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Flag of Kangleipak
Flag of Kangleipak

Meitei nationalism[1][2] (Meitei: ꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ ꯅꯤꯡꯕ) refers to nationalism among the Meitei people.[3][4][failed verification] In the Meitei context this includes various movements throughout history to sustain Meitei cultural identity, political boundary, ethnicity and history to regain sovereign state status of Kangleipak (presently known as Manipur).[5]

History

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Historically, the kingdom of Meitei also known as Meitei Leipak[6] remained sovereign for at least 1951 years,[7] although there were matrimonial alliance as well as wars with the neighbouring country or kingdom of Burma.[8][9] Meitei kingdom (Meitei Leipak) lost its sovereignty in 1891 as a result of Anglo Manipur War and regained its sovereign status in 1947 but it was short lived due to the controversial Manipur Merger Agreement of 1949.[10][11][citation needed]

In the 19th century Hijam Irabot was the pioneer of nationalism in Manipur[12][need quotation to verify] who firstly revolted against monarchy rule demanding a democratic government for the people.[13] Various demands ranging from self determination to liberation of Manipur all took its root from not accepting the instrument of Merger act with the Indian Union.[citation needed] Scholar Paula Banerjee states that Merger agreement was seen by Manipuris as an "illegal and illegitimate annexation".[14] Meitei and Pangal nationalists[15] began claiming Manipur was a sovereign state in 1949 with democratic rule under 'Manipur State Constitution Act 1947' and Maharaja of Manipur Bodhchandra Singh was in no position to sign the merger agreement.[16][need quotation to verify]

See also

References

  1. ^ Lintner, Bertil (2015-04-01). Great Game East: India, China, and the Struggle for Asia's Most Volatile Frontier. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-21332-4.
  2. ^ Nayar, V. K. (2005). Crossing the Frontiers of Conflict in the North East and Jammu and Kashmir: From Real Politik to Ideal Politik. Shipra Publications. ISBN 978-81-7541-218-7.
  3. ^ Nationalism and Hindutva : a Christian response : papers from the 10th CMS consultation. Mark T. B. Laing. Delhi: CMS/UBS/ISPCK. 2005. p. 62. ISBN 81-7214-838-0. OCLC 61453464.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  4. ^ Ray, S. (2001). "The sacred alphabet and the divine body: The case of Meitei mayek in north-eastern India": 1. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. ^ Neken, Seram (12 March 2022). "Challenges Before Meitei Nationalism". e-Pao.
  6. ^ Thomas Callan Hodson (1908). The Meitheis. Harvard University. D. Nutt.
  7. ^ "States Uts - Manipur - Know India: National Portal of India". knowindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2021-05-16. The independence and sovereignty of Manipur remained uninterrupted until the Burmese invaded and occupied it for seven years in the first quarter of the 19th century (1819-25). Then came British Paramountcy in 1891...
  8. ^ Arora, Vibha; Kipgen, Ngamjahao (2012). "The Politics of Identifying with and Distancing from Kuki Identity in Manipur". Sociological Bulletin. 61 (3): 429–449. doi:10.1177/0038022920120303. ISSN 0038-0229. JSTOR 26290634. S2CID 157167951. Historically Manipur was an independent kingdom ruled by the Meitei dynasty...At one time in history, the river Chindwin in Myanmar formed Manipur's natural eastern frontier
  9. ^ Singha, Memchaton (2016). "Marriage Diplomacy Between the States of Manipur and Burma, 18Th to 19Th Centuries". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 77: 874–879. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 26552717.
  10. ^ Staff Reporter (2019-10-15). "Shutdown in parts of Manipur against 1949 merger with India". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2022-05-28.
  11. ^ McDuie-Ra, Duncan (2016). "Borderland City in New India". Borderland City in New India. Amsterdam University Press: 13–36. JSTOR j.cttd8hb58.
  12. ^ India, United Service Institution of (2006). National Security, Economic Globalisation, and Militancy. United Service Institution of India. ISBN 978-81-87966-49-4.
  13. ^ Singh, N. Joykumar (2005). Revolutionary Movements in Manipur. Akansha Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-87606-92-5.
  14. ^ Singh, Ujjwal Kumar (2009-01-06). Human Rights and Peace: Ideas, Laws, Institutions and Movements. SAGE Publications. p. 134. ISBN 978-81-7829-884-9.
  15. ^ RAY, SOHINI (2015). "Boundaries Blurred? Folklore, Mythology, History and the Quest for an Alternative Genealogy in North-east India". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 25 (2): 247–267. ISSN 1356-1863. JSTOR 43307692.
  16. ^ Sharma, S. C. (2000). Insurgency, Or, Ethnic Conflict: With Reference to Manipur. Magnum Business Associates. p. 111. ISBN 978-81-7525-138-0.