer than 20 are considered to be ethnically homogeneous nation-states. Thus nation-states are not as common as often assumed, and stateless nations are the overwhelming majority of nations in the world.
During the imperial and colonial era, powerful nations extended their influence outside their homeland and this resulted in many colonized nations ceasing to be self-governing and have since been described as stateless nations. Some nations have been victims of "carve out" and their homeland was divided among several countries. Even today the colonial boundaries form modern national boundaries. These often differ from cultural boundaries. This results in situations where people of the same language or culture are divided by national borders, for example New Guinea splits as West Papua (former Dutch colony) and Papua New Guinea (former British colony). During decolonization, the colonial powers imposed a unified state structure irrespective of the ethnic differences and granted independence to their colonies as a multinational state. This led to successor states with many minority ethnic groups in them, which increased the potential for ethnic conflicts. Some of these minority groups campaigned for self-determination. Stateless nations were not protected in all countries and become victims of atrocities such as discrimination, ethnic cleansing, genocide, forced assimilation, Exploitation of labour and natural resources.
People with a common origin, history, language, culture, customs or religion can turn into a nation by awakening of national consciousness. A nation can exist without a state, as is exemplified by the stateless nations. Citizenship is not always the nationality of a person. In a multinational state different national identities can coexist or compete: for example, in Britain English nationalism, Scottish nationalism and Welsh nationalism exist and are held together by British nationalism. Nationalism is often connected to separatism, because a nation achieves completeness through its independence.
Throughout history, numerous nations declared their independence, but not all succeeded in establishing a state. Even today, there are active autonomy and independence movements around the world. The claim of the stateless nations to self-determination is often denied due to geopolitical interests and increasing globalization of the world. Stateless nations sometimes show solidarity with other stateless nations and maintain diplomatic relations.
Not all peoples claim that they are nations or aspire to be states. Some see themselves as part of the multinational state and they believe that their interests are well represented in it. This is also associated with Pan-nationalism (Indian nationalism or Chinese nationalism).
The following is a list of ethnic and national groups that has been described as stateless nations in reliable sources[which?]. States made bold under the "homeland" column are countries of the respective ethnic groups which are native to them and still host the majority (more than half) of their population.
|People||Flag||Languages||Language family[a]||Predominant religion||Population||Continent||States||Homeland[b]||Irredentist movement||Notes|
|Kurds||Kurdish language, (originally) Arabic, Turkish, Persian (assimilation)||Iranian languages||Islam (Sunni, Shia, Alevi), Zoroastrianism, Yarsanism, Yazdânism||30,000,000–45,000,000||Asia||Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria (homeland), Germany (largest diaspora)||Kurdistan||Kurdish nationalism, Kurdish–Turkish conflict, Kurdish-Iranian conflict, Iraqi–Kurdish conflict, and Kurdish–Syrian conflict||Regional autonomy achieved in Iraqi Kurdistan and Rojava. Data rough due to censuses not taking ethnicity in homeland countries.|
|Yoruba people||Yoruba language||Volta-Congo languages||Christianity, Islam, Yoruba religion||35,000,000||Africa||Nigeria, Benin and Togo, Ghana||Yorubaland||Oodua Peoples Congress|
|Igbo people||Igbo, English||Volta-Congo languages||Christianity (primarily Roman Catholicism with significant Protestant minorities), Indigenous beliefs||30,000,000||Africa||Nigeria (almost exclusively)||Igboland||Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra, Indigenous People of Biafra||Attempted secession from Nigeria in 1967 sparked the Nigerian Civil war|
|Occitan people||Occitan, French, Italian, Spanish||Romance languages||Roman Catholicism||16,000,000||Europe||France, Monaco, Italy and Spain (Val d'Aran)||Occitania||Occitan nationalism (Occitan Party, Partit de la Nacion Occitana, Libertat)||Seek self-determination, greater autonomy or total secession from France.|
|Assamese people||Assamese language||Indo-Aryan languages||Hinduism||15,000,000||Asia||India||Assam||Assam separatist movements, ULFA Insurgency in Northeast India||Seeks greater regional autonomy for natives of Assam or total secession from India.|
|Uyghur people||Uyghur language||Turkic languages||Sunni Islam||15,000,000||Asia||China, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan||East Turkestan (Uyghuristan)||Irredentism is politically fragmented (East Turkestan Liberation Organization, East Turkestan independence movement)||Limited autonomy in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.|
|Palestinians||Arabic, Hebrew||Semitic languages||Sunni Islam (majority), Christianity||5,242,679||Asia||State of Palestine, Jordan, Israel, Syria, Lebanon||Palestine||Palestinian nationalism (PLO)||Seek self-determination from occupying powers.[c]|
|Zulu people||Zulu language||Volta-Congo languages||Christianity, Zulu religion||12,159,000||Africa||South Africa, Lesotho, Zimbabwe, Eswatini||KwaZulu-Natal||Inkatha Freedom Party||Limited autonomy in the KwaZulu-Natal region, which maintains a traditional Zulu king.|
|Kongo people||Kongo language, Lingala, Portuguese, French||Volta-Congo languages||Christianity (Catholicism and Protestantism), African Traditional Religion||10,000,000||Africa||Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Angola||Kongo||Kongo nationalism, Bundu dia Kongo||Historically occupied the independent Kingdom of Kongo.|
|Baloch people||Balochi||Iranian languages||Sunni Islam||10,000,000||Asia||Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan(homeland), UAE (diaspora)||Balochistan||Balochistan conflict, Baloch nationalism||Seeks total independence from Pakistan.|
|Kabyle people||Kabyle language, Algerian Arabic||Berber languages||Islam||4,000,000||Africa||Algeria||Kabylie||Movement for the Autonomy of Kabylie, Provisional Government of Kabylia|
|Romani people||Romani language||Indo-Aryan languages||Christianity Islam Hinduism||2,000,000-5,000,000||Worldwide, mostly Europe and Americas|
|Ahwazi Arabs||Arabic, Persian (assimilation)||Semitic languages||Shia Islam||1,320,000||Asia||Iran||Al Ahwaz||Arab separatism in Khuzestan Democratic Solidarity Party of Ahwaz||Ahwazi includes 30 tribes which see themselves as a distinct Arab nation. Seek self-determination, greater autonomy or total secession from Iran.|
|Andalusians||Andalusian Spanish, English (in Gibraltar)||Romance languages||Christianity (Roman Catholicism)||9,500,000||Europe||Spain, Gibraltar||Andalusia||Andalusian nationalism||See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.|
|Puerto Rico||Spanish, English||Romance languages||Christianity (primarily Roman Catholicism)||9,000,000||America||United States||Puerto Rico||Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional Puertorriqueña, Boricua Popular Army, Puerto Rican Independence Party||Unincorporated territory of the United States.|
|Catalans||Catalan, Spanish, Occitan, French, Italian||Romance languages||Roman Catholicism, Agnosticism||8,500,000||Europe||Spain, Italy, Andorra and France||Catalan Countries||Catalan independence movement, Catalan nationalism||See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.|
|Québécois||French||Romance languages||Christianity (Roman Catholicism)||8,215,000||America||Canada||Quebec||Quebec sovereignty movement, Quebec nationalism||The total population of the Province of Quebec is 8.2 million, of which over 80% are French speakers.|
|Mon people||Mon language||Monic languages||Buddhism||8,145,500||Asia||Myanmar, Thailand||Mon State||Mon Nationalism, Mon National Party, All Mon Region Democracy Party||Historically occupied the Mon kingdoms|
|Circassians||Circassian language, Russian||Circassian languages||Islam||5,000,000||Europe||Russia||Circassia||Russo-Circassian War, Circassian nationalism||Majority of the Circassians were destroyed by Russia in the Circassian genocide|
|Karen people||S'gaw Karen language||Karenic languages||Christianity, Theravada Buddhism||7,000,000||Asia||Myanmar, Thailand||Kawthoolei||Karen nationalism, Karen National Union, Karen National Liberation Army|
|Maya peoples||Mayan languages||Mayan languages||Christianity (Catholicism), Maya religion||7,000,000||America||Guatemala, Mexico, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador||Mesoamerica||Pan-Maya movement, Rigoberta Menchú, Zapatista Army of National Liberation||Historically occupied the Maya civilization|
|Volga Tatars||Tatar language, Russian||Turkic languages||Islam||7,000,000||Europe||Russia||Tatarstan||All-Tatar Public Center||Regional autonomy in Tatarstan.|
|Veneto||Venetian language||Romance languages||Catholicism||5,000,000 (est.)||Europe||Italy||Veneto||Venetian nationalism||Many groups seek for total independence from Italy, while some just want more autonomy and recognition of Venetian language and people. Historically occupied the independent Republic of Venice.|
|Tibetan people||Tibetan language, Chinese language||Sino-Tibetan languages||Buddhism||7,000,000||Asia||China, India, Nepal||Tibet||Tibetan independence movement||Limited autonomy in the Tibet Autonomous Region. Historically occupied the Tibetan Empire.|
|Indian Gorkhas||Nepali language||Hinduism||6,360,000||Asia||India||Gorkhastan||Gorkha National Liberation Front, Gorkha Janmukti Morcha||Gorkhaland is a proposed state in India demanded by the people of the Darjeeling Hills and the people of Gorkha ethnic origin on the Northern part of West Bengal.|
|Riffian people||Riffian language, Arabic||Afroasiatic||Islam||6,000,000||Africa||Morocco and Spain||Rif||Rif War, Rif Republic||95% of the land is controlled by Morocco with the rest being controlled by the Spanish territories of Ceuta and Melilla as autonomous cities.|
|Shan people||Shan language, Thai||Kra-Dai||Buddhism||6,000,000||Asia||Myanmar||Shan State||Shan State Army, Declaration of independence in 2005; see also Hso Khan Pha||Historically occupied the Shan states.|
|Kashmiri people||Kashmiri language||Islam||5,600,000||Asia||India, Pakistan and China||Kashmir||Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir||Administered by India (Kashmir Valley, Jammu, Ladakh), Pakistan (Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan) and China (Aksai Chin).|
|Lozi people||Lozi||Christianity||5,153,000||Africa||Zambia||Barotseland||Barotse Patriotic Front|
|Valencians||Catalan, Spanish||Romance languages||Roman Catholicism||5,111,706||Europe||Spain||Valencian Community||Valencian nationalism||See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.|
|Moro people||Filipino language, other Philippine languages||Islam||5,100,000||Asia||Philippines||Muslim Mindanao||Moro autonomy||The Moro people of Muslim Mindanao has since been granted autonomy as the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region with the adoption of the Bangsamoro Organic Law.|
|Kuki-Mizo-Zo-Chin people||Kuki-Chin languages||Christianity||5,000,000||Asia||Myanmar, Bangladesh, India||Mizoram, Zogam and Chin State||Mizo National Front, Chin National Front, Kuki National Army, Zomi Revolutionary Army, Zomi nationalism||Kuki-Mizo-Zo-Chin are an ethnic group known by different names and speak different dialects.|
|Scottish people||Scottish Gaelic, Scots, English||Celtic languages||Christianity (Protestantism, Catholic minority)||5,000,000 (only Scotland)||Europe||United Kingdom||Scotland||Scottish independence||Formerly a Sovereign state, Regional autonomy in Scotland.|
|Sicilians||Sicilian, Italian, Gallo-Italic of Sicily, Arbëresh||Christianity (Roman Catholicism)||5,000,000 (only Sicily)||Europe||Italy||Sicily||Sicilian nationalism||Regional autonomy in Sicily.|
|Mthwakazi people||IsiNdebele, Venda, Khalanga, Shona, Tonga, Xhosa, Sotho, Nambya, Tswana (a total of over 13 tribes and languages in addition to the ones listed here||Christianity with native||5,000,000||Africa||Zimbabwe||Southern party of Zimbabwe, today described as Matabeleland and the Midlands Province||Various political and revolutionary restoration movements||Mthwakazi was a Kingdom whose last King was King Lobhengula. Mthwakazi was colonised by the British independently as a State in 1893 after a war between the British and the natives of Mthwakazi. Mashonaland which neighbours Mthwakazi, had been colonized without resistance in 1890. Britain later amalgamated these two states.|
|Acehnese people||Acehnese language||Islam||4,200,000||Asia||Indonesia||Aceh||Insurgency in Aceh||Regional autonomy in Aceh. Historically occupied the Aceh Sultanate.|
|Hmong people||Hmong language||Buddhism with native||4,000,000||Asia||Laos, China, Vietnam and Thailand||Hmong ChaoFa Federated State||Insurgency in Laos|
|Rohingya people||Rohingya language||Islam||3,600,000||Asia||Myanmar||Rohang State||Rohingya conflict||The Rohingyas are not recognized as a native ethnic group by Burmese government.|
|Afrikaners||Afrikaans||Christianity (mainly Protestantism)||3,500,000||Africa||South Africa and Namibia||Volkstaat||Afrikaner Nationalism, Freedom Front||Afrikaners are an Ethno-racial group. Demand autonomy or total secession from South Africa.|
|Assyrians||Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Turoyo, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic||Semitic languages||Christianity (Chaldean Catholicism Syriac Christianity)||3,300,000||Asia||Syria, Iraq, Iran and Turkey||Assyria, Beth Nahrain (Mesopotamia)||Assyrian nationalism, Assyrian independence movement||Historically occupied the Assyrian empire.|
|Basque people||Basque, French, Spanish||Language isolate||Christianity (Roman Catholicism)||3,000,000||Europe||France and Spain||Basque Country||Basque nationalism||See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.|
|Iraqi Turkmen people||Turkish language, Azerbaijani language||Islam||3,000,000||Asia||Iraq||Turkmeneli||Iraqi Turkmen Front||Not to be confused with Syrian Turkmen of Latakia or Central Asian Turkmens of Turkmenistan who share only their ethnonym.|
|Welsh people||Welsh, English||Celtic languages||Christianity (Protestantism, Catholic minority)||3,000,000||Europe||United Kingdom||Wales||Welsh independence, Welsh nationalism, Meibion Glyndŵr, Plaid Cymru||Regional autonomy in Wales. Historically occupied the independent kingdoms of Wales (Gwynedd, Powys, Dyfed, Seisyllwg, Morgannwg and Gwent).|
|Galician people||Galician language, Spanish, Portuguese||Christianity (Roman Catholicism)||2,800,000||Europe||Spain||Galicia||Galician nationalism||See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain. Historically occupied the Kingdom of Galicia.|
|Kachin people||Jingpo, Zaiwa, Maru, Lashi, Azi||Buddhism, Christianity, Animism||2,750,000 (2002)||Asia||Myanmar||Kachin State||Kachin Independence Army, Kachin Independence Organisation, Kachin conflict||The tribes of Kachin Hills form the Kachin Nation.|
|Aragonese people||Aragonese language, Spanish||Christianity (Roman Catholicism)||2,278,000 (Spain only)||Europe||Spain||Aragon||Aragonese nationalism||See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain. Historically occupied the Kingdom of Aragon.|
|Meitei people||Meitei language||Hinduism||2,500,000||Asia||India||Imphal Valley, Manipur||UNLF, PLA, Insurgency in Manipur, Anglo-Manipur War||Historically occupied the Kingdom of Manipur.|
|Chechen people||Chechen language, Russian||Islam||2,000,000||Europe||Russia||Chechnya||Chechen insurgency, Chechen Republic of Ichkeria||Regional autonomy in Chechnya.|
|Naga people||Tibeto-Burman dialects / Nagamese creole||Christianity||2,000,000||Asia||India||Nagaland||Naga National Council, Insurgency in Northeast India||Regional autonomy in Nagaland.|
|Sardinian people||Sardinian, Corso-Sardinian, Italian, Catalan, Ligurian||Christianity (Roman Catholicism)||1,661,521||Europe||Italy||Sardinia||Sardinian nationalism||National devolution, further autonomy or total secession from Italy.|
|Ryukyuan people||Ryukyuan, Japanese||Buddhism||1,600,000||Asia||Japan||Ryukyu Islands||Ryukyu independence movement||Historically occupied the Ryukyu Kingdom.|
|Frisians||Frisian, Dutch, German, Danish||Christianity (Protestantism and Roman Catholicism)||1,500,000||Europe||Netherlands, Denmark, and Germany||Frisia||Frisian National Party, Groep fan Auwerk||The creation of a new Frisian state. Historically occupied the Frisian Kingdom.|
|Tripuri people||Kokborok||Hinduism||1,520,000 (2002)||Asia||India||Tripura||Tripuri nationalism, All Tripura Tiger Force, National Liberation Front of Tripura||Historically occupied the Twipra Kingdom. 1949, Tripuris had a population of 85% in Tripura, 2002 they make up 29% and became a minority in their own homeland.|
|Bodo people||Bodo language||Hinduism Bathouism||1,300,000||Asia||India||Bodoland||Bodo nationalism, National Democratic Front of Bodoland||National devolution or further autonomy from the India.|
|Tuareg people||Tuareg language||Islam||1,200,000||Africa||Mali and Niger||Azawad||National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad, Tuareg rebellion (2012), Northern Mali conflict||National devolution, further autonomy or total secession from Mali.|
|Mapuche||Mapudungun||Christianity (Roman Catholicism)||1,000,000||America||Argentina and Chile||Wallmapu||Mapuche conflict|
|Asturian people||Asturian language, Spanish||Christianity (Roman Catholicism)||1,925,000 (2020)||Europe||Spain and Portugal||Asturias||Asturian nationalism||See also Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.|
|Lezgins||Lezgian||Islam||800,000+||Europe||Russia, Azerbaijan||Lezgistan||Lezgin Nationalism||Unification of the Lezgin people in Azerbaijan and Dagestan (Russia).|
|Fur people||Fur, Arabic||Islam||800,000||Africa||Sudan||Dafur||War in Darfur, SLM/A||Historically occupied the Sultanate of Darfur.|
|Māori people||Māori, English||Christianity with native||750,000||Oceania||New Zealand||New Zealand||Māori protest movement|
|Aboriginal Australians||Aboriginal languages||Christianity (principally Anglicanism and Roman Catholicism) with native||680,000||Oceania||Australia||Australia||Movement is fragmented or focused on specific aboriginal groups|
|Karakalpaks||Karakalpak language||Islam||620,000||Asia||Uzbekistan||Karakalpakstan||Karakalpak Nationalism||Regional autonomy in Karakalpakstan|
|Hawaiian people||Hawaiian language||Christianity (Catholicism and Protestantism) with native||527,000||Oceania||United States||Hawaii||Hawaiian sovereignty movement||Historically occupied the Kingdom of Hawaii.|
|Moravians||Czech (Moravian), Slovak||Traditionally Roman Catholicism presently Irreligion||525,000||Europe||Czech Republic and Slovakia||Moravia||Moravians||Historically occupied Great Moravia|
|Kashubians||Kashubian||Christianity (Roman Catholicism)||~0.5 million (2002–07) of which 233,000 as ethnic-national identity (2011)||Europe||Poland||Pomerania||Kaszëbskô Jednota||Kashubians with Slovincians (extinct) formed the West Slavic tribes of Pomeranians.|
|Ogoni people||Ogoni language||Christianity with native||500,000||Africa||Nigeria||Ogoniland||Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People|
|Crimean Tatars||Crimean Tatar, Russian, Ukrainian||Islam||500,000||Europe||Ukraine||Crimea||Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People
Tatars in Republic of Crimea
Deportation of the Crimean Tatars
|Previously an autonomous republic within Ukraine, after being invaded and annexed by Russia in 2014 the Crimean Tatars are currently seeking autonomy|
|Sahrawi people||Hassaniya Arabic (native), Berber languages (native), Modern Standard Arabic (written only), and Spanish (lingua franca)||Islam (Sunni Islam (Maliki), Sufism)||500,000||Africa||Morocco, Algeria, Mauretania||Western Sahara||Western Sahara conflict, Polisario Front, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic||partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied|
|Yakuts||Yakut language, Russian language||Turkic||Christianity, Shamanism, Tengrism||480,000–510,000||Asia||Russia||Yakutia||Yakut revolt (1918)||Regional autonomy in Sakha Republic, Yakut leaders declared Yakutia's sovereignty in 1991 in an attempt to take advantage of the fall of the Soviet Union, though this was unsuccessful|
|Chams||Cham language||Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism||400,000||Asia||Vietnam||South Central Coast||United Front for the Liberation of Oppressed Races, Cham rights movement||Historically occupied the Kingdom of Champa. The Cham in Vietnam are only recognized as a minority, and not as an indigenous people by the Vietnamese government despite being indigenous to the region.|
|Corsican people||Corsican, French, Ligurian, Italian||Christianity (Roman Catholicism||322,120||Europe||France||Corsica||Corsica Libera||Territorial collectivity in France.|
|Navajo||Navajo language, Navajo language, Navajo Sign Language||Navajo Traditional, Christianity (principally Roman Catholicism)||300,460||America||United States||Navajo Nation||Navajo Wars||Regional autonomy in the Navajo Nation.|
|Tuvans||Tuvan language, Russian language, Mongolian language, Chinese language||Tibetan Buddhism, Tengrism||300,000||Asia||Russia, Mongolia, China||Tuva||People's Front "Free Tuva", People's Party of Sovereign Tuva||Regional autonomy in Tuva.|
|Sikkimese people||Sikkimese language||Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity||290,000||Asia||India||Sikkim||Sikkim Bhutia Lepcha Apex Committee||Formerly the Kingdom of Sikkim. The Sikkimese people are split among the Lepcha, Limbu and Bhutias In 1990 Sikkimese Nationalist leaders declared the annexation of Sikkim by India to be illegal|
|Lakota people||Lakota, English||Christianity with native||170,000||America||United States||Lakotah||Sioux Wars, Lakota Freedom Movement||Native American reservation politics.|
|Sami people||Sami languages, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian||Christianity (principally Lutheran), Animism||163,400||Europe||Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia||Sapmi||Sámi politics||Have their own Parliaments in Norway, Sweden & Finland but Sami groups seek more territorial autonomy.|
|Inuit||Inuit languages, Danish, English, Russian||Christianity with native||135,991||America||Canada, United States and Denmark||Alaska, Northern Canada and Greenland||Greenland Referendum, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami||Semi-autonomous rule in Greenland with autonomy within the Kingdom of Denmark.|
|Yupik peoples||Yupik languages, English, Russian||Christianity with native||35,567 (est.)||Asia and America||Russia and the United States||Siberia and Alaska||Calista Corporation, Bristol Bay Native Corporation|
|Pamiris||Pamir languages||Islam||135,000||Asia||Tajikistan||Badakhshan||Pamiri nationalism, Lali Badakhshan party, Tajikistani Civil War||Regional autonomy in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region|
|Faroese people||Faroese language, Danish||Christianity (principally Lutheran)||66,000||Europe||Denmark||Faroe Islands||Faroese independence movement||Regional autonomy in Faroe Islands.|
|Sorbs||Sorbian language, German||Christianity (Roman Catholicism)||60,000–70,000 (est.)||Europe||Germany||Lusatia||Domowina||Divided into Upper Sorbs and Lower Sorbs.|
|Ainu people||Ainu languages, Japanese people, Russian language||Animism, Shintoism, Buddhism, Christianity||25,000 – 200,000 (est.)||Asia||Japan, Russia||Hokkaido||Ainu Movement||Seek greater independence in Japan|
|Rapa Nui people||Rapa Nui language, Spanish language||Christianity (Catholicism)||5,682||Oceania||Chile||Easter Island||Rapa Nui independence movement||The Rapa Nui Parliament is a pro-independence organisation|
|Pastusos||Spanish language (Pastuso dialect)||Christianity (Roman Catholicism)||1,800,000 (est., 2015)||South America||Colombia and Ecuador||Nudo de los Pastos||Agustín Agualongo, José Rafael Sañudo||Pasto was annexed by Colombia after the Pasto Campaign and Black Christmas. During 2021 protests, many Colombian symbols in the region were destroyed.|
Some stateless nations have achieved their own independent state. Examples include Greeks before the Greek War of Independence and Irish people before the Irish War of Independence.
Some would include the Jews until the 1948 Israeli declaration of independence, however others would point out that different groups of Jews have very different characteristics such as languages, cultures, and territories, rendering the idea that all Jews constitute a single nation questionable.
During the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the breakup of Yugoslavia, several ethnic groups gained their own sovereign state.
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