Efo riro
Place of originYorubaland (Western Nigeria)
Region or stateNigeria
Main ingredientsstockfish, Scotch bonnets (atarado), tatashe (red bell pepper), onions crayfish, water, palm oil, red onion, leaf vegetables, other vegetables, seasonings, meat

Efo riro (Yoruba: ẹ̀fọ́ riro) is a vegetable soup and a native soup of the Yoruba people of South West Nigeria and other parts of Yorubaland. The two vegetables most commonly used to prepare the soup are Celosia argentea (ṣọkọ̀ yòkòtò)[1] and Amaranthus hybridus[2] (ẹ̀fọ́ tẹ̀tẹ̀).[3][4] . The history of Efo riro is deeply rooted in the Yoruba culture. It was traditionally prepared with the locally grown vegetables, meat, fish, and a mixture of spices. The choice of vegetables and proteins varies based on personal preference and regional availability. The most commonly used vegetables are spinach, pumpkin leaves, or sorrel leaves, often combined with bell peppers, chili peppers, and onions.[5]

Efo riro is a staple in Yoruba land and is often served at home and during traditional ceremonies. It is typically eaten with iyan, fufu, eba, amala, or other types of "swallow" foods.[6] Over time, the popularity of Efo riro has spread across Nigeria and beyond, with many variations of the dish emerging.


  1. ^ "The many benefits of celosia argentea, celosia trigyna". Punch Newspapers. 2020-03-21. Retrieved 2022-12-21.
  2. ^ Peter, Kavita; Gandhi, Puneet (2017-09-01). "Rediscovering the therapeutic potential of Amaranthus species: A review". Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 4 (3): 196–205. doi:10.1016/j.ejbas.2017.05.001. ISSN 2314-808X. S2CID 90828631.
  3. ^ Iswat Badiru; Deji Badiru (19 February 2013). Isi Cookbook:Collection of Easy Nigerian Recipes. iUniverse, 2013. ISBN 9781475976717. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  4. ^ The Recipes of Africa. Dyfed Lloyd Evans. p. 112. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  5. ^ Tv, Bn (2023-08-29). "Check Out Velvety Foodies' Delicious Efo Riro Recipe | Watch". BellaNaija. Retrieved 2024-04-01.
  6. ^ Oredola, Tayo (2019-08-16). "Efo riro - Nigerian Spinach Stew". Low Carb Africa. Retrieved 2024-04-01.