Yoruba
Ìran Yorùbá
Ọmọ Oòduà, Ọmọ Káàárọ̀-oòjíire
A group of Yoruba people at a public event
Total population
c. ≈ 50,138,000 (2023)[a][1]
Regions with significant populations
 Nigeria42,600,000 (2020)[2]
 Benin1,600,000[3]
 Ghana425,600[4]
 Togo342,500[5]
 United States207,052 (2022)[b][6]
 Ivory Coast115,000 (2017)[7]
 Niger80,700 (2021)[8]
 Canada26,305 (2021)[c][9]
 Sierra Leone16,578 (2022)[10]
 Ireland10,100 (2011)[11]
 Gambia8,477 (2013)[12]
 Australia4,020 (2021)[13]
 Finland1,273 (2022)[14]
Languages
Religion
[15][16][17]
Related ethnic groups
(Gbe)  Aja · Ewe · Fon · Mahi · Ogu
(Kwa)  Adele · Akebu · Anii · Ga · Kposo
PersonỌmọ Yorùbá
PeopleỌmọ Yorùbá
LanguageÈdè Yorùbá
CountryIlẹ̀ Yorùbá

The Yoruba people (US: /ˈjɒrəbə/ YORR-ə-bə,[24] UK: /ˈjɒrʊbə/ YORR-uub-ə;[25] Yoruba: Ìran Yorùbá, Ọmọ Odùduwà, Ọmọ Káàárọ̀-oòjíire)[26] are a West African ethnic group who mainly inhabit parts of Nigeria, Benin, and Togo. The areas of these countries primarily inhabited by the Yoruba are often collectively referred to as Yorubaland. The Yoruba constitute more than 48 million people in Africa,[27] are over a million outside the continent, and bear further representation among members of the African diaspora. The vast majority of the Yoruba population is today within the country of Nigeria, where they make up 20.7% of the country's population according to Ethnologue estimations,[28][29] making them one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa. Most Yoruba people speak the Yoruba language, which is the Niger-Congo language with the largest number of native or L1 speakers.[30]

In Africa, the Yoruba are contiguous with the Yoruboid Itsekiri to the south-east in the northwest Niger Delta, Bariba to the northwest in Benin and Nigeria, the Nupe to the north, and the Ebira to the northeast in central Nigeria. To the east are the Edo, Ẹsan, and Afemai groups in mid-western Nigeria. To the northeast and adjacent to the Ebira and northern Edo, groups are the related Igala people on the left bank of the Niger River. To the south are the Gbe-speaking Mahi, Gun, Fon, and Ewe who border Yoruba communities in Benin and Togo, to the west they are bordered by the Kwa-speaking Akebu, Kposo of Togo, and to the northwest, by the Kwa-speaking Anii, and the Gur speaking Kabiye, Yom-Lokpa and Tem people of Togo.[31] Significantly Yoruba populations in other West African countries can also be found in Ghana,[32][33][34] Benin,[32] Ivory Coast,[35] and Sierra Leone.[36]

Outside Africa, the Yoruba diaspora consists of two main groupings; the first being that of the Yorubas taken as slaves to the New World between the 16th to 19th centuries, notably to the Caribbean (especially in Cuba) and Brazil, and the second consisting of a wave of relatively recent migrants, the majority of whom began to migrate to the United Kingdom and the United States following some of the major economic and political changes encountered in Africa in the 1960s to 1980s.[37]

Etymology

The oldest known textual reference to the name Yoruba is found in an essay (titled – Mi'rāj al-Ṣu'ūd) from a manuscript written by the Berber[38] jurist Ahmed Baba in the year 1614.[39] The original manuscript is preserved in the Ahmed Baba Institute of the Mamma Haidara Library, while a digital copy is at the World Digital Library.[40] Mi'rāj al-Ṣu'ūd provides one of the earliest known ideas about the ethnic composition of the West African interior. The relevant section of the essay which lists the Yoruba group alongside nine others in the region as translated by John Hunwick and Fatima Harrak for the Institute of African Studies Rabat, reads:

We will add another rule for you, that is that whoever now comes to you from among the group called Mossi, or Gurma, or Bussa, or Borgu, or Dagomba, or Kotokoli, or Yoruba, or Tombo, or Bobo, or K.rmu – all of these are unbelievers remaining in their unbelief until now. Similarly kumbe except for a few people of Hombori[41]

This early 1600's reference implies that the name Yoruba was already in popular demotic use as far back as at least the 1500s. Regarding the source and derivation of this name, guesses were posited by various foreign sociologists of external sources. These include; Ya'rub (son of Canaanite, Joktan) by Mohammed Bello,[42] Goru Ba by T.J Bowen, or Yolla Ba (Mande word for the Niger River) etc.[43] These guesses suffer a lack of support by many locals for being alien to (and unfounded in) the traditions of the Yorubas themselves.[44] In his work, Abeokuta and the Camaroons Mountains c.1863, the English ethnologist Richard F. Burton reports of a Yoruba account in 1861, noting that the name "Yoruba" derives from Ori Obba, i.e. -The Head King.[45] Based on oral and written sources, this name existed before the 1500s. It was applied ex-situ originally in reference to the Yoruba sociolinguistic group as a whole. Centuries later however, it evolved to be applied exclusively to the Ọ̀yọ́ subgroup when this subgroup rose to attain imperial status, particularly at its apogee (c.1650 — c.1750) until in the mid-1800s when this trend was reversed back to the original context.

Names

As an ethnic description, the word "Yoruba" has roots in a term borrowed by Europeans in the earlier part of the 19th century and incorporated into usage in reference to the Oyo Empire of the time.[46][47] In his book, Hugh Clapperton began to subject the word to early changes in its evolution from the existing Hausa exonym Yaraba, to "Yourriba" as was his customary way of addressing the King of Oyo.[48] Further evolution of the ethnic description to the larger ethnolinguistic group of which Oyo is a part is the subsequent work of 19th century missionaries who categorized all members of the ethnolinguistic group by "Yoruba" and helped incorporate it into the language of the Oyo people as their own self-definition.[49][50][51] Competing terms such as Nago, Lucumi, and Aku, used in identifying Oyo's ethnolinguistic family, have not reached the same level of popular usage as the term "Yoruba" though widely used in areas where ethnic sub-populations themselves can be found.[52]

In comparison, the phrase of intraethnolinguistic origin used by the Yoruba people is "Ọmọ Káàárọ̀-oòjíire", literally meaning, "The People who ask 'Good morning, did you wake up well?" This is in reference to the culture of greetings identifiable within the Yoruba culture.[53] Through parts of coastal West Africa, where Yorubas have been found, they have carried their culture of lauding one another with greetings of different forms, applicable in different situations, along with them. Another term used is, "Ọmọ Oòduà", meaning "The Children of Oduduwa", referencing the semi-legendary king who is believed to be the founder and ancestor of the modern Yoruba people.[54] The Yorubas are also called Alaata in some Akan-speaking communities.

History

Main article: History of the Yoruba people

Further information: Ifẹ

See also: Yoruba religion

By the 8th century, a powerful kingdom already existed in Ile-Ife, one of the earliest in Africa.[55] It was viewed by the Yoruba as capital of the realm of humanity, based on the oldest pre-dynastic traditions of it being associated with Oba Tala, Sango, Yemoja, Oduduwa, Orunmila and a host of primordial beings believed to have descended from the heavens (Ode Orun) in Yoruba godlore.[56]

Some Yoruba cities of the Middle Ages

The historical Yoruba develop in ṣitu, out of earlier Mesolithic Volta-Niger populations, by the 1st millennium BCE.[57] Oral history recorded under the Oyo Empire derives the Yoruba as an ethnic group from the population of the older kingdom of Ile-Ife. The Yoruba were the dominant cultural force in southern and northwestern Nigeria as far back as the 11th century.[58]

The Yoruba are among the most urbanized people in Africa. For centuries before the arrival of the British colonial administration most Yoruba already lived in well structured urban centres organized around powerful city-states (Ìlú) centred around the residence of the Oba (king).[59] In ancient times, most of these cities were fortresses, with high walls and gates.[60] Yoruba cities have always been among the most populous in Africa. Archaeological findings indicate that Òyó-Ilé or Katunga, capital of the Yoruba empire of Oyo (fl. between the 11th and 19th centuries CE), had a population of over 100,000 people.[57] For a long time also, Ibadan, one of the major Yoruba cities and founded in the 1800s, was the largest city in the whole of Sub Saharan Africa. Today, Lagos (Yoruba: Èkó), another major Yoruba city, with a population of over twenty million, remains the largest on the African continent.[61]

Archaeologically, the settlement of Ile-Ife showed features of urbanism in the 12th–14th century era.[60] In the period around 1300 CE the artists at Ile-Ife developed a refined and naturalistic sculptural tradition in terracotta, stone and copper alloy – copper, brass, and bronze many of which appear to have been created under the patronage of King Obalufon II, the man who today is identified as the Yoruba patron deity of brass casting, weaving and regalia.[62] The dynasty of kings at Ile-Ife, which is regarded by the Yoruba as the place of origin of human civilization, remains intact to this day. The urban phase of Ile-Ife before the rise of Oyo, c. 1100–1600, a significant peak of political centralization in the 12th century,[63][64] is commonly described as a "golden age" of Ile-Ife. The oba or ruler of Ile-Ife is referred to as the Ooni of Ife.[65][66]

Oyo, Ile-Ife and Lagos

Ife continues to be seen as the "spiritual homeland" of the Yoruba. The city was surpassed by the Oyo Empire[67] as the dominant Yoruba military and political power in the 11th century.[68]

The Ade-Are crown in Ile Ife[69]

The Oyo Empire under its oba, known as the Alaafin of Oyo, was active in the African slave trade during the 18th century. The Yoruba often demanded slaves as a form of tribute of subject populations,[70] who in turn sometimes made war on other peoples to capture the required slaves. Part of the slaves sold by the Oyo Empire entered the Atlantic slave trade.[71][72]

Most of the city states[73] were controlled by Obas (or royal sovereigns with various individual titles) and councils made up of Oloye, recognized leaders of royal, noble and, often, even common descent, who joined them in ruling over the kingdoms through a series of guilds and cults. Different states saw differing ratios of power between the kingships and the chiefs' councils. Some, such as Oyo, had powerful, autocratic monarchs with almost total control, while in others such as the Ijebu city-states,[73] the senatorial councils held more influence and the power of the ruler or Ọba, referred to as the Awujale of Ijebuland, was more limited.[66]

In more recent decades, Lagos has risen to be the most prominent city of the Yoruba people and Yoruba cultural and economic influence. Noteworthy among the developments of Lagos were uniquely styled architecture introduced by returning Yoruba communities from Brazil and Cuba known as Amaros/Agudas.[74]

Yoruba settlements are often described as primarily one or more of the main social groupings called "generations":[75]

Language

Main article: Yoruba language

Degree of Presence of The Yoruba and derived' Ede groups[76][77][78] in Nigeria, Benin & Togo at Subnational levels[79]

The Yoruba culture was originally an oral tradition, and the majority of Yoruba people are native speakers of the Yoruba language. The number of speakers is estimated at 30 million in 2010.[80] Yoruba is classified within the Edekiri languages, and together with the isolate Igala, form the Yoruboid group of languages within what we now have as West Africa. Igala and Yoruba have important historical and cultural relationships. The languages of the two ethnic groups bear such a close resemblance that researchers such as Forde (1951) and Westermann and Bryan (1952) regarded Igala as a dialect of Yoruba.

The Yoruboid languages are assumed to have developed out of an undifferentiated Volta-Niger group by the first millennium BCE. There are three major dialect areas: Northwest, Central, and Southeast.[81] As the North-West Yoruba dialects show more linguistic innovation, combined with the fact that Southeast and Central Yoruba areas generally have older settlements, suggests a later date of immigration into Northwestern Yoruba territory.[82] The area where North-West Yoruba (NWY) is spoken corresponds to the historical Oyo Empire. South-East Yoruba (SEY) was closely associated with the expansion of the Benin Empire after c. 1450.[83] Central Yoruba forms a transitional area in that the lexicon has much in common with NWY, whereas it shares many ethnographical features with SEY.

Literary Yoruba is the standard variety taught in schools and spoken by newsreaders on the radio. It is mostly entirely based on northwestern Yoruba dialects of the Oyos and the Egbas, and has its origins in two sources; The work of Yoruba Christian missionaries based mostly in the Egba hinterland at Abeokuta, and the Yoruba grammar compiled in the 1850s by Bishop Crowther, who himself was a Sierra Leonean Recaptive of Oyo origin. This was exemplified by the following remark by Adetugbọ (1967), as cited in Fagborun (1994): "While the orthography agreed upon by the missionaries represented to a very large degree the phonemes of the Abẹokuta dialect, the morpho-syntax reflected the Ọyọ-Ibadan dialects"

Group identity

Yoruba people have a sense of group identity around a number of cultural concepts, beliefs and practices recognizable by all members of the ethnic group. Prominent among these, is the tracing of the entire Yoruba body through dynastic migrations to roots formed in Ile-Ife, an ancient city in the forested heart of central Yorubaland and its acceptance as the spiritual nucleus of Yoruba existence. Following this linkage to the ancient city of Ife is the acknowledgement of an historic crowned king, Oduduwa, a personage nominally considered the 'father' of the Yoruba people. According to Ife's own account, Oduduwa 'descended' into the originally thirteen semi-autonomous proto-Ife communities which existed in a state of confederacy[84] based around a swampy depression surrounded by seven hills that would later on become Ife from the community of Oke Ora, an elevated abode located at the summit of a hill to Ife's East.[85] The intervention of Oduduwa, a native of Oke Ora and considered an outsider in the politics of the Ife valley is widely acknowledged in Ife to be the turning point that revolutionized the politics of the confederacy which was at the time, led by Obatala[86]

Beyond the historical accounts surrounding Ife and its ancient rulership, more cultural markers which unite the Yoruba people as members of the same ethnicity include the universal recognition of a number of spiritual concepts and chief divinities (Orisha), who have achieved pan-Yoruba statuses. These divinities are venerated as embodiments of natural forces and divine power. They are also the mediators between the common people and Olodumare, God. They include some now such well-known divinities as; Obatala, Ogun, Orunmila, Osun, Eshu, Olokun, Yemoja, Osanyin, Shango, Among others. These are now recognizable in the New World as divinities brought across the Atlantic by people of Yoruba descent. There in their new ex-situ environment, they serve as a mechanism of maintaining group identity, as well as a powerful connection to the Yoruba homeland amongst people of Yoruba descent and others. Examples of such new world practices are: Santeria, Candomble, Umbanda, Kélé and Trinidad Orisha, which are not only religious societies, but also actual ethnic societies for those who sought to maintain their unique heritages over time, although anyone could join as long as they became immersed in the Yoruba worldview.

Linguistically, the Yoruboid languages, and in particular the Edekiri subgroup, form a closed group of mutually intelligible dialects which strongly bound the people who speak them together as members of the same linguistic community. This dialectal area spans from the lands of the Ana-Ife people in central Togo and eastern Ghana eastwards to the lands of the Itsekiri people in the western Niger Delta around the Formosa (Benin) and Escravos river estuaries. This span of land, inhabited by geographically contiguous and culturally related subgroups, were divided into separate national and subnational units under the control of different European powers as a result of the Berlin Conference in 19th century Europe and the resultant administration. The Yoruba also notably developed a common identity under the influence of Oyo, a regional empire that developed in the northwestern savanna section of yorubaland as a result of a kingdom founding migration from Ife. As opposed to Oyo which was a highly militaristic grassland polity, the Ife Empire was forest based and spread its influence rather through religion, politics, philosophical Ideology and commerce between 1200 and the mid 1400s. With the decline of Ife, Oyo expanded as the new Yoruba power and established its own influences over Kingdoms stretching from central Togo in the west to central Yorubaland in the east, and from the Niger river in the north to the Atlantic coast in the south, taking in the whole of Dahomey, southern Borgu, the Mahi states, southern Nupe and the Aja people. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, Oyo had numerous campaigns in the region and established a reputation among the neighbouring kingdoms of; Ashanti, Dahomey, Borgu, Nupe, Igala and Benin as well as further afield in the lands of the Songhai, Hausa Kingdoms and others, solidifying its place in the greater region as a powerhouse strategically placed between the forest and the Savanna and representative of a cultural unit it powerfully defended and stood in association with. During the 18th century, in the days of Ajagbo, an Oba of Oyo, the rulers of the Yoruba-speaking kingdoms of Oyo, Egba, Ketu, and Jebu styled each other "brothers" while recognizing the leadership role Oyo plays amongst them.[87]

At the beginning of the 19th century, the Yoruba community was made up of the following principal units; The British colony of Lagos, traditionally called Eko; Ketu, a western Yoruba state bordering the kingdom of Dahomey; Egba, with its capital at Abeokuta; Jebu, a southern Yoruba kingdom in the immediate vicinity of an inland lagoon; A confederation of Ekiti sub-tribes in the hilly country to the northeast; Ibadan, a successor republican state to Oyo; Ijesha; The historic kingdom of Ife which continued to maintain its sacred primacy; Ondo, on the east; The littoral Mahin/Ilaje on the southeastern maritime coast, and several other smaller states such as the Egbado, Akoko groups, Yagba, Awori as well as independent townships, consisting of a town and its outlying dependent villages such as Oke odan, Ado, Igbessa.[88]

Various other cultural factors which bind the Yoruba people include historic dynastic migrations of royals and the micro migrations of people within the Yoruba cultural space which has led to the mixing of people evidenced by the duplication and multiplication of place names and royal titles across Yoruba country. Today, places with names containing; Owu, Ifon, Ife, Ado Etc, can be found scattered across Yorubaland regardless of subgroup. Same can be observed of certain localized royal titles e.g; Ajalorun, Owa, Olu. Olofin, the original title of Oduduwa in Ife is remembered in the lore of most places in Yorubaland. Occupational engagements like farming, hunting, crafting, blacksmithing, trading as well as fishing for the coastal or riparian groups are commonplace. Joint customs in greeting, birth, marriage and death, a strong sense of community, urbanism, festivities and a respect for the elderly are also all universal Yoruba concepts.[89]

Pre-colonial government of Yoruba society

Government

Oyo Empire and surrounding states

Monarchies were a common form of government in Yorubaland, but they were not the only approach to government and social organization. The numerous Ijebu kingdom city-states to the west of Oyo and the Egba people communities, found in the forests below Ọyọ's savanna region, were notable exceptions. These independent polities often elected a king though real political, legislative, and judicial powers resided with the Ogboni, a council of notable elders. The notion of the divine king was so important to the Yoruba, however, that it has been part of their organization in its various forms from their antiquity to the contemporary era.

Palace of the King of Oyo circa 1900s - Colorized

During the internecine wars of the 19th century, the Ijebu forced citizens of more than 150 Ẹgba and Owu communities to migrate to the fortified city of Abeokuta. Each quarter retained its own Ogboni council of civilian leaders, along with an Olorogun, or council of military leaders, and in some cases, its own elected Obas or Baales. These independent councils elected their most capable members to join a federal civilian and military council that represented the city as a whole. Commander Frederick Forbes, a representative of the British Crown writing an account of his visit to the city in the Church Military Intelligencer (1853),[90] described Abẹokuta as having "four presidents", and the system of government as having "840 principal rulers or 'House of Lords,' 2800 secondary chiefs or 'House of Commons,' 140 principal military ones and 280 secondary ones."[91] He described Abẹokuta and its system of government as "the most extraordinary republic in the world."[91]

Leadership

Gerontocratic leadership councils that guarded against the monopolization of power by a monarch were a trait of the Ẹgba, according to the eminent Ọyọ historian Reverend Samuel Johnson. Such councils were also well-developed among the northern Okun groups, the eastern Ekiti, and other groups falling under the Yoruba ethnic umbrella. In Ọyọ, the most centralized of the precolonial kingdoms, the Alaafin consulted on all political decisions with the prime minister and principal kingmaker (the Basọrun) and the rest of the council of leading nobles known as the Ọyọ Mesi.[92]

Traditionally kingship and chieftainship were not determined by simple primogeniture, as in most monarchic systems of government. An electoral college of lineage heads was and still is usually charged with selecting a member of one of the royal families from any given realm, and the selection is then confirmed by an Ifá oracular request.[93] The Ọbas live in palaces that are usually in the center of the town. Opposite the king's palace is the Ọja Ọba, or the king's market. These markets form an inherent part of Yoruba life. Traditionally their traders are well organized, have various guilds, officers, and an elected speaker. They also often have at least one Iyaloja, or Lady of the Market, who is expected to represent their interests in the aristocratic council of oloyes at the palace.[94][95]

City-states

Main article: Yorubaland

See also: Oyo Empire § Political Structure

The monarchy of any city-state was usually limited to a number of royal lineages.[96] A family could be excluded from kingship and chieftaincy if any family member, servant, or slave belonging to the family committed a crime, such as theft, fraud, murder or rape. In other city-states, the monarchy was open to the election of any free-born male citizen. In Ilesa, Ondo, Akure and other Yoruba communities, there were several, but comparatively rare, traditions of female Ọbas. The kings were traditionally almost always polygamous and often married royal family members from other domains, thereby creating useful alliances with other rulers.[97] Ibadan, a city-state and proto-empire that was founded in the 1800s by a polyglot group of refugees, soldiers, and itinerant traders after the fall of Ọyọ, largely dispensed with the concept of monarchism, preferring to elect both military and civil councils from a pool of eminent citizens. The city became a military republic, with distinguished soldiers wielding political power through their election by popular acclaim and the respect of their peers. Similar practices were adopted by the Ijẹsa and other groups, which saw a corresponding rise in the social influence of military adventurers and successful entrepreneurs. The Ìgbómìnà were renowned for their agricultural and hunting prowess, as well as their woodcarving, leather art, and the famous Elewe masquerade.[98]

Depiction of a traditional Sango venerating fraternity

Groups, organizations and leagues in Yorubaland

Occupational guilds, social clubs, secret or initiatory societies, and religious units, commonly known as Ẹgbẹ in Yoruba, included the Parakoyi (or league of traders) and Ẹgbẹ Ọdẹ (hunter's guild), and maintained an important role in commerce, social control, and vocational education in Yoruba polities. There are also examples of other peer organizations in the region.[99][100][101][102] When the Ẹgba resisted the imperial domination of the Ọyọ Empire, a figure named Lisabi is credited with either creating or reviving a covert traditional organization named Ẹgbẹ Aro. This group, originally a farmers' union, was converted to a network of secret militias throughout the Ẹgba forests, and each lodge plotted and successfully managed to overthrow Ọyọ's Ajeles (appointed administrators) in the late 18th century. Similarly, covert military resistance leagues like the Ekiti Parapọ and the Ogidi alliance were organized during the 19th century wars by often-decentralized communities of the Ekiti, Ijẹsa, Ìgbómìnà and Okun Yoruba in order to resist various imperial expansionist plans of Ibadan, Nupe, and the Sokoto Caliphate.

Society and culture

Main article: Yoruba culture

Yorubaland Cultural Area of West Africa

In the city-states and many of their neighbours, a reserved way of life remains, with the school of thought of their people serving as a major influence in West Africa and elsewhere.

Today, most contemporary Yoruba are Muslims or Christians.[16] Be that as it may, many of the principles of the traditional faith of their ancestors are either knowingly or unknowingly upheld by a significant proportion of the populations of Nigeria, Benin and Togo.[103]

Traditional Yoruba religion

Main article: Yoruba religion

Further information: Ifá and Yoruba medicine

The Yoruba religion comprises the traditional religious and spiritual concepts and practices of the Yoruba people.[104] Its homeland is in Southwestern Nigeria and the adjoining parts of Benin and Togo, a region that has come to be known as Yorubaland. Yoruba religion is formed of diverse traditions and has no single founder.[105] Yoruba religious beliefs are part of itan, the total complex of songs, histories, stories, mythologies, and other cultural concepts that make up the Yoruba society.[105]

Ogunda Meji, one of the sixteen principals of 256 Odus (the corpus of Ifa literature) represented on a virtual Opon Ifa board

Next to the Veneration of ancestors, one of the most common Yoruba traditional religious concepts has been the concept of Orisa. Orisa (also spelled Orisha) are various gods and spirits, which serve the ultimate creator force in the Yoruba religious system (Ase). Some widely known Orisa are Ogun, (a god of metal, war and victory), Shango or Jakuta (a god of thunder, lightning, fire and justice who manifests as a king and who always wields a double-edged axe that conveys his divine authority and power), Esu Elegbara (a trickster who serves as the sole messenger of the pantheon, and who conveys the wish of men to the gods. He understands every language spoken by humankind, and is also the guardian of the crossroads, Oríta méta in Yoruba) and Orunmila (a god of the Oracle). Eshu has two forms, which are manifestations of his dual nature – positive and negative energies; Eshu Laroye, a teacher instructor and leader, and Eshu Ebita, a jester, deceitful, suggestive and cunning.[106] Orunmila, for his part, reveals the past, gives solutions to problems in the present, and influences the future through the Ifa divination system, which is practised by oracle priests called Babalawos.

Olorun is one of the principal manifestations of the Supreme God of the Yoruba pantheon, the owner of the heavens, and is associated with the Sun known as Oòrùn in the Yoruba language. The two other principal forms of the supreme God are Olodumare—the supreme creator—and Olofin, who is the conduit between Òrunn (Heaven) and Ayé (Earth). Oshumare is a god that manifests in the form of a rainbow, also known as Òsùmàrè in Yoruba, while Obatala is the god of clarity and creativity.These gods feature in the Yoruba religion,[59][107] as well as in some aspects of Umbanda, Winti, Obeah, Vodun and a host of others. These varieties, or spiritual lineages as they are called, are practiced throughout areas of Nigeria, among others. As interest in African indigenous religions grows, Orisa communities and lineages can be found in parts of Europe and Asia as well. While estimates may vary, some scholars believe that there could be more than 100 million adherents of this spiritual tradition worldwide.[108]

Name Deity Of Ethnic Group Religion Member Of Homeland
Agemo Chameleon, Servant Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Aganju Volcanoes, Wilderness, Desert, Fire Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Ajaka Peaceful, Love, Equality Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Akògún Warrior, Hunter,Wear Straw Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Ayangalu Drummer, Gángan Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Ara Ara Weather, Strom, Thunder Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Ayelala Punishes Crime Yoruba People (Part) Yoruba Religion (Part) Orisha Yorubaland (Part)
Aroni Beauty Of Nature, Sipirt Of The Forest, Herb, Plant, Tree Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Alaafia Peace, Humble, Patience Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Arun Diseases, Affliction Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Aje Wealth, Property, Prosperity, Fortune, Success Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Aye Passion, Environmentalism, Nature Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Aja Wild, Herb, Plant, Leaf Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Biri Darkness, Night, Midnight Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Babalu Aye Smallpox, Epidemic Diseases, Healing Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Bayanni (Dada) Children, Dread Heads, Prosperity Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Dada Mischief & Stubborn Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Ela Passion For Charity & Giving Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Edi Spirit Of Evil, Whisperer Of Undoing And Corruption) Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Egungun Sainted Dead Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Erinle Hunter, Earth, Natural Force Of Universe Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Eshu Trickery, Crossroads, Misfortune, Chaos, Death, Travelers, Messenger Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Ibeji Twins Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Iroko Tree, Wilderness Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Iya Nla Primordial Spirit Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Iku Death Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Imole Sunlight, Soothsayer Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Logunede War & Hunting Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Moremi Saviour Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Oba River Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Obba Passion For Homemaking, Domestic Policies Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Obatala Creation Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Oduduwa Progenitor, Warrior Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Ogun Warriors, Soldiers, Blacksmiths, Metal Workers, Craftsmen Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Oke Mountain, Hill Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Oko Agriculture, Farming, Fertility Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Olokun Water, Health, Wealth Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Olumo Mountain Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Ọranyani Progenitor Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Orò Justice, Bullroarers Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Oronsen Progenitor Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland

Ọrunmila

Wisdom, Knowledge, Ifa Divination, Philosophy, Fate, Destiny, Prophecy, Babalawo Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Ori Beforelife, Afterlife, Destiny, Personal Identify Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland

Osanyin

Herb, Plant, Nature, Herbalist, Magician Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Oshosi Hunt, Forest, Warrior, Justice Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland

Oshun

Goddess of Water, Purity, Fertility, Love, and Sensuality Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Oshunmare Rainbow, Serpent, Regeneration, Rebirth Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Otin River, Fighter Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Oya Storms, Wind, Thunder, Lightning, Dead Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Shango Thunder, Lightning, Fire, Justice, Dance, Virility Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Shigidi Guardian Of Home & Environment Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Yemoja Goddess Of Creation, Water, Moon, The Motherhood, Protection Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland
Yewa Yewa River Yoruba People Yoruba Religion Orisha Yorubaland

Mythology

Main article: Oduduwa

An Iroke or Irofa (Ìròkè Ifá) is the divination tapper of the Yoruba. It is long, slender and often slightly curved. Used in combination with the Opon Ifa or divination board. Traditionally made from ivory, but also brass and wood.[109]

Oral history of the Oyo-Yoruba recounts Odùduwà to be the progenitor of the Yoruba and the reigning ancestor of their crowned kings.

He came from the east, understood in Ife traditions to be the settlement of Oke Ora, a hilltop community situated to the east of Ife.

After the death of Oduduwa, there was a dispersal of his children in a series of kingdom founding migrations from Ife to found other kingdoms. Each child made his or her mark in the subsequent urbanization and consolidation of the Yoruba confederacy of kingdoms, with each kingdom tracing its origin due to them to Ile-Ife.

After the dispersal, the aborigines became difficult, and constituted a serious threat to the survival of Ife. Thought to be survivors of the old occupants of the land before the arrival of Oduduwa, these people now turned themselves into marauders. They would come to town in costumes made of raffia with terrible and fearsome appearances, and burn down houses and loot the markets. Then came Moremi Ajasoro into the scene; she was said to have played a significant role in the quelling of the marauder advancements. But this was at a great price; having to give up her only son Oluorogbo. The reward for her patriotism and selflessness was not to be reaped in one lifetime as she later passed on and was thereafter deified. The Edi festival celebrates this feat amongst her Yoruba descendants.[110]

Philosophy

Yoruba culture consists of cultural philosophy, religion and folktales. They are embodied in Ifa divination, and are known as the tripartite Book of Enlightenment in Yorubaland and in its diaspora.

Yoruba cultural thought is a witness of two epochs. The first epoch is a history of cosmogony and cosmology. This is also an epoch-making history in the oral culture during which time Oduduwa was the king, the Bringer of Light, pioneer of Yoruba folk philosophy, and a prominent diviner. He pondered the visible and invisible worlds, reminiscing about cosmogony, cosmology, and the mythological creatures in the visible and invisible worlds. His time favored the artist-philosophers who produced magnificent naturalistic artworks of civilization during the pre-dynastic period in Yorubaland. The second epoch is the epoch of metaphysical discourse, and the birth of modern artist-philosophy. This commenced in the 19th century in terms of the academic prowess of Bishop Samuel Ajayi Crowther (1807–1891). Although religion is often first in Yoruba culture, nonetheless, it is the philosophy – the thought of man – that actually leads spiritual consciousness (ori) to the creation and the practice of religion. Thus, it is believed that thought (philosophy) is an antecedent to religion. Values such as respect, peaceful co-existence, loyalty and freedom of speech are both upheld and highly valued in Yoruba culture. Societies that are considered secret societies often strictly guard and encourage the observance of moral values. Today, the academic and nonacademic communities are becoming more interested in Yoruba culture. More research is being carried out on Yoruba cultural thought as more books are being written on the subject.

Christianity and Islam

The Lord's prayer in Yoruba language, Church of the Pater Noster Mount of Olives, Jerusalem

The Yoruba are traditionally very religious people, and are today pluralistic in their religious convictions.[111] The Yoruba are one of the more religiously diverse ethnic groups in Africa. Many Yoruba people practice Christianity in denominations such as Anglicanism[112] while others are Muslims practicing mostly under Sunni Islam of the Maliki school of law. In addition to Christianity and Islam, a large number of Yoruba people continue to practice their traditional religion. Yoruba religious practices such as the Eyo and Osun-Osogbo festivals are witnessing a resurgence in popularity in contemporary Yorubaland. They are largely seen by the adherents of the modern faiths as cultural, rather than religious, events. They participate in them as a means to celebrate their people's history, and boost tourism in their local economies.[103]

Anna Hinderer church and mission house at Ibadan, 1850s[113]

Christianity

The Yorubas were one of the first groups in West Africa to be introduced to Christianity on a very large scale.[114] Christianity (along with western civilization) came into Yorubaland in the mid-19th century through the Europeans, whose original mission was commerce.[111][115][116][117] The first European visitors were the Portuguese, they visited the neighboring Bini kingdom in the late 16th century. As time progressed, other Europeans – such as the French, the British, the Dutch, and the Germans, followed suit. The British and the French were the most successful in their quest for colonies (these Europeans actually split Yorubaland, with the larger part being in British Nigeria, and the minor parts in French Dahomey, now Benin, and German Togoland). Home governments encouraged religious organizations to come. Roman Catholics (known to the Yorubas as Ijo Aguda, so named after returning former Yoruba slaves from Latin America, who were mostly Catholic, and were also known as the Agudas or Amaros) started the race, followed by Protestants, whose prominent member – Church Mission Society (CMS) based in England made the most significant in-roads into the hinterland regions for evangelism and became the largest of the Christian missions. Methodists (known as Ijo-Eleto, so named after the Yoruba word for "method or process") started missions in Agbadarigi / Gbegle by Thomas Birch Freeman in 1842. Agbadarigi was further served by E. C. Van Cooten, E. G. Irving, and A. A. Harrison. Henry Townsend, C. C. Gollmer, and Ajayi Crowther of the CMS worked in Abeokuta, then under the Egba division of Southern Nigeria in 1846.[118]

Hinderer and Mann of CMS started missions in Ibadan / Ibarapa and Ijaye divisions of the present Oyo state in 1853. Baptist missionaries – Bowen and Clarke – concentrated on the northern Yoruba axis – (Ogbomoso and environs). With their success, other religious groups – the Salvation Army and the Evangelists Commission of West Africa – became popular among the Igbomina, and other non-denominational Christian groups joined. The increased tempo of Christianity led to the appointment of Saros (returning slaves from Sierra Leone) and indigenes as missionaries. This move was initiated by Venn, the CMS Secretary. Nevertheless, the impact of Christianity in Yorubaland was not felt until the fourth decade of the 19th century, when a Yoruba slave boy, Samuel Ajayi Crowther, became a Christian convert, linguist and minister whose knowledge in languages would become a major tool and instrument to propagate Christianity in Yorubaland and beyond.[119]

Islam

Islam came into Yorubaland around the 14th century, as a result of trade with Wangara (also Wankore) merchants,[120] a mobile caste of the Soninkes from the then Mali Empire who entered Yorubaland (Oyo) from the northwestern flank through the Bariba or Borgu corridor,[121] during the reign of Mansa Kankan Musa.[122] Due to this, Islam is traditionally known to the Yoruba as Esin Male or simply Imale i.e. religion of the Malians. The adherents of the Islamic faith are called Musulumi in Yoruba to correspond to Muslim, the Arabic word for an adherent of Islam having as the active participle of the same verb form, and means "submitter (to Allah)" or a nominal and active participle of Islam derivative of "Salaam" i.e. (Religion of) Peace. Islam was practiced in Yorubaland so early on in history, that a sizable proportion of Yoruba slaves taken to the Americas were already Muslim.[123]

The mosque served the spiritual needs of Muslims living in Ọyọ. Progressively, Islam started to gain a foothold in Yorubaland, and Muslims started building mosques. Iwo led, its first mosque built in 1655,[124] followed by Iseyin in 1760,[124] Eko/Lagos in 1774,[124] Shaki in 1790,[124] and Osogbo in 1889. In time, Islam spread to other towns like Oyo (the first Oyo convert was Solagberu), Ibadan, Abẹokuta, Ijebu Ode, Ikirun, and Ede. All of these cities already had sizable Muslim communities before the 19th century Sokoto jihad.[125]

Traditional art and architecture

Main articles: Yoruba art and Yoruba architecture

Intricately carved ivory bracelet from the Yoruba people of Owo

Medieval Yoruba settlements were surrounded with massive mud walls.[126] Yoruba buildings had similar plans to the Ashanti shrines, but with verandahs around the court. The wall materials comprised puddled mud and palm oil[127] while roofing materials ranged from thatches to corrugated iron sheets.[127] A famous Yoruba fortification, the Sungbo's Eredo, was the second largest wall edifice in Africa. The structure was built in the 9th, 10th and 11th centuries in honour of a traditional aristocrat, the Oloye Bilikisu Sungbo. It was made up of sprawling mud walls and the valleys that surrounded the town of Ijebu-Ode in Ogun State. Sungbo's Eredo is the largest pre-colonial monument in Africa, larger than the Great Pyramid or Great Zimbabwe.[128][129]

Yoruba door, wood carvings; used to record events c. 1910
Early 19th century Yoruba architecture showing their unique inner courtyard layout used as a safe space for storing livestock and a space where children could play[130]

The Yorubas worked with a wide array of materials in their art including; bronze, leather, terracotta, ivory, textiles, copper, stone, carved wood, brass, ceramics and glass. A unique feature of Yoruba art is its striking realism that, unlike most African art, chose to create human sculptures in vividly realistic and life sized forms. The art history of the nearby Benin empire shows that there was a cross–fertilization of ideas between the neighboring Yoruba and Edo. The Benin court's brass casters learned their art from an Ife master named Iguegha, who had been sent from Ife around 1400 at the request of Benin's oba Oguola. Indeed, the earliest dated cast-brass memorial heads from Benin replicate the refined naturalism of the earlier Yoruba sculptures from Ife.[131]

A lot of Yoruba artwork, including staffs, court dress, and beadwork for crowns, are associated with palaces and the royal courts.[132][133][134][135] The courts also commissioned numerous architectural objects such as veranda posts, gates, and doors that are embellished with carvings. Yoruba palaces are usually built with thicker walls, are dedicated to the gods and play significant spiritual roles. Yoruba art is also manifested in shrines and masking traditions.[136] The shrines dedicated to the said gods are adorned with carvings and house an array of altar figures and other ritual paraphernalia. Masking traditions vary by region, and diverse mask types are used in various festivals and celebrations. Aspects of Yoruba traditional architecture has also found its way into the New World in the form of shotgun houses.[137][138][139][140][141][142] Today, however, Yoruba traditional architecture has been greatly influenced by modern trends.

Terracotta head representing oni or King of Ife, 12th to 16th century

Masquerades are an important feature of Yoruba traditional artistry. They are generally known as Egúngún, singularly as Egún. The term refers to the Yoruba masquerades connected with ancestor reverence, or to the ancestors themselves as a collective force. There are different types of which one of the most prominent is the Gelede.[143][144] An Ese Ifa (oral literature of Orunmila divination) explains the origins of Gelede as beginning with Yemoja, the Mother of all the orisa and all living things. Yemoja could not have children and consulted an Ifa oracle, and the priest advised her to offer sacrifices and to dance with wooden images on her head and metal anklets on her feet. After performing this ritual, she became pregnant. Her first child was a boy, nicknamed "Efe" (the humorist/joker); the Efe mask emphasizes song and jests because of the personality of its namesake. Yemoja's second child was a girl, nicknamed "Gelede" because she was obese like her mother. Also like her mother, Gelede loved dancing.

After getting married themselves, neither Gelede or Efe's partner could have children. The Ifa oracle suggested they try the same ritual that had worked for their mother. No sooner than Efe and Gelede performed these rituals – dancing with wooden images on their heads and metal anklets on their feet – they started having children. These rituals developed into the Gelede masked dance and were perpetuated by the descendants of Efe and Gelede. This narrative is one of many stories that explains the origin of Gelede. An old theory stated that the beginning of Gelede might be associated with the change from a matriarchal to a patriarchal society among the Yoruba people.[145]

The Gelede spectacle and the Ifa divination system represent two of Nigeria's only three pieces on the United Nations' Oral and Intangible Heritages of Humanity list, as well as the only such cultural heritage from Benin and Togo.

Festivals

Eyo Olokun

One of the first observations of first time visitors to Yorubaland is the rich, exuberant and ceremonial nature of their culture, which is made even more visible by the urbanized structures of Yoruba settlements. These occasions are avenues to experience the richness of the Yoruba culture. Traditional musicians are always on hand to grace the occasions with heavy rhythms and extremely advanced percussion, which the Yorubas are well known for all over the world.[146] Praise singers and griots are there to add their historical insight to the meaning and significance of the ceremony, and of course the varieties of colorful dresses and attires worn by the people, attest to the aesthetic sense of the average Yoruba.

The Arugba leading the procession to the Osun grove

The Yoruba are a very expressive people who celebrate major events with colorful festivals and celebrations (Ayeye). Some of these festivals (about thirteen principal ones)[147] are secular and only mark achievements and milestones in the achievement of mankind. These include wedding ceremonies (Ìgbéyàwó), naming ceremonies (Ìsomolórúko), funerals (Ìsìnkú), housewarming (Ìsílé), New-Yam festival (Ìjesu), Harvest ceremonies (Ìkórè), birth (Ìbí), chieftaincy (Ìjòyè) and so on.[145] Others have a more spiritual connotation, such as the various days and celebrations dedicated to specific Orisha like the Ogun day (Ojó Ògún) or the Osun festival, which is usually done at the Osun-Osogbo sacred grove located on the banks of the Osun river and around the ancient town of Osogbo.[148] The festival is dedicated to the river goddess Osun, which is usually celebrated in the month of August (Osù Ògùn) yearly. The festival attracts thousands of Osun worshippers from all over Yorubaland and the Yoruba diaspora in the Americas, spectators and tourists from all walks of life. The Osun-Osogbo Festival is a two-week-long programme. It starts with the traditional cleansing of the town called 'Iwopopo', which is then followed in three days by the lighting of the 500-year-old sixteen-point lamp called Ina Olojumerindinlogun, which literally means The sixteen eyed fire. The lighting of this sacred lamp heralds the beginning of the Osun festival. Then comes the 'Ibroriade', an assemblage of the crowns of the past ruler, the Ataoja of Osogbo, for blessings. This event is led by the sitting Ataoja of Osogbo and the Arugba Yeye Osun (who is usually a young virgin from the royal family dressed in white), who carries a sacred white calabash that contains propitiation materials meant for the goddess Osun. She is also accompanied by a committee of priestesses.[149][150] A similar event holds in the New World as Odunde Festival.[151][152]

Gèlèdé costumes from a Yoruba-Nago community in Benin

Another very popular festival with spiritual connotations is the Eyo Olokun festival or Adamu Orisha play, celebrated by the people of Lagos. The Eyo festival is a dedication to the god of the Sea Olokun, who is an Orisha, and whose name literally mean Owner of the Seas.[147] Generally, there is no customarily defined time for the staging of the Eyo Festival. This leads to a building anticipation as to what date would be decided upon. Once a date for its performance is selected and announced, the festival preparations begin. It encompasses a week-long series of activities, and culminates in a striking procession of thousands of men clothed in white and wearing a variety of coloured hats, called Aga. The procession moves through Lagos Island Isale Eko, which is the historical centre of the Lagos metropolis. On the streets, they move through various crucial locations and landmarks in the city, including the palace of the traditional ruler of Lagos, the Oba, known as the Iga Idunganran. The festival starts from dusk to dawn, and has been held on Saturdays (Ojó Àbáméta) from time immemorial. A full week before the festival (always a Sunday), the 'senior' Eyo group, the Adimu (identified by a black, broad-rimmed hat), goes public with a staff. When this happens, it means the event will take place on the following Saturday. Each of the four other 'important' groups – Laba (red), Oniko (yellow), Ologede (green) and Agere (purple) — take their turns in that order from Monday to Thursday.

The Eyo masquerade essentially admits tall people, which is why it is described as Agogoro Eyo (literally meaning the tall Eyo masquerade). In the manner of a spirit (An Orisha) visiting the earth on a purpose, the Eyo masquerade speaks in a ventriloquial voice, suggestive of its otherworldliness; and when greeted, it replies: Mo yo fun e, mo yo fun ara mi, which in Yoruba means: I rejoice for you, and I rejoice for myself. This response connotes the masquerades as rejoicing with the person greeting it for the witnessing of the day, and its own joy at taking the hallowed responsibility of cleansing. During the festival, Sandals and foot wear, as well as Suku, a hairstyle that is popular among the Yorubas – one that has the hair converge at the middle, then shoot upward, before tipping downward – are prohibited. The festival has also taken a more touristic dimension in recent times, which like the Osun Osogbo festival, attracts visitors from all across Nigeria, as well as Yoruba diaspora populations. In fact, it is widely believed that the play is one of the manifestations of the customary African revelry that serves as the forerunner of the modern carnival in Brazil and other parts of the New World, which may have been started by the Yoruba slaves transplanted in that part of the world due to the Atlantic slave trade.[153][154][155][156]

Music

See also: Yoruba music and Batá drum

Gbedu drummers
The Batá drum – from left: Okónkolo, Iyá, Itótele
A Yoruba slit drum (on the left) together with a traditional membrane drum (on the right)

The music of the Yoruba people is perhaps best known for an extremely advanced drumming tradition,[157] especially using the dundun[158] hourglass tension drums. The representation of musical instruments on sculptural works from Ile-Ife, indicates, in general terms a substantial accord with oral traditions. A lot of these musical instruments date back to the classical period of Ile-Ife, which began at around the tenth century A.D. Some were already present prior to this period, while others were created later. The hourglass tension drum (Dùndún) for example, may have been introduced around the 15th century (1400s), the Benin bronze plaques of the middle period depicts them. Others like the double and single iron clapper-less bells are examples of instruments that preceded classical Ife.[159] Yoruba folk music became perhaps the most prominent kind of West African music in Afro-Latin and Caribbean musical styles. Yoruba music left an especially important influence on the music of Trinidad, the Lukumi religious traditions,[160] Capoeira practice in Brazil and the music of Cuba.[161]

Yoruba drums typically belong to four major families, which are used depending on the context or genre where they are played. The Dùndún / Gángan family, is the class of hourglass shaped talking drums, which imitate the sound of Yoruba speech. This is possible because the Yoruba language is tonal in nature. It is the most common and is present in many Yoruba traditions, such as Apala, Jùjú, Sekere and Afrobeat. The second is the Sakara family. Typically, they played a ceremonial role in royal settings, weddings and Oríkì recitation; it is predominantly found in traditions such as Sakara music, Were and Fuji music. The Gbedu family (literally, "large drum") is used by secret fraternities such as the Ogboni and royal courts. Historically, only the Oba might dance to the music of the drum. If anyone else used the drum they were arrested for sedition of royal authority. The Gbèdu are conga shaped drums played while they sit on the ground. Akuba drums (a trio of smaller conga-like drums related to the gbèdu) are typically used in afrobeat. The Ogido is a cousin of the gbedu. It is also shaped like a conga but with a wider array of sounds and a bigger body. It also has a much deeper sound than the conga. It is sometimes referred to as the "bass drum". Both hands play directly on the Ogido drum.[162]

Traditional Agogo metal gongs

Today, the word Gbedu has also come to be used to describe forms of Nigerian Afrobeat and Hip Hop music. The fourth major family of Yoruba drums is the Bàtá family, which are well-decorated double-faced drums, with various tones. They were historically played in sacred rituals. They are believed to have been introduced by Shango, an Orisha, during his earthly incarnation as a warrior king.

Traditional Yoruba drummers are known as Àyán. The Yoruba believe that Àyángalú was the first drummer, one who became the patron Orisha of drumming following his demise. As a result, he is believed to be the spirit or muse that inspires contemporary drummers during renditions. This is why some Yoruba family names contain the prefix 'Ayan-' such as Ayangbade, Ayantunde, Ayanwande.[163] Ensembles using the dundun play a type of music that is also called dundun.[158] The Ashiko (Cone shaped drums), Igbin, Gudugudu (Kettledrums in the Dùndún family), Agidigbo and Bèmbé are other drums of importance. The leader of a dundun ensemble is the oniyalu meaning; ' Owner of the mother drum ', who uses the drum to "talk" by imitating the tonality of Yoruba. Much of this music is spiritual in nature, and is often devoted to the Orisas.

Within each drum family there are different sizes and roles; the lead drum in each family is called Ìyá or Ìyá Ìlù, which means "Mother drum", while the supporting drums are termed Omele. Yoruba drumming exemplifies West-African cross-rhythms and is considered to be one of the most advanced drumming traditions in the world. Generally, improvisation is restricted to master drummers. Some other instruments found in Yoruba music include, but are not limited to; The Gòjé (violin), Shèkèrè (gourd rattle), Agidigbo (thumb piano that takes the shape of a plucked Lamellophone), Saworo (metal rattles for the arm and ankles, also used on the rim of the bata drum), Fèrè (whistles), Aro (Cymbal)s, Agogô (bell), different types of flutes include the Ekutu, Okinkin and Igba.

Oriki (or praise singing), a genre of sung poetry that contains a series of proverbial phrases, praising or characterizing the respective person and which is of Egba and Ekiti origin, is often considered the oldest Yoruba musical tradition. Yoruba music is typically Polyrhythmic, which can be described as interlocking sets of rhythms that fit together somewhat like the pieces in a jigsaw puzzle. There is a basic timeline and each instrument plays a pattern in relation to that timeline. The resulting ensemble provides the typical sound of West African Yoruba drumming. Yoruba music is a component of the modern Nigerian popular music scene. Although traditional Yoruba music was not influenced by foreign music, the same cannot be said of modern-day Yoruba music, which has evolved and adapted itself through contact with foreign instruments, talent, and creativity.

Twins in Yoruba society

Main article: Ibeji

Wooden Ere Ibeji figures representing twins. Yorubas have the highest twinning rate in the world.

The Yoruba present the highest dizygotic twinning rate in the world (4.4% of all maternities).[33][164] They manifest at 45–50 twin sets (or 90–100 twins) per 1,000 live births, possibly because of high consumption of a specific type of yam containing a natural phytoestrogen that may stimulate the ovaries to release an egg from each side.

Twins are very important for the Yoruba and they usually tend to give special names to each twin.[165] The first of the twins to be born is traditionally named Taiyewo or Tayewo, which means 'the first to taste the world', or the 'slave to the second twin', this is often shortened to Taiwo, Taiye or Taye.[166] Kehinde is the name of the last born twin. Kehinde is sometimes also referred to as Kehindegbegbon, which is short for; Omo kehin de gba egbon and means, 'the child that came behind gets the rights of the elder'.[167]

Twins are perceived as having spiritual advantages or as possessing magical powers.[168] This is different from some other cultures, which interpret twins as dangerous or unwanted.[168]

Calendar

Main article: Yoruba calendar

Time is measured in "ọgán" or "ìṣẹ́jú-àáyá" (seconds), ìṣẹ́jú (minutes), wákàtí (hours), ọjọ́ (days), ọ̀sẹ̀ (weeks), oṣù (months) and ọdún (years). There are 60 (ọgọta) ìṣẹ́jú in 1 (okan) wákàtí; 24 (merinleogun) wákàtí in 1 (okan) ọjọ́; 7 (meje) ọjọ́ in 1 (okan) ọ̀sẹ̀; 4 (merin) ọ̀sẹ̀ in 1 (okan) oṣù and 52 (mejilelaadota) ọ̀sẹ̀ in 1 (okan)ọdún. There are 12 (mejila) oṣù in 1 ọdún.[169]

Approximate relation between Yoruba months and Gregorian months
Months in Yoruba calendar: Months in Gregorian calendar:[170]
Ṣẹrẹ January
Erélé February
Erénà March
Igbe April
Èbìbí May
Okúdù June
Agẹmọ July
Ògún August
Owérè (Owéwè) September
Ọwàrà (Owawa) October
Belu November
Ọ̀pẹ December

The Yoruba week consists of four days. Traditionally, the Yoruba count their week starting from the Ojó Ògún, this day is dedicated to Ògún. The second day is Ojó Jákúta, the day is dedicated to Sàngó. The third day is known as the Ojó Òsè - this day is dedicated to Òrìshà ńlá (Obàtálá), while the fourth day is the Ojó Awo, in honour of Òrúnmìlà.

Yoruba calendar traditional days
Days:
Ojó Ògún (Ògún)
Ojó Jákúta (Shàngó)
Ojó Òsè (Òrìshà ńlá / Obàtálá)
Ojó Awo (Òrúnmìlà / Ifá)

The Yoruba calendar (Kojoda) year starts from 3 to 2 June of the following year.[171] According to this calendar, the Gregorian year 2021 is the 10,063th year of Yoruba culture, which starts with the creation of Ìfẹ̀ in 8042 B.C.[172] To reconcile with the Gregorian calendar, Yoruba people also often measure time in seven days a week and four weeks a month:

Modified days in Yoruba calendar Days in Gregorian calendar
Ọjọ́-Àìkú Sunday
Ọjọ́-Ajé Monday
Ọjọ́-Ìṣẹ́gun Tuesday
Ọjọ́-'Rú Wednesday
Ọjọ́-Bọ̀ Thursday
Ọjọ́-Ẹtì Friday
Ọjọ́-Àbámẹ́ta Saturday[173]

Cuisine

Main article: Yoruba cuisine

Solid food, mostly cooked, pounded or prepared with hot water, are basic staple foods of the Yoruba. These foods are all by-products of crops like cassava, yams, cocoyam and forms a huge chunk of it all. Others like Plantain, corn, beans, meat, and fish are also chief choices.[174]

Some common Yoruba foods are iyan (pounded yam), amala, eba, semo, fufu,(Generally called."Okele"), moin moin (bean cake) and akara.[145] Soups include egusi, ewedu, Efo, okra, vegetables are also very common as part of the Yoruba diet. Items like rice and beans (locally called ewa) are also featured. Some dishes are prepared for festivities and ceremonies, such as jollof rice and fried rice. Other popular dishes are ekuru, stews, corn, cassava and flours – e.g. maize, yam, plantain and beans, eggs, chicken, beef and assorted forms of meat (ponmo is made from cow skin). Some less well known meals and many miscellaneous staples are arrowroot gruel, sweetmeats, fritters and coconut concoctions; and some breads – yeast bread, rock buns, and palm wine bread to name a few.[174]

Dress

Further information: Yoruba women's clothing

The Yoruba take immense pride in their attire, for which they are well known.[citation needed] Clothing materials traditionally come from processed cotton by traditional weavers.[183] They also believe that the type of clothes worn by a man depicts his personality and social status, and that different occasions require different clothing outfits.

An older traditional Agbada clothing historically worn by Yoruba men.[184][185] This exhibit was obtained in the town of Òkukù.


An Àkẹtè, outdoor cap that tapers off at angles.

Typically, the Yoruba have a very wide range of materials used to make clothing,[186][187] the most basic being the Aṣo-Oke, which is a hand loomed cloth of different patterns and colors sewn into various styles.[188] This comes in very many different colors and patterns. Aso Oke comes in three major styles based on pattern and coloration;

Yoruba metal bracelets and jewellery of old. Collection of The Afro-Brazilian museum of Salvador, Bahia

Other clothing materials include but are not limited to:

Clothing in Yoruba culture is gender sensitive, despite a tradition of non-gender conforming families. For menswear, they have Bùbá, Esiki and Sapara, which are regarded as Èwù Àwòtélè or underwear, while they also have Dandogo, Agbádá, Gbariye, Sulia and Oyala, which are also known as Èwù Àwòlékè / Àwòsókè or overwear. Some fashionable men may add an accessory to the Agbádá outfit in the form of a wraparound (Ìbora).[189][190]

They also have various types of Sòkòtò or native trousers that are sewn alongside the above-mentioned dresses. Some of these are Kèmbè (Three-Quarter baggy pants), Gbáanu, Sóóró (Long slim / streamlined pants), Káamu and Sòkòtò Elemu. A man's dressing is considered incomplete without a cap (Fìlà). Some of these caps include, but are not limited to, Gobi (Cylindrical, which when worn may be compressed and shaped forward, sideways, or backward), Tinko, Abetí-ajá (Crest-like shape that derives its name from its hanging flaps that resembles a dog's hanging ears. The flaps can be lowered to cover the ears in cold weather, otherwise, they are upwardly turned in normal weather), Alagbaa, Oribi, Bentigoo, Onide, and Labankada (a bigger version of the Abetí-ajá, and is worn in such a way as to reveal the contrasting color of the cloth used as underlay for the flaps).

Yoruba drummers, wearing very basic traditional clothing[191]

Women also have different types of dresses. The most commonly worn are Ìró (wrapper) and Bùbá (blouse-like loose top). Women also have matching Gèlè (headgear) that must be put on whenever the Ìró and Bùbá is on. Just as the cap (Fìlà) is important to men, women's dressing is considered incomplete without Gèlè. It may be of plain cloth or costly as the women can afford. Apart from this, they also have ìborùn (Shawl) and Ìpèlé (which are long pieces of fabric that usually hang on the left shoulder and stretch from the hind of the body to the fore). At times, it is tied round their waists over the original one piece wrapper. Unlike men, women have two types of underwear (Èwù Àwòtélè), called; Tòbi and Sinmí. Tòbi is like the modern day apron with strings and spaces in which women can keep their valuables. They tie the tòbi around the waists before putting on the Ìró (wrapper). Sinmí is like a sleeveless T-shirt that is worn under before wearing any other dress on the upper body.

Finished Adire clothing material

There are many types of beads (Ìlèkè), hand laces, necklaces (Egba orùn), anklets (Egba esè) and bangles (Egba owó) that are used in Yorubaland. These are used by both males and females, and are put on for bodily adornment. Chiefs, priests, kings or people of royal descent, especially use some of these beads as a signifier of rank. Some of these beads include Iyun, Lagidigba, Àkún etc. An accessory especially popular among royalty and titled Babalawos / Babalorishas is the Ìrùkèrè, which is an artistically processed animal tail, a type of Fly-whisk. The horsetail whiskers are symbols of authority and stateliness. It can be used in a shrine for decoration but most often is used by chief priests and priestesses as a symbol of their authority or Ashe.[192] As most men go about with their hair lowly cut or neatly shaven, the reverse is the case for women. Hair is considered the ' Glory of the woman '. They usually take care of their hair in two major ways; They plait and they weave. There are many types of plaiting styles, and women readily pick any type they want. Some of these include kòlésè, Ìpàkó-elédè, Sùkú, Kojúsóko, Alágogo, Konkoso, Etc. Traditionally, The Yoruba consider tribal marks ways of adding beauty to the face of individuals. This is apart from the fact that they show clearly from which part of Yorubaland an individual comes from, since different areas are associated with different marks. Different types of tribal marks are made with local blades or knives on the cheeks. These are usually done at infancy, when children are not pain conscious. [193][194] Some of these tribal marks include Pélé, Abàjà-Ègbá, Abàjà-Òwu, Abàjà-mérin, Kéké, Gòmbò, Ture, Pélé Ifè, Kéké Òwu, Pélé Ìjèbú etc. Not everyone back in the past had tribal marks and sometimes it was given to first borns of an household or for some reason or the other. So, many did not have one. This practice is near extinct today.[195]

The Yoruba believe that development of a nation is akin to the development of a man or woman. Therefore, the personality of an individual has to be developed in order to fulfil his or her responsibilities. Clothing among the Yoruba people is a crucial factor upon which the personality of an individual is anchored. This belief is anchored in Yoruba proverbs. Different occasions also require different outfits among the Yoruba.

Demographics

Benin

Estimates of the Yoruba in Benin vary from around 1.1 to 1.5 million people. The Yoruba are the main group in the Benin department of Ouémé, all Subprefectures including Porto Novo (Ajasè), Adjara; Collines Province, all subprefectures including Savè, Dassa-Zoume, Bante, Tchetti, Gouka; Plateau Province, all Subprefectures including Kétou, Sakété, Pobè; Borgou Province, Tchaourou Subprefecture including Tchaourou; Donga Province, Bassila Subprefecture.[196]

Places

The chief Yoruba cities or towns in Benin are: Porto-Novo (Ajase), Ouèssè (Wese), Ketu, Savé (Tchabe), Tchaourou (Shaworo), Bantè-Akpassi, Bassila, Adjarra, Adja-Ouèrè (Aja Were), Sakété (Itchakete), Ifangni (Ifonyi), Pobè, Dassa (Idatcha), Glazoue (Gbomina), Ipinle, Aledjo-Koura, Aworo etc.[197]

Ghana

There exists an old and thriving Yoruba community in Ghana tracing back to more than three centuries of establishment.[198] The presence of Yoruba people in Ghana traces back to before the concept of the modern Ghanaian nation and are therefore Ghanaian citizens by law. The Yoruba communities became established through various waves and layers for centuries before the colonial era. The earliest wave were long distance merchants, artisans, labourers and explorers who settled in both southern and northern Ghanaian locales such as Salaga, Sekondi-Takoradi, Kumasi, Accra (Jamestown, Ngleshie Alata, Tudu), Yendi, Tamale, Kintampo, Nandom. In Ngleshie Alata (A corruption of English ' Alata ', the Fante and Ga word for Yoruba people based on the region where the majority came from) and the area around the James Fort, the Yoruba presence dates back to 1673 when they were employed to build the fort and settled in large numbers on the eastern coastal region. It is on record that the first 'Alata Akutso Mantse ' or Alata division head, a Yoruba speaker named Ojo employed by the Royal African Company ascended an Accra royal stool becoming head of the Alata quarter of James Town in 1748.[199] - A position his descendants continue to hold to this very day.

In the popular 18th century Gonja Salaga Slave Market, the Yoruba residents of the town would not allow their fellow countrymen captured and brought to the markets to be sold to the Ashantis who would march them to the coast. Rather, they would barter for the release of the Yoruba captives who would in turn work for their benefactors as tradesmen until they earned their release.[200] This earliest wave was followed by an intermediate wave of slave returnees who were predominantly of Yoruba descent like the Taboms/Agudas who settled along the Ghanaian coast.[201][202] Then came the third wave who came during the Gold Coast colonial period. By this period, they had firmly entrenched themselves in the country's commerce and distribution systems and constituted a substantial percentage of merchants and traders in the country's large markets as proprietors of wholesale enterprises. They were the largest group of immigrants established in the pre-independence Gold Coast. In 1950 they constituted 15% of traders in Accra, 23% in Kumasi, and over a third in Tamale.[203] They were usually referred to in southern Ghana as; Yoruba, Lagosian, Alata, or Anago.[204] It was the early stream of this wave in the 1830s that established places like Accra New Town which was previously known as Lagos town and before then as Araromi.

There is no codification for the Yoruba ethnicity in the most recent Ghanaian censuses but in previous ones, they were considered an indigenous Ghanaian group with origins outside modern Ghana. In the 1960 Ghanaian population census, there were 109,090 Yorubas. Of this figure; 100,560 were Yoruba 'proper ' while 8,530 were Atakpame (Ana).[205] This represented 1.6% of the Ghanaian population.

Nigeria

The Yorubas are the main ethnic groups in the Nigerian states of Ekiti, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Kwara  · Oyo, Lagos, and the Western Third of Kogi State, and can be found as a minority population to varying proportions in; Delta State,[206][207][208][209][210][211] and Edo.[212][213][214][215]

Places

The chief Yoruba cities or towns in Nigeria are: Abẹokuta, Abigi, Ado-Awaye, Ado-Ekiti, Ado-Odo, Agbaja, Ago iwoye, Ajase ipo, Akungba-akoko, Akurẹ, Atan-otta, Aawe, Oyo, Ayetoro Yewa, Ayetoro gbede, Ayete, Badagry, Ede, Efon-alaaye, Egbe, Ejigbo, Emure-ekiti, Epe, Erin-ile, Eruwa, Esa-oke, Esie, Fiditi, Igbaja, Gbongan, Ibadan, Ibokun, Idanre, Idere, Idi-iroko, Ido-ani, Ido-ekiti, Ifetedo, Ifo, Ifon (Ondo), Ifon Osun, Igangan, Iganna, Igbeti, Igboho, Igbo-ora, Igbara-Oke, Ijare, Ijẹbu-igbo, Ijebu-Ijesha, Ijebu Ode, Ijede, Ijero-ekiti, Ijoko, Ikare-akoko, Ikenne, Ikere-ekiti, Ikire, Ikirun, Ikole-ekiti, Ikorodu, Ila-orangun, Ilaje, Ilaro, Ilawe-ekiti, Ilé-Ifẹ, Ile-oluji, Ilesa, Illah Bunu, Ilishan, Ilobu, Ilọrin, Imeko, Imesi-ile, Imota, Inisa, Iperu, Ipetu-Ijesha, Ipetumodu, Iragbiji, Iree, Isharun, Isanlu, Ise-ekiti, Iseyin, Itaogbolu, Iwo, Iyara, Jebba, Kabba, Kishi, Lagos (Eko), Lalupon, Lanlate, Lokoja, Modakeke, Mopa, Obajana, Obokun, Ode-Irele, Ode-omu, Ore, Odogbolu, Offa, Ogbomoso, Ogere-remo, Ogidi-ijumu, Ojo, Oka-akoko, Okeho, Oke-Igbo, Okemesi, Okitipupa, Okuku, Omu Aran, Omuo, Ondo City (Ode Ondo), Osogbo, Osu, Otan Ayegbaju, Ota, Otun-ekiti, Owo, Owode, Oyan, Ọyọ, Shagamu, Shaki, Share, Tede, Upele, Usi-ekiti.

Togo

Estimates of the Yoruba in Togo vary from around 500,000 to 600,000 people. There are both immigrant Yoruba communities from Nigeria, and indigenous ancestral Yoruba communities living in Togo. Footballer Emmanuel Adebayor is an example of a Togolese from an immigrant Yoruba background. Indigenous Yoruba communities in Togo, however can be found in the Togolese departments of Plateaux Region, Anie, Ogou and Est-Mono prefectures; Centrale Region (Tchamba Prefecture). The chief Yoruba cities or towns in Togo are: Atakpame, Anié, Morita (Moretan), Ofe, Elavagnon, Goubi, Kambole, Akpare, Kamina.

West Africa (other)

The Yoruba in Burkina Faso are numbered around 77,000 people, and around 80,000 in Niger. In the Ivory Coast, they are concentrated in the cities of Abidjan (Treichville, Adjamé), Bouake, Korhogo, Grand Bassam and Gagnoa where they are mostly employed in retail at major markets.[216][217] Otherwise known as "Anago traders", they dominate certain sectors of the retail economy and number at least 135,000 people.[218]

The Yoruba diaspora

See also: Yoruba American, Nigerian American, Nigerian diaspora, British Nigerian, Nigerians in Ireland, and Nigerian Australian

African Languages Spoken in American Households (2019)[6]

Yoruba people or descendants can be found all over the world especially in the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, Brazil, Latin America, and the Caribbean (especially in Cuba).[219][220][221][222] Significant Yoruba communities can be found in South America and Australia.

Commemoration of Black consciousness, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

In the United States, similar to its status on the African continent, the Yoruba language is the most spoken African Niger-Congo language by native speakers. It is the most spoken African language in; Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Texas and West Virginia. It constitutes the second largest African linguistic community in; Georgia, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Mississippi, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island and Washington, D.C. with over 207,000 speakers in 2022.[6]

The migration of Yoruba people all over the world has led to a spread of the Yoruba culture across the globe. Yoruba people have historically been spread around the globe by the combined forces of the Atlantic slave trade[223][224][225][226] and voluntary self migration.[227] Their exact population outside Africa is unknown. Yorubas are overrepresented in the genetic studies of African Americans and are not the largest contributors of African American DNA by any means.[228] In their Atlantic world domains, the Yorubas were known by the designations: "Nagos/Anago", "Terranova", "Lucumi" and "Aku", or by the names of their various clans.

The Yoruba left an important presence in Cuba and Brazil,[229] particularly in Havana and Bahia.[230] According to a 19th-century report, "the Yoruba are, still today, the most numerous and influential in this state of Bahia.[231][232][233][234] The most numerous are those from Oyo, capital of the Yoruba kingdom".[235][236] Others included Ijexa (Ijesha), Lucumi, Ota (Aworis), Ketus, Ekitis, Jebus (Ijebu), Egba, Lucumi Ecumacho (Ogbomosho), and Anagos. In the documents dating from 1816 to 1850, Yorubas constituted 69.1% of all slaves whose ethnic origins were known, constituting 82.3% of all slaves from the Bight of Benin. The proportion of slaves from West-Central Africa (Angola – Congo) dropped drastically to just 14.7%.[237]

Between 1831 and 1852, the African-born slave and free population of Salvador, Bahia surpassed that of free Brazil born Creoles. Meanwhile, between 1808 and 1842 an average of 31.3% of African-born freed persons had been Nagos (Yoruba). Between 1851 and 1884, the number had risen to a dramatic 73.9%.

Other areas that received a significant number of Yoruba people and are sites of Yoruba influence are: The Bahamas, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Saint Lucia, Grenada, Santa Margarita, Trinidad and Tobago, Belize, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica[238] (where they settled and established such places as Abeokuta, Naggo head in Portmore, and by their hundreds in other parishes like Hanover and Westmoreland, both in western Jamaica- leaving behind practices such as Ettu from Etutu, the Yoruba ceremony of atonement among other customs of people bearing the same name, and certain aspects of Kumina such as Sango veneration),[239][240][241][242][243][244][245] Barbados, Montserrat, etc.

On 31 July 2020, the Yoruba World Congress joined the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO).[246][247]

Genetics

Genetic studies have shown the Yoruba to cluster most closely with West African peoples, followed by Central and Eastern African groups speaking Niger-Congo languages.[248]

Map showing the average distribution and concentration of the haplogroup E1b1a (E-M2), the most common Sub-Saharan African-associated clade.

Yoruba people belong largely to the E1b1a1 subclade of the E-M2 haplogroup along with the Ewe, Ga, and Bamileke peoples of West Africa and Cameroon. Genetic studies have also found evidence of West-Eurasian admixture in Yoruba populations, with up to 8.6% West-Eurasian ancestry being found among modern Yoruba samples.[249] This admixture may have been introduced 7,500–10,500 years ago from North Africa during the Green Saharan period.[250] Another full genome study on African populations found that the Yoruba (Yoruba/Esen cluster of West Africa) received varying degrees of West-Eurasian admixture, although generally at low frequency, indirectly through contact with Northern African pastoralists.[251]

Foreign representation

The Yoruba people have participated in more recent cultural exchange programs with members of the African diaspora in order to preserve shared cultural and identity relationships between the two parties. One of these programs is a cultural site, the Oyotunji African Village in Sheldon County, South Carolina, founded by Oba Efuntola Oseijeman Adelabu and established in 1970.[252][253]

More recent diplomatic efforts centered around Yoruba cross-cultural celebration include the voyage of the Ooni (King) of Ife to the city of Bahia in Salvador, Brazil, home of a large number of Yoruba descendants, to celebrate the city as the cultural capital of the Yoruba people in the Western Hemisphere.[254][255]

Notable people of Yoruba origin

Main article: List of Yoruba people

Yoruba organizations

Issues

Along with people of other regions that are largely representative of ethnic enclaves within the country, Yorubas have faced growing concerns over increased insecurity and instability within the country. On 9 January 2020, the governors of 6 of the country's western states became associated with the formation of state security networks which would operate in each state. This security network is called Amotekun and is managed by the office of each state governor with full co-operation of the legal protocols of Nigeria.[258][259]

Prominent chiefs

See also: Royal titles of Yoruba monarchs

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Population figures not inclusive of pre-20th century diasporic communities who trace full or partial Yoruba heritage
  2. ^ This figure only accounts for people who indicate speaking Yoruba as the primary language of the home and not the total number of people with Yoruba ancestry.
  3. ^ Population figures only based on those who indicate Yoruba as their primary language. It is not a figure for the entire Yoruba population in Canada.

References

  1. ^ Sare, Watimagbo (2023). "Total population of the Yoruba people". Joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 18 December 2023.
  2. ^ "Yoruba, a language of Nigeria". Ethnologue, languages of the World. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 25th edition; Simons, Gary F. and Charles D. Fennig. 2022. Archived from the original on 7 December 2023. Retrieved 12 December 2023.
  3. ^ "Beninese Culture - Yoruba 12.3%". Beninembassy.us. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  4. ^ "Middlesex University Research Repository, Introduction to the Ethno-Geographic origins of modern Ghana (The Yoruba 1.3%)" (PDF). Amoah, Michael (2001) Ethnonationalism versus political nationalism in Ghanaian electoral politics 1996-2000. PhD thesis, Middlesex University. 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2023. Retrieved 13 December 2022.
  5. ^ "République Togolaise (ifè:1.8 %, Yorouba: 1,4 %, Kambole/Nago: 0.7%. Total Yoruba; 3.9%)". Université Laval. 2014. Retrieved 13 December 2022.
  6. ^ a b c "African languages spoken in American Households, 2020". United States Census Bureau.
  7. ^ "Yoruba, a language of Cote D'Ivoire (Leclerc 2017c)". Ethnologue, languages of the World. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 21st edition; Simons, Gary F. and Charles D. Fennig. 2017. Archived from the original on 26 May 2019. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  8. ^ "Yoruba". Ethnologue. Retrieved 13 December 2023.
  9. ^ "2021 Canadian Population census, Language spoken at home". 11 May 2021. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  10. ^ "Country profile: FGM in Sierra Leone, June 2014. The Krio are estimated to make up 2% of the Sierra Leonian population. Among the Krio, the overwhelmingly muslim Oku/Aku make up 15% and are almost exclusively of Yoruba descent" (PDF). 28toomany.org.
  11. ^ "Profile 6 - Migration and Diversity" (PDF). Central Statistics Office. October 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  12. ^ "Distribution of the Gambian population by ethnicity 1973,1983,1993,2003 and 2013 Censuses – GBoS - Yoruba as 'Aku Marabout', who are basically Yoruba Muslims". www.gbosdata.org. Archived from the original on 19 November 2021. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  13. ^ "SBS Australian Census Explorer: 4,020 Yoruba language speakers". sbs.com.au.
  14. ^ "11rl -- Language according to age and sex by region, 1990-2020. Yoruba; 1,273 speakers". Statistics Finland. Retrieved 17 December 2022.
  15. ^ "Research note: Exploring survey data for historical and anthropological research: Muslim–Christian relations in south-west Nigeria | Oxford Academic". Academic.oup.com. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
  16. ^ a b Nolte, Insa; Jones, Rebecca; Taiyari, Khadijeh; Occhiali, Giovanni (July 2016). "Research note: Exploring survey data for historical and anthropological research: Muslim–Christian relations in south-west Nigeria". African Affairs. 115 (460): 541–561. doi:10.1093/afraf/adw035.
  17. ^ Moshood, Busari (20 February 2017). GRIN - Identity conflicts among Yoruba Muslim groups in selected states of Nigeria. GRIN Verlag. ISBN 978-3-668-39964-8. ((cite book)): |website= ignored (help)
  18. ^ "Raceandhistory.com - Nigeria: The Edo of Benin". raceandhistory.com.
  19. ^ Lloyd, P. C. (1963). "The Itsekiri in the Nineteenth Century; an Outline Social History". The Journal of African History. 4 (2): 207–231. doi:10.1017/S0021853700004035. JSTOR 179535. S2CID 162964674.
  20. ^ Oyèláràn, Ọlásopé O. (May 2018). "Oríta Borgu: the Yorùbá and the Bààtonu down the ages". Africa. 88 (2): 238–266. doi:10.1017/S0001972017000900. ISSN 0001-9720. S2CID 150028429.
  21. ^ Francesco Montinaro; George B.J. Busby; Vincenzo L. Pascali; Simon Myers; Garrett Hellenthal; Cristian Capelli (24 March 2015). "Unravelling the hidden ancestry of American admixed populations". Nature Communications. 6: 6596. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6.6596M. doi:10.1038/ncomms7596. PMC 4374169. PMID 25803618.
  22. ^ Falola, Toyin (2016). Encyclopedia of the Yoruba. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 95–96. ISBN 978-0-253-02144-1.
  23. ^ "The Vitality of Yoruba Culture in the Americas" (PDF). 2020.
  24. ^ "Yoruba". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 8 December 2022.
  25. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
  26. ^ "The formation of Yoruba Nation and the challenge of leadership since Pre-Colonial Era, Pg 8". research gate.net. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  27. ^ Sare, Watimagbo (2023). "Total population of the Yoruba people". Joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 18 December 2023.
  28. ^ "Yoruba, a language of Nigeria". Ethnologue, languages of the World. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 25th edition; Simons, Gary F. and Charles D. Fennig. 2022. Archived from the original on 7 December 2023. Retrieved 23 December 2023.
  29. ^ Sare, Watimagbo (2020). "Population, total - Nigeria (2020)". world bank.org. Retrieved 23 December 2023.
  30. ^ Bendor-Samuel, John T. "Benue-Congo languages". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  31. ^ "Ethno-linguistic map of Togo. The Ana (Ife) Yoruba group occupy the central-east portions of the country".
  32. ^ a b Jacob Oluwatayo Adeuyan (12 October 2011). Contributions of Yoruba people in the Economic & Political Developments of Nigeria. Authorhouse. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-4670-2480-8.
  33. ^ a b Leroy Fernand; Olaleye-Oruene Taiwo; Koeppen-Schomerus Gesina; Bryan Elizabeth (2002). "Yoruba Customs and Beliefs Pertaining to Twins". Twin Research. 5 (2): 132–136. doi:10.1375/1369052023009. PMID 11931691.
  34. ^ Jeremy Seymour Eades (1994). Strangers and Traders: Yoruba Migrants, Markets, and the State in Northern Ghana Volume 11 of International African library. Africa World Press. ISBN 978-0-86543-419-6. ISSN 0951-1377 – via International African Library.
  35. ^ "Ivory Coast country profile". BBC News. 15 January 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  36. ^ National African Language Resource Center. "Yoruba" (PDF). Indiana University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  37. ^ Akinrinade and Ogen, Sola and Olukoya (2011). "Historicising the Nigerian Diaspora: Nigerian Migrants and Homeland Relations" (PDF). Turkish Journal of Politics. 2 (2): 15.
  38. ^ Lorcin, Patricia (2 October 2017). The Southern Shores of the Mediterranean and its Networks: Knowledge, Trade, Culture and People. Routledge. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-317-39426-6.
  39. ^ John O. Hunwick (14 October 2021). "Ahmad Bābā on slavery". Sudanic Africa. 11: 131–139. JSTOR 25653344.
  40. ^ "The Ladder of Ascent in Obtaining the Procurements of the Sudan: Ahmad Baba Answers a Moroccan's Questions about Slavery". 14 October 2021.
  41. ^ "Mi'rāj Al-Ṣu'ūd" (PDF). 14 October 2021. p. 39.
  42. ^ Jeffreys, M. D. W. (14 October 2021). "Braima Alias Abraham a Study in Diffusion". Folklore. 70 (1): 323–333. doi:10.1080/0015587X.1959.9717164. JSTOR 1258069.
  43. ^ Bowen, T.J. (1857). Central Africa: Adventures and Missionary Labors..., Pg. 264. Sheldon, Blakeman. ISBN 978-0-598-72128-0.
  44. ^ E.G. Parrinder; M. Wight; John O'Leary; C. M. Botley (June 1959). "Letters to the Editor". Folklore. 70 (2): 423–425. doi:10.1080/0015587X.1959.9717182. JSTOR 1259324.
  45. ^ Burton, Sir Richard Francis (14 October 2021). "Abeokuta and the Camaroons Mountains, Pg. 229".
  46. ^ Maureen Warner-Lewis (1997). Trinidad Yoruba: From Mother Tongue to Memory. University of the West Indies. p. 19. ISBN 978-976-640-054-5.
  47. ^ Law, Robin, Professor of African History (1977). The Oyo Empire, C.1600-c.1836: A West African Imperialism in the Era of the Atlantic Slave Trade. Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-822709-0.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  48. ^ Hugh Clapperton (1829). Journal of a Second Expedition Into the Interior of Africa; to which is Added the Journal of Richard Lander from Kano to the Sea-Coast. John Murray. p. 41.
  49. ^ Maureen Warner-Lewis (1997). Trinidad Yoruba: From Mother Tongue to Memory. University of the West Indies. p. 19. ISBN 978-976-640-054-5.
  50. ^ Encyclopedia of the Yoruba 2016. Indiana University Press. 20 June 2016. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-0-253-02156-4.
  51. ^ Boscolo, Cristina (2009). Odún: Discourses, Strategies, and Power in the Yorùbá Play of Transformation. Brill. p. 96. ISBN 978-90-420-2681-0.
  52. ^ Maureen Warner-Lewis (1997). Trinidad Yoruba: From Mother Tongue to Memory. University of the West Indies. p. 20. ISBN 978-976-640-054-5.
  53. ^ Encyclopedia of the Yoruba. Indiana University Press. 20 June 2016. pp. 144–145. ISBN 978-0-253-02156-4.
  54. ^ Encyclopedia of African History 3-Volume Set. Taylor & Francis. 4 July 2013. ISBN 978-1-135-45670-2.
  55. ^ "Ile-Ife | Nigeria". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  56. ^ Ojuade, J. 'Sina (1992). "The Issue of "Oduduwa" in Yoruba Genesis: The Myths and Realities". Transafrican Journal of History. 21: 139–158. JSTOR 24520425.
  57. ^ a b Adeyemi, A. (18 April 2016). "Migration and the Yorùbá Myth of Origin". European Journal of Arts: 36–45. doi:10.20534/eja-16-1-36-45. ISSN 2310-5666.
  58. ^ Robin Walker (2006). When We Ruled: The Ancient and Mediœval History of Black Civilisations. Every Generation Media (Indiana University). p. 323. ISBN 978-0-9551068-0-4.
  59. ^ a b Alice Bellagamba; Sandra E. Greene; Martin A. Klein (2013). African Voices on Slavery and the Slave Trade: Volume 1, The Sources. Cambridge University Press. pp. 150, 151. ISBN 978-0-521-19470-9.
  60. ^ a b Falola, Toyin (2012), Genova, Ann; Falola, Toyin (eds.), "The Yorùbá Nation", Yorùbá Identity and Power Politics, Boydell and Brewer Limited, pp. 29–48, ISBN 978-1-58046-662-2
  61. ^ Ajayi, Timothy Temilola (2001). Aspect in Yoruba and Nigerian English. Internet Archive (PH.D thesis). University of Florida. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  62. ^ Blier, Suzanne Preston (2015). Art and Risk in Ancient Yoruba: Ife History, Politics, and Identity c. 1300. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-02166-2.
  63. ^ Kevin Shillington (22 November 2004). "Ife, Oyo, Yoruba, Ancient:Kingdom and Art". Encyclopedia of African History. Routledge. p. 672. ISBN 978-1-57958-245-6. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
  64. ^ Laitin, David D. (1986). Hegemony and culture: politics and religious change among the Yoruba. University of Chicago Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-226-46790-0.
  65. ^ "Encarta.msn.com". Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
  66. ^ a b L. J. Munoz (2003). A Living Tradition: Studies on Yoruba Civilisation. Bookcraft (the University of Michigan). ISBN 978-978-2030-71-9.
  67. ^ MacDonald, Fiona; Paren, Elizabeth; Shillington, Kevin; Stacey, Gillian; Steele, Philip (2000). Peoples of Africa, Volume 1. Marshall Cavendish. p. 385. ISBN 978-0-7614-7158-5.
  68. ^ Oyo Empire at Britannica.com
  69. ^ "Aare Crown Sculpture - Elevating the Office for a Time". Bright Continent.
  70. ^ Domingues da Silva, Daniel B.; Misevich, Philip (20 November 2018), "Atlantic Slavery and the Slave Trade: History and Historiography", Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190277734.013.371, ISBN 978-0-19-027773-4
  71. ^ Thornton, John (1998). Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400–1800 (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 122, 304–311.
  72. ^ Alpern, Stanley B. (1998). Amazons of Black Sparta: The Women Warriors of Dahomey. New York University Press. p. 34.
  73. ^ a b c d "The Dispersal of the Yoruba People", The Development of Yoruba Candomble Communities in Salvador, Bahia, 1835-1986, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, doi:10.1057/9781137486431.0006 (inactive 30 January 2024), ISBN 978-1-137-48643-1((citation)): CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2024 (link)
  74. ^ Alonge, Marjorie Moji Dolapo (1994). Afro-Brazilian architecture in Lagos State: a case for conservation (Thesis). Newcastle University.
  75. ^ Historical Society of Nigeria (1978). Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria (Volume 9, Issues 2–4). The Society (Indiana University).
  76. ^ Kluge, Angela (April 2008). "A synchronic lexical study of the Ede language continuum of West Africa". Afrikanistik Online. 2007 (4).
  77. ^ "Ethnicity clusters of Benin data set, Yoruba group - IPUMS Census Data".
  78. ^ "Ethnocultural study of agriculture in Northern Benin, Alibori department 12% Mokole Yoruba, INSAE 2013". 28 September 2021.
  79. ^ "People groups: Yoruba language cluster". 1 September 2021.
  80. ^ The number of speakers of Yoruba was estimated at 20 million people in the 1990s. No reliable estimate of more recent date is known. Metzler Lexikon Sprache (4th ed. 2010) estimates 30 million based on population growth figures during the 1990s and 2000s. The population of Nigeria (where the majority of Yoruba live) has grown by 44% between 1995 and 2010, so that the Metzler estimate for 2010 appears plausible.
  81. ^ This widely followed classification is based on Adetugbọ's (1982) dialectological study – the classification originated in his 1967 PhD thesis The Yoruba Language in Western Nigeria: Its Major Dialect Areas, ProQuest 288034744. See also Adetugbọ (1973). "The Yoruba Language in Yoruba History". In Biobaku, Saburi O. (ed.). Sources of Yoruba History. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 183–193. ISBN 0-19-821669-6.
  82. ^ Adetugbọ 1973, pp. 192–3. (See also the section Dialects.)
  83. ^ Adetugbọ 1973, p. 185
  84. ^ Obayemi, Ade (1979). "Ancient Ile-Ife: Another Cultural Historical Reinterpretation Pg.167". Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria: 151–185. JSTOR 41857206. Retrieved 30 July 2023.
  85. ^ Adebayo, Akanmu (6 February 2018). Culture, Politics, and Money Among the Yoruba. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-52419-3. Retrieved 30 July 2023.
  86. ^ Ogunremi, Deji; Adediran, Biodun (1998). Culture and Society in Yorubaland. Rex Charles Publication. ISBN 978-978-2137-73-9. Retrieved 30 July 2023.
  87. ^ Ellis, Alfred Burdon (1894). "In+the+days+of+Ajagbo"&pg=PT12 Yoruba-Speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast of West Africa: Their Religion, Manners, Customs, Laws, Language, etc. Chapman and Hall. ISBN 978-1-4655-1661-9.
  88. ^ Ellis, Alfred Burdon (1894). "Their+inhabitants+are+Egbados,+or+Southern+Egbas+(Egba-odo"&pg=PT5 Yoruba-Speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast of West Africa: Their Religion, Manners, Customs, Laws, Language, etc. Chapman and Hall. ISBN 978-1-4655-1661-9.
  89. ^ Falola, Toyin; Akinyemi, Akintunde (20 June 2016). Encyclopedia of the Yoruba. Indiana University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-253-02156-4.
  90. ^ Earl Phillips (1969). "The Egba at Abeokuta: Acculturation and Political change, 1830–1870". Journal of African History. 10 (1): 117–131. doi:10.1017/s0021853700009312. JSTOR 180299. S2CID 154430100.
  91. ^ a b Jacob Oluwatayo Adeuyan (12 October 2011). Contributions of Yoruba People in the Economic & Political Developments of Nigeria. AuthorHouse, 2011. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-4670-2480-8.
  92. ^ "Selecting a new Alaafin: Oyo Mesi and the burden of tradition and truth". www.premiumtimesng.com. Retrieved 18 September 2023.
  93. ^ Ellis, Alfred Burdon (1894). The Yoruba-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast of West Africa: Their Religion, Manners, Customs, Laws, Language, Etc. With an Appendix Containing a Comparison of the Tshi, Gã, Ew̜e, and Yoruba Languages. Chapman and Hall.
  94. ^ ABC-Clio Information Services (1985). Africa since 1914: a historical bibliography. Vol. 17. ABC-Clio Information Services. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-87436-395-1.
  95. ^ Niara Sudarkasa (1973). Where Women Work: A Study of Yoruba Women in the Marketplace and in the Home, Issues 53-56 of Anthropological papers. University of Michigan. pp. 59–63.
  96. ^ A. Adelusi-Adeluyi and L. Bigon (2014) "City Planning: Yoruba City Planning" in Springer's Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures (third edition), ed. by Helaine Selin.
  97. ^ Salawu, Abiodun (2004). "The Yoruba and Their Language Newspapers: Origin, Nature, Problems and Prospects". Studies of Tribes and Tribals. 2 (2): 97–104. doi:10.1080/0972639X.2004.11886508. S2CID 194810838.
  98. ^ Sowunmi, M. A. (1985). "The Beginnings of Agriculture in West Africa: Botanical Evidence". Current Anthropology. 26: 127–129. doi:10.1086/203234. S2CID 145073849.
  99. ^ Bolaji Campbell; R. I. Ibigbami (1993). Diversity of Creativity in Nigeria: A Critical Selection from the Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on the Diversity of Creativity in Nigeria. Department of Fine Arts, Obafemi Awolowo University. p. 309. ISBN 978-978-32078-0-6.
  100. ^ Peter Blunt; Dennis M. Warren; Norman Thomas Uphoff (1996). Indigenous Organizations and Development Higher Education Policy Series (IT studies in indigenous knowledge and development). Intermediate Technology Publications. ISBN 978-1-85339-321-1.
  101. ^ Diedrich Westermann; Edwin William Smith; Cyril Daryll Forde (1998). "Africa, Volume 68, Issues 3-4". International African Institute, International Institut. p. 364.
  102. ^ American Anthropological Association (1944). Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, Issues 63–68.
  103. ^ a b Aderibigbe, Gbola; Medine, Carolyn M. Jones, eds. (12 October 2015). Contemporary perspectives on religions in Africa and the African diaspora. Palgrave Macmillan US. ISBN 978-1-137-50051-9. OCLC 1034928481.
  104. ^ Lillian Trager (January 2001). Yoruba Hometowns: Community, Identity, and Development in Nigeria. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-55587-981-5. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  105. ^ a b Abimbola, Kola (2005). Yoruba Culture: A Philosophical Account (Paperback ed.). Iroko Academics Publishers. ISBN 978-1-905388-00-4.
  106. ^ Abimbola, Kola (2006). Yoruba Culture: A Philosophical Account. Iroko Academic Publishers. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-905388-00-4. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  107. ^ Bascom, William Russell (1969). Ifa Divination: Communication Between Gods and Men in West Africa. Indiana University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-253-20638-1. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  108. ^ Kevin Baxter (on De La Torre), "Ozzie Guillen secure in his faith", Los Angeles Times, 2007
  109. ^ Imo, Dara (7 March 2015). Connecting African art collectors with dealers, based on a foundation of knowledge about the origin, use & distinguishing features of listed pieces./
  110. ^ "Who are the Yoruba!". Archived from the original on 2 July 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  111. ^ a b John O. Hunwick (1992). Religion and National Integration in Africa: Islam, Christianity, and Politics in the Sudan and Nigeria. Islam and society in Africa. Northwestern University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-8101-1037-3.
  112. ^ Mathews, M.P. (2002). Nigeria: Current Issues and Historical Background. Nova Science Publishers. p. 136. ISBN 978-1-59033-316-7. Retrieved 5 August 2023.
  113. ^ Anna Hinderer (1872). Seventeen Years in the Yoruba Country Memorials of Anna Hinderer, Wife of the Rev. David Hinderer, C.M.S. Missionary in Western Africa. Seeley, Jackson, and Halliday.
  114. ^ Dr Donald R Wehrs (2013). Pre-Colonial Africa in Colonial African Narratives: From Ethiopia Unbound to Things Fall Apart, 1911–1958. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-4094-7495-1.
  115. ^ Ádébáyò Ádésóyè (2015). Scientific Pilgrimage: 'The Life and times of Emeritus Professor V.A Oyenuga'. D.Sc, FAS, CFR Nigeria's first Emeritus Professor and Africa's first Agriculture Professor. AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-5049-3785-6.
  116. ^ A. I. Asiwaju (1976). Western Yorubaland under European rule, 1889–1945: A Comparative Analysis of French and British Colonialism. European Philosophy and the Human Sciences. Humanities Press (Ibadan history series, the University of Michigan). ISBN 978-0-391-00605-8.
  117. ^ Frank Leslie Cross; Elizabeth A. Livingstone (2005). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press. p. 1162. ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3.
  118. ^ Adebanwi, Wale (2014), "Seizing the Heritage: Playing Proper Yorùbá in an Age of Uncertainty", Yorùbá Elites and Ethnic Politics in Nigeria, Cambridge University Press, pp. 224–243, doi:10.1017/cbo9781107286252.011, ISBN 978-1-107-28625-2
  119. ^ "Christianity and Islam Introduction". Yorupedia. Archived from the original on 21 July 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  120. ^ John O. Hunwick; Rex S. O'Fahey (1994). Arabic Literature of Africa: The writings of central Sudanic Africa. E.J. Brill. p. 440. ISBN 978-978-2347-29-9.
  121. ^ "Islamic Education in Nigeria: How It All Began". Nigerian Finder. 10 August 2019.
  122. ^ Mission Et Progrès Humain (Mission and Human Progress) Studia missionalia (in French). Gregorian Biblical BookShop. 1998. p. 168. ISBN 978-8-876-5278-76.
  123. ^ Paul E. Lovejoy; Nicholas Rogers (2012). Unfree Labour in the Development of the Atlantic World. Routledge. p. 157. ISBN 978-1-136-30059-2.
  124. ^ a b c d White, Julie (2015), "Learning in 'No Man's Land'", Interrogating Conceptions of 'Vulnerable Youth' in Theory, Policy and Practice, SensePublishers, pp. 97–110, doi:10.1007/978-94-6300-121-2_7, ISBN 978-94-6300-121-2
  125. ^ Beek, Walter E. A. van (31 December 1988), Beek, W. E. van (ed.), "Purity and statecraft: the Fulani jihad and its empire", The Quest for Purity, De Gruyter, pp. 149–182, doi:10.1515/9783110860924-008, hdl:1887/9002, ISBN 978-3-11-086092-4
  126. ^ Allen G. Noble (2007). Traditional Buildings: A Global Survey of Structural Forms and Cultural Functions Volume 11 of International Library of Human Geography. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-305-6.
  127. ^ a b Jeremy Seymour Eades (Changing cultures) (1980). The Yoruba Today). Cambridge Latin Texts (CUP Archive). ISBN 978-0-521-22656-1.
  128. ^ Asante, Molefi Kete (2014). The History of Africa: The Quest for Eternal Harmony. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-01349-3.
  129. ^ Peter G. Stone (2011). Cultural Heritage, Ethics and the Military Volume 4 of Heritage matters series. Boydell Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-1-84383-538-7. ISSN 1756-4832. ((cite book)): |journal= ignored (help)
  130. ^ Anna Hinderer; D Hone; C A Hone (27 August 2016). Seventeen Years in the Yoruba Country. Memorials of Anna Hinderer. Wentworth Press. ISBN 978-1-371-18436-0.
  131. ^ "Origins and Empire: The Benin, Owo, and Ijebu Kingdoms". The Metropolitan Museum of Art (Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History). Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  132. ^ G. J. Afolabi Ojo (1966). Yoruba palaces: a study of Afins of Yorubaland. University of Michigan.
  133. ^ N Umoru-Oke (2010). "Risawe's Palace, Ilesa Nigeria: Traditional Yoruba Architecture as Socio-Cultural and Religious Symbols". African Research Review. 4 (3). doi:10.4314/afrrev.v4i3.60187.
  134. ^ C. A. Brebbia (2011). The Sustainable World Volume 142 of WIT transactions on ecology and the environment. Wessex Institute of Technology (WIT Press). ISBN 978-1-84564-504-5. ISSN 1746-448X. ((cite book)): |journal= ignored (help)
  135. ^ Cordelia Olatokunbo Osasona (2005). Ornamentation in Yoruba folk architecture: a catalogue of architectural features, ornamental motifs and techniques. Bookbuilders Editions Africa. ISBN 978-978-8088-28-8.
  136. ^ Henry John Drewal; John Pemberton; Rowland Abiodun; Allen Wardwell (1989). Yoruba: nine centuries of African art and thought. Center for African Art in Association with H.N. Abrams. ISBN 978-0-8109-1794-1.
  137. ^ Patricia Lorraine Neely (2005). The Houses of Buxton: A Legacy of African Influences in Architecture. P Designs Publishing. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-9738754-1-6.
  138. ^ Dell Upton; John Michael Vlach (1986). Common Places: Readings in American Vernacular Architecture. University of Georgia Press, 1986. ISBN 978-0-8203-0750-3.
  139. ^ Kevin Carroll (1992). Architectures of Nigeria: Architectures of the Hausa and Yoruba Peoples and of the Many Peoples Between--tradition and Modernization. Society of African Missions. ISBN 978-0-905788-37-1.
  140. ^ Toyin Falola; Matt D. Childs (2 May 2005). The Yoruba Diaspora in the Atlantic World (Blacks in the Diaspora). Indiana University Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-253-00301-0.
  141. ^ "Shotgun Houses". National Park Service: African American Heritage & Ethnography. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  142. ^ Nnamdi Elleh (2014). Reading the Architecture of the Underprivileged Classes. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 86–88. ISBN 978-1-4094-6786-1.
  143. ^ Henry John Drewal; Margaret Thompson Drewal (1983). Gẹlẹdẹ: Art and Female Power Among the Yoruba. Indiana University Turkish Studies, Midland books (Traditional arts of Africa). Vol. 565. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-32569-3.
  144. ^ Simon Ottenberg; David Aaron Binkley. Playful Performers: African Children's Masquerades. Transaction Publishers. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-4128-3092-8.
  145. ^ a b c Nike Lawal; Matthew N. O. Sadiku; Ade Dopamu (22 July 2009). Understanding Yoruba life and culture. Africa World Press (the University of California). ISBN 978-1-59221-025-1.
  146. ^ "Yoruba Culture". Tribes. 18 September 2007. Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  147. ^ a b Kamari Maxine Clarke (12 July 2004). Mapping Yorùbá Networks: Power and Agency in the Making of Transnational Communities. Duke University Press. pp. 59, 60. ISBN 978-0-8223-3342-5.
  148. ^ Traditional Festivals, Vol. 2 [M – Z]. ABC-CLIO. 2005. p. 346. ISBN 978-1-57607-089-5.
  149. ^ "Behold, new Arugba Osun, who wants to be doctor". Newswatch Times. 31 August 2013. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  150. ^ Gregory Austin Nwakunor (22 August 2014). "Nigeria: Osun Osogbo 2014 – Arugba's Berth Tastes Green With Goldberg Touch". AllAfrica. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  151. ^ Alusine Jalloh; Toyin Falola (2008). The United States and West Africa: Interactions and Relations Volume 34 of Rochester studies in African history and the diaspora. University Rochester Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-58046-308-9. ISSN 1092-5228. ((cite book)): |journal= ignored (help)
  152. ^ Paul DiMaggio; Patricia Fernandez-Kelly; Gilberto Cârdenas; Yen Espiritu; Amaney Jamal; Sunaina Maira; Douglas Massey; Cecilia Menjivar; Clifford Murphy; Terry Rey; Susan Seifert; Alex Stepick; Mark Stern; Domenic Vitiello; Deborah Wong (13 October 2010). Art in the Lives of Immigrant Communities in the United States Rutgers Series: The Public Life of the Arts. Rutgers University Press, 2010. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-8135-5041-1.
  153. ^ "Celebrating Eyo the Modern Way". SpyGhana. 21 March 2015.
  154. ^ "Royalty in the news: Lagos agog for Eyo Festival today". Kingdoms of Nigeria. Archived from the original on 29 December 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  155. ^ "Eyo Festival". About Lagos. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  156. ^ Traditional Festivals, Vol. 2 [M – Z]. ABC-CLIO. 2005. p. 346. ISBN 978-1-57607-089-5. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  157. ^ Bode Omojola (4 December 2012). Yorùbá Music in the Twentieth Century Identity, Agency, and Performance Practice. University of Rochester Press. ISBN 978-1-58046-409-3. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  158. ^ a b Turino, pp. 181–182; Bensignor, François with Eric Audra, and Ronnie Graham, "Afro-Funksters" and "From Hausa Music to Highlife" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 432–436 and pp. 588–600; Karolyi, pg. 43
  159. ^ Tamara De Silva (2006). Symbols and Ritual: the Socio-Religious Role of the Ìgbìn Drum Family (PDF) (Master of Arts thesis). Professor Renée Ater, faculty advisor. Department of Art History and Archaeology, University of Maryland. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  160. ^ "Bata Drumming Notations Discographies Glossary (Bata Drumming & the Lucumi Santeria BembeCeremony)". Scribd Online. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  161. ^ "Yoruba Sacred Music, Old World and New by John Gray". Conunto Folkorico Nacional De Cuba Música Yoruba, Soul Force 101. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  162. ^ "Ogido". Lagbaja. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  163. ^ "Yoruba music". Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  164. ^ George Chemeche; John Pemberton; John Picton (2003). Ibeji: The Cult of Yoruba Twins Volume 2 of Hic sunt leones. 5 Continents. ISBN 978-88-7439-060-1.
  165. ^ Knox George; Morley David (December 1960). "Twinning in Yoruba Women". BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 67 (6): 981–984. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.1960.tb09255.x. PMID 13757217. S2CID 28909380. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013.
  166. ^ "The J. Richard Simon Collection of Yoruba Twin Figures - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art". africa.uima.uiowa.edu. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  167. ^ "Land of Ibeji". NOOR. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  168. ^ a b Seymour, Tom (31 January 2019). "Stephen Tayo captures the sacred kinship of Nigerian twins". CNN Style. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
  169. ^ Yorùbá Language: Research and Development Archived 7 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine, 2010 Yorùbá Calendar (Kojoda 10052)#2,3,4,5,6,7
  170. ^ "Ralaran Uléìmȯkiri Institute".
  171. ^ Yorùbá Language: Research and Development Archived 7 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine, 2010 Yorùbá Calendar (Kojoda 10052) #1
  172. ^ "Yorùbá Kalenda". Archived from the original on 7 December 2010.
  173. ^ Yourtemple.net Archived 16 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  174. ^ a b Mars, J.A.; Tooleyo, E.M. (2003). The Kudeti Book of Yoruba Cookery. CSS. ISBN 978-978-2951-93-9.
  175. ^ Owen Emeric Vidal (1852). A Vocabulary of the Yoruba Language. Seeleys. ISBN 978-1-9765-8921-8.
  176. ^ Owen Emeric Vidal (1852). A Vocabulary of the Yoruba Language. Seeleys. ISBN 978-1-9765-8921-8.
  177. ^ a b Olusegun Obasanjo (1983). Management in Agriculture & Rural Development: A Practicioner's View. ARMTI. ISBN 978-978-2399-24-3.
  178. ^ Miguel Willie Ramos (July 2012). Adimú: Gbogbó Tén'unjé Lukumí. Eleda.Org Publications. ISBN 978-1-877845-10-9.
  179. ^ a b c Esogwa C. Osuala (1988). Fundamentals of Nigerian Marketing. Pacific Publishers. ISBN 978-978-2347-29-9.
  180. ^ Betty Marguerite Wass (1975). Yoruba Dress: A Systematic Case Study of Five Generations of a Lagos Family. Michigan State University. Department of Family Ecology. pp. 143–183. ISBN 978-978-2347-29-9.
  181. ^ Frank Aig-Imoukhuede; Nigeria. Federal Ministry of Information and Culture (1992). A Handbook of Nigerian Culture. Department of Culture, Federal Ministry of Information and Culture. p. 134. ISBN 978-978-31316-1-3.
  182. ^ Tola Adenle (2 February 2016). Aso Oke Yoruba: A Tapestry of Love & Color, a Journey of Personal Discovery. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 978-1-5234-9522-1.
  183. ^ "A close-up on Aso-Oke of the Yoruba - The Centenary Project". Google Arts & Culture.
  184. ^ Owen Emeric Vidal (1852). A Vocabulary of the Yoruba Language. Seeleys. ISBN 978-1-9765-8921-8.
  185. ^ Manchester Geographical Society (1889). The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. p. 266.
  186. ^ Great Britain. Commissioners for the Exhibition of 1851, Robert Ellis (F.L.S.) (1851). Official Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue. Spicer Brothers. p. 953.((cite book)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  187. ^ Ajila, K.O (2016). "An Appraisal of Traditional Woven Fabric Production in Southwestern Nigeria". European Journal of Sustainable Development. 5: 63–76. doi:10.14207/EJSD.2016.V5N1P63. S2CID 55621472.
  188. ^ Makinde, D. Olajide; Ajiboye, Olusegun Jide; Ajayi, Babatunde Joseph (6 September 2009). "Aso-Oke Production and Use Among the Yoruba of Southwestern Nigeria" (PDF). The Journal of Pan African Studies. 3 (3). Retrieved 1 May 2014.
  189. ^ Babatunde Lawa. "Agbada Clothing". Beauty and Fashion. Lovetoknow. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  190. ^ Valerie Steele (29 December 2006). Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion (Vol. 1: Academic Dress to Eyeglasses). Charles Scribner's Sons (University of Michigan). pp. 31–32. ISBN 978-0-684-31395-5 – via Scribner library of daily life (Gale Virtual Reference Library).
  191. ^ "Melvin "Buddy" Baker".
  192. ^ "Orisha". Oduduwa. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  193. ^ Lefèber, Yvonne; Henk W. A. Voorhoeve (1998). Indigenous Customs in Childbirth and Child Care. Guinevere Van Gorcum. p. 53. ISBN 90-232-3366-2.
  194. ^ Abraham Ajibade Adeleke (3 February 2011). Intermediate Yoruba: Language, Culture, Literature, and Religious Beliefs, Part Ii. Trafford Publishing. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-4269-4908-1.
  195. ^ "Traditional Clothes: Clothing and Fashion". Africa UGA. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  196. ^ Akintoye, S. A. (2010). A history of the Yoruba people. Amalion Publishing. ISBN 978-2-35926-005-2. OCLC 800208826.
  197. ^ Descendant, Ekimogun. "Yoruba People Towns and Cities". Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  198. ^ "Yorubas to celebrate 200 years in Ghana". Graphic Online. 9 November 2013.
  199. ^ Walter C. Rucker (2015). Gold Coast Diasporas: Identity, Culture, and Power. Indiana University Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-253-01694-2.
  200. ^ Yoruba in Ghana - The Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies. Nigerian Economic Society. 1975.
  201. ^ Marco Aurelio Schaumloeffel (2014). Tabom. The Afro-Brazilian Community in Ghana. Lulu.com. p. 125. ISBN 978-1-847-9901-36.
  202. ^ "Ghana:The Tabon (Yoruba descendants)of Accra". 28 April 2010.
  203. ^ Eades, J.S. (1945). Yoruba migrants, markets and the state in Northern Ghana. Africa World Press Inc. ISBN 0-86543-419-0.
  204. ^ Sanjek, Roger (1977). "cognitive maps of the ethnic domain in urban Ghana: reflections on variability and change". American Ethnologist. 4 (4): 603–622. doi:10.1525/ae.1977.4.4.02a00020.
  205. ^ "Area Handbook for Ghana" (PDF). 1971.
  206. ^ "FAO Ethnic study of the Benin river Estuary Area 1991, Pg.V, 57.6% Itsekiri, 23.6% Ilaje" (PDF). 9 October 2021.
  207. ^ "Ilajes in Delta Seek More Projects". 12 March 2014.[permanent dead link]
  208. ^ "Ilaje communities seek inclusion in FG dredging of Escravos –Warri River". 9 June 2018.
  209. ^ "Reps move to address ocean surge threat to Delta communities". 11 October 2021.
  210. ^ "Don't politicize, divert EPZ, other projects from our land- Ilaje Communities tell FG". 11 October 2021.
  211. ^ "A Plea For the Creation of OKUN State - Olukoya Obafemi - OMOJUWA.COM". 11 October 2021.
  212. ^ "About the people of Ode Awure (Usen)". 11 October 2021.
  213. ^ "Edo South also comprises mainly the Bini ethnic group. There are however some Ijaw, Itsekiri, Urhobo and Yoruba communities in this senatorial district" (PDF). 11 October 2021.
  214. ^ "Ethnography of Edo South". 11 October 2021.
  215. ^ "Yoruba- speaking minority communities in Ovia North East and South West Local Government Area". 11 October 2021.
  216. ^ Adesina, Y. R.; Adebayo, P. F. (2009). "Yoruba Traders in Cote D'Ivoire: A Study of the Role Migrant Settlers in the Process of Economic Relations in West Africa". African Research Review. 3 (2). doi:10.4314/afrrev.v3i2.43614. ISSN 2070-0083.
  217. ^ d'Afrique, Flamme (23 May 2016). "Côte d'ivoire: Commerce, les secrets de la réussite des femmes yoruba".
  218. ^ "People Name: Yoruba of Cote D'Ivoire".
  219. ^ Judith Ann-Marie Byfield; LaRay Denzer; Anthea Morrison (2010). Gendering the African Diaspora: Women, Culture, and Historical Change in the Caribbean and Nigerian Hinterland (Blacks in the diaspora): Slavery in Yorubaland. Indiana University Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-253-35416-7.
  220. ^ Andrew Apter; Lauren Derby (2009). Activating the Past: History and Memory in the Black Atlantic World. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 101. ISBN 978-1-4438-1790-5.
  221. ^ Molefi K. Asante; Ama Mazama (26 December 2006). Encyclopedia of Black studies. Sage Publications; University of Michigan. p. 481. ISBN 978-0-7619-2762-4.
  222. ^ "Yoruba". Penn Language center. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  223. ^ Nicholas J. Saunders (2005). The Peoples of the Caribbean: An Encyclopedia of Archeology and Traditional Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-57607-701-6.
  224. ^ Edna M. Rodríguez-Plate (2005). Lydia Cabrera and the Construction of an Afro-Cuban Cultural Identity Envisioning Cuba. University of North Carolina Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-8078-7628-2.
  225. ^ Douglas E. Thomas (2015). African Traditional Religion in the Modern World. McFarland. p. 258. ISBN 978-0-7864-9607-5.
  226. ^ Toyin Falola; Ann Genova (2005). Yoruba Creativity: Fiction, Language, Life and Songs. Africa World Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-59221-336-8.
  227. ^ Nicholas J. Saunders (2005). The Peoples of the Caribbean: An Encyclopedia of Archeology and Traditional Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-57607-701-6.
  228. ^ Jackson, Fatimah (2021). "So many Nigerians: why is Nigeria overrepresented as the ancestral genetic homeland of Legacy African North Americans?". American Journal of Human Genetics. 108 (1): 202–208. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.10.010. PMC 7820629. PMID 33321100.
  229. ^ Orient Occident. News of Unesco's Major Project on Mutual Appreciation of Eastern and Western Cultural Values, Volumes 5–8. UNESCO (University of Michigan). 1962. p. 9.
  230. ^ Jorge Canizares-Esguerra; Matt D. Childs; James Sidbury (2013). Black Urban Atlantic in the Age of the Slave Trade (The Early Modern Americas). University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-8122-0813-9.
  231. ^ Melvin Ember; Carol R. Ember; Ian Skoggard (2004). Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-306-4832-19.
  232. ^ Jacob U. Gordon (2004). African Studies for the 21st Century. Nova Science Publishers (University of Michigan). p. 111. ISBN 978-1-594-5410-32.
  233. ^ Dale Torston Graden (2006). From Slavery to Freedom in Brazil: Bahia, 1835–1900 (Dialogos Series). The University of New Mexico. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-8263-4051-1.
  234. ^ Miguel C. Alonso (2014). The Development of Yoruba Candomble Communities in Salvador, Bahia, 1835–1986 Afro-Latin@ Diasporas. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-48643-1.
  235. ^ "Presence of the Yoruba African influences in Brazil". Nova Era (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 8 November 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
  236. ^ David Eltis (2006). "The diaspora of speakers of Yoruba, 1650–1865: Dimensions and implications" (PDF). Topoi (in Portuguese). 7 (13). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
  237. ^ Toyin Falola; Matt D. Childs (2 May 2005). The Yoruba Diaspora in the Atlantic World (Blacks in the Diaspora). Indiana University Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-253-00301-0.
  238. ^ Olive Senior (2003). Encyclopedia of Jamaican Heritage. University of Michigan (Twin Guinep Publishers). p. 343. ISBN 978-976-8007-14-8.
  239. ^ Kathleen E. A. Monteith; Glen Richards (2001). Jamaica in Slavery and Freedom: History, Heritage and Culture. University of the West Indies Press. p. 105. ISBN 978-976-640-108-5.
  240. ^ Pamela Odimegwu (2012). A Comparative Analysis of Jamaican Creole and Nigerian Pidgin English. Pamela Odimegwu. ISBN 978-1-4781-5890-5.
  241. ^ Roxy Harris; Ben Rampton (2003). The Language, Ethnicity and Race Reader. Psychology Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-415-27601-6.
  242. ^ Urban Development Corporation (Jamaica) (1984). Freedom to be: The Abolition of Slavery in Jamaica and Its Aftermath. University of Texas (National Library of Jamaica). ISBN 978-976-8020-00-0.
  243. ^ "Jamaica Journal". Jamaica Journal. Institute of Jamaica (the University of Virginia). 27–28: 91. 2000. Archived from the original on 7 April 2022. the settlement of Central Africans, Notably in St. Thomas parish in the east, and of Nago or Yoruba in Westmoreland and Hanover parishes in the west.
  244. ^ Mervyn C. Alleyne (1988). Roots of Jamaican culture. Pluto Press (the University of Virginia). ISBN 978-0-7453-0245-4.
  245. ^ Campbell, Hazel. "Africanretentions_Jamaica-_ettu_nago". CaribbeanWriter – via geocities.ws.
  246. ^ "UNPO Welcomes 5 New Members!". unpo.org. 3 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  247. ^ "Guam: Territory to be Inducted into UNPO". unpo.org. 31 July 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  248. ^ Michael C. Campbell; Sarah A. Tishkoff (September 2008). "African Genetic Diversity: Implications for Human Demographic History, Modern Human Origins, and Complex Disease Mapping, Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics" (PDF). sciencemag. 9. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
  249. ^ Bergström, Anders; McCarthy, Shane A.; Hui, Ruoyun; Almarri, Mohamed A.; Ayub, Qasim; Danecek, Petr; Chen, Yuan; Felkel, Sabine; Hallast, Pille; Kamm, Jack; Blanché, Hélène; Deleuze, Jean-François; Cann, Howard; Mallick, Swapan; Reich, David; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Skoglund, Pontus; Scally, Aylwyn; Xue, Yali; Durbin, Richard; Tyler-Smith, Chris (20 March 2020). "Insights into human genetic variation and population history from 929 diverse genomes". Science. 367 (6484). doi:10.1126/science.aay5012. PMC 7115999. PMID 32193295.
  250. ^ Gurdasani, Deepti; et al. (3 December 2014). "The African Genome Variation Project shapes medical genetics in Africa" (PDF). Nature. 517 (7534): 327–332. Bibcode:2015Natur.517..327G. doi:10.1038/nature13997. PMC 4297536. PMID 25470054. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 May 2021.
  251. ^ Serra-Vidal, Gerard; Lucas-Sanchez, Marcel; Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Bekada, Asmahan; Zalloua, Pierre; Comas, David (18 November 2019). "Heterogeneity in Palaeolithic Population Continuity and Neolithic Expansion in North Africa". Current Biology. 29 (22): 3953–3959.e4. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2019.09.050. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 31679935. S2CID 204972040.
  252. ^ Peek, Philip M.; Yankah, Kwesi (2004). African Folklore: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 660. ISBN 978-1-135-94873-3. OCLC 7385565477.
  253. ^ Jalloh, Alusine; Falola, Toyin (2008). The United States and West Africa: Interactions and Relations (Rochester studies in African history and the diaspora). Vol. 34. University Rochester Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-58046-308-9. OCLC 166379802.
  254. ^ Akinwale, Funsho (16 June 2018). "Ooni of Ife's day of glory in Brazil". The Guardian.
  255. ^ Travae, Marques (19 June 2018). "In historic visit of King Ooni Adeyeye Enitan Babatunde Ogunwusi of Ile-Ife, Nigeria, Bahia is declared the Yoruba Capital of the Americas". BLACK BRAZIL TODAY.
  256. ^ Dr. Lanre Tytler (14 August 2007). "Afenifere and Yoruba Council of Elders: Who and Where Are They?". NigeriaWorld. Retrieved 8 November 2009.
  257. ^ "Operation Amotekun: Western Nigeria governors launch security outfit". P.M. News. 9 January 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  258. ^ "South West governors explain why operation Amotekun was established". Pulse NG. 9 January 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  259. ^ Rasheed, Olawale (15 January 2020). "The Real Significance Of Amotekun". Nigerian Tribune. Retrieved 15 January 2020.

Bibliography

Books and Research

Discussion

Representation