Guangdong (in red)
Guangdong (in red)

Cantonese nationalism (Chinese: 广东独立)[citation needed] refers to the autonomy/independence of Guangdong or Cantonese-majority areas (Guangdong with Guangxi and, sometimes, Hong Kong and Macau) from China. These movements wanted to establish an independent or autonomous political entity. In modern China, this idea has been put forward by others including Kang Youwei's followers and Ou Jiajia. Kang Youwei's followers later opposed the claim. In his book "New Guangdong", Ou Shi put forward the idea of establishing "Guangdong of Guangdong". In 1911, there was a revolution. At the end of October 1911, members of the Guangdong Alliance Chen Jiongming, Deng Jun and Peng Ruihai organized civil army uprisings throughout Guangdong. On November 9, Chen Jiongming led his troops to restore Huizhou. On the same day, Guangdong announced independence and established the Guangdong Military Government of the Republic of China. On January 1, 1912, the Republic of China was established, and Guangdong Province became a province in the Republic of China. In the early years of the Republic of China Guangdong Province drafted the "Guangdong Provincial Draft". This is inspired by the idea of autonomous provinces. The draft passed by the Guangdong Provincial Assembly on December 19, 1921. However, this proposal for the future planning of Guangdong Province did not receive sufficient support, and it was aborted as the Soviet forces intervened in the Far East and the KMT and the Communist Party went northward.[1]

History

The war situation is more urgent, Ci Xi appointed Li Hongzhang as Viceroy of Zhili and Beiyang Minister. Li Hongzhang realized that the government of the Qing dynasty might begin to develop in a direction beneficial to the main party and decided to change his attitude.[2] Before leaving, he first arrived by boat from Guangzhou to visit Hong Kong Governor Buli, and made a statement to the Hong Kong government.[3]

During the conversation, Bu Li told Li Hongzhang: "I think that considering the current situation in North China, the moment is a good opportunity for the two Guangdong and Guangxi to separate from the Qing court. We should be ready to protect our interests" [4]

After the failure of the Guangdong-Guangzhou Independence Plan, He Qi continued to try to persuade Hong Kong and Britain about his ideas and plans for the transformation of the Chinese dynasty. On July 21, He Qi reported that Bu Li supported the establishment of a republic in South China. On August 1, He published an article based on the political platform in the English newspaper Dechen West [5]

Respondents from Guangdong and overseas Chinese in Japan, "more than 200 participants".[6] The sponsors of the organization also visited Sun Wen, who was living in Yokohama at the time to discuss ways to raise money. The cooperation between Guangdong students studying in Japan and Xingzhong Association began.[7]

In 1903, one year after the start of "New Guangdong", Hunan anti-Qing people studying in Japan Yang Yulin (Changsha people) published a page called "New Hunan". Yang Yulin's argument was deeply influenced by Ou Jiajia. Qia also advocated the dissolution of Ministry of China.[8]

On May 8, 1905, the Qing Military Division sent a letter to the provincial governors to strictly ban "New Guangdong", "New Hunan", and "Xin Min Cong Bao" that promoted reform or revolution.[9]

After the Wuchang Uprising of Hubei in 1911, various circles in Guangdong "planned Guangdong self-independence." On November 9, Guangdong Counseling Bureau announced Guangdong's independence from Qing. The gentry class in Guangdong had tasted the taste of modern political participation in the reform of the Advisory Council in the late Qing Dynasty. For them, the Xinhai Revolution was an opportunity for them to lead the practice of Guangdong's independence.[10]

Anthropologist and historian Melissa J. Brown states in the book Does Taiwan belong to China?, "Sinification is a basic assumption in the development of Chinese civilization. It support the concept of" "China" as a nation entity ". She mentioned that this movement can be used to raise deeper questions about Chinese nationalism’s colonial behavior, and she believed that Taiwan independence would challenge those belonging to China, including Guangdong.

In Culture

Japanese right-wing writer Masahiro Miyazaki conceived the plot of South China's division under the Sino-Japanese conflict in his 1999 military novel "China's Guangdong Army Uprising".[11]

Japanese novelist Mori mentions Guangdong independence in two of his works. In his military novel The New Japan-China War published in 1995–2003, Morinaka writes about a plot involving Deng Xiaoping's internal power struggle in China leading to regional conflict, with Cantonese independence playing a role.[12] Mori's later military novel The New Japan-China War-The Century of the Raging Waves which is written in the fictional 2020s, this movement is featured also.[13]

Social impact

At the working conference of the CPC Central Committee in April 1979, Xi Zhongxun, then the first secretary of the Guangdong Provincial Committee, raised the hope that the central government would delegate power to Guangdong Province. Hua Guofeng presiding over the meeting wondered what power Xi Zhongxun wanted. Xi Zhongxun said on the spot: "For Guangdong is an 'independent country', it may take up in a few years. Under the current system, it will not be easy." This speech caused a great response at the meeting.[14]

On September 11, 2008, Southern Metropolis Daily published a full-page report titled "If Guangdong is an Independent Economy". The article said: "Let's imagine that if Guangdong is a country. If we try to observe China in a new way from the viewpoint of outsiders, and if China's provinces are regarded as independent countries, Guangdong will become the 14th largest economy in the world."[15]

See also

References

  1. ^ Liu De Hua; Liu Xueling. "辛亥前期欧榘甲革命自立主张探析——以《新广东》为中心". 南方职业教育学刊: 40–47.
  2. ^ Junming (2011). Die xue nan guo : Xin hai ge ming zai Guangdong (in Afrikaans). Guangzhou Shi: Guangdong ren min chu ban she. ISBN 978-7-218-07223-4. OCLC 760054723.
  3. ^ China, Britain and Hong Kong, 1895-1945. Chinese University Press. 1990.
  4. ^ Chinese Business Groups in Hong Kong and Political Change in South China, 1900-25. Palgrave Macmillan. 1998.
  5. ^ 《中华民国革命秘史》 (in Chinese (China)). 广东人民出版社. 1981.
  6. ^ Fong Zi You. 《华侨革命开国史》 (in Chinese (China)).
  7. ^ Fong Zi You (1939). 《革命逸史》 (in Chinese (China)). 上海: 商务印书馆.
  8. ^ 《杨毓麟集》 (in Chinese (China)). Yao Lin Publisher. 2008. p. 26. ISBN 9787807611097.
  9. ^ Xiao Xiao Hong. "《新广东》:从政治到文学". Xue Shu: 108–126.
  10. ^ Xu Ceng En (2017). 《香港,鬱躁的家邦:本土觀點的香港源流史》 (in Chinese (China)). Left Shore Culture. p. 237.
  11. ^ Masahiro Miyazaki (1995). 《中国広東軍、叛乱す!》 (in Japanese). ISBN 978-4576950846.
  12. ^ Mori (1996). 《新・日本中国戦争〈第4部〉中国分裂》 (in Japanese). ISBN 9784054006805.
  13. ^ Mori (2017). 《新編 日本中国戦争 怒濤の世紀 第十一部 中国崩壊》 (in Japanese). ISBN 9784286183930.
  14. ^ "习仲勋:如果广东是个"独立国家"早就搞上去了". Forth Month Web. 2013-01-31. Archived from the original on 2017-08-31. Retrieved 2020-05-09.
  15. ^ "假如广东是独立经济体 经济总量位列世界第14". SCMP. Retrieved 2008-09-11.