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Racial nationalism is an ideology that advocates a racial definition of national identity. Racial nationalism seeks to preserve "racial purity" of a nation through policies such as banning race mixing and the immigration of other races. In order to create a justification for such policies, racial nationalism often promotes eugenics, and advocates political and legislative solutions based on eugenic and other racial theories.[1]

Nationalism in Northeast Asia (China, Korea and Japan)[2] is partly related to 'racial nationalism' (民族主義),[3][4] it is were influenced by the German ethnonationalist tradition (Völkisch movement and Blood and soil) of the 19th century, which was imported from Japan during the Meiji period.[2] This kind of nationalism is closely related to the term 民族 derived from the German word Volk.

By country

China

Main articles: Han nationalism and Han chauvinism

Chinese nationalism (中国民族主义) claimed by the Chinese Communist Party in mainland China is multi-ethnic nationalism based on the concept of Zhonghua minzu (中华民族). Zhonghua minzu is translated as "Chinese nation", "Chinese people", "Chinese ethnicity" and "Chinese race".[5][6][7] Some critics have referred to Chniese nationalism in mainland China as "racial nationalism".[4]

Some argue that the term Zhonghua minzu is intended to justify the Han race (汉族 or 汉民族)[2]-based "assimilationist" policy. Jamil Anderlini, an editor for the Financial Times, said that the concept of "Chinese race" (or "Chinese Volk") nominally includes 56 officially recognized ethnicities (including Tibetans and Uyghurs) in China, but is "almost universally understood to mean the majority Han ethnic group, who make up more than 90 per cent of the population."[6]

German

Main article: Völkisch movement

Japan

See also: Yamato people § Propaganda, and Japanese nationalism

Japaese ethnic nationalism, also called Yamato nationalism (Japanese: 大和民族主義, Hepburn: yamato minzoku shugi),[8] played a key role in Empire of Japan, and it is inspired most Japanese soldiers and civilians at the time and made Japanese people feel racially superior to the Chinese people.[8] Due to the influence of Yamato nationalism, Zainichi Koreans who were forcibly brought or voluntarily moved to Empire of Japan from colonial Korea before 1945 did not obtain Japan's "nationality" (国籍, kokuseki).[2]

Japan's racial nationalism (民族主義, lit: ethnic nationalism) is based in minzoku (民族, lit: people; ethnic group). minzoku does not originally mean "race" in the general sense, and jinshu (人種) means "race," but some Japanese nationalists also use minzoku in a closer sense to "race." Taro Aso has called Japan a "one race" or "one minzoku".[9][10]

Korea

Main article: Korean ethnic nationalism

Peru

Main article: Ethnocacerism

See also

References

  1. ^ Turda & Weindling 2007.
  2. ^ a b c d Kelly, Robert E. (24 May 2010). "More on Asian Multiculturalism: 5 Masters Theses to be Written". Retrieved 10 February 2024. Northeast Asians (NEA – Chinese, Koreans, Japanese) strike me as quite nationalistic, and nationalism up here is still tied up in right-Hegelian, 19th century notions of blood and soil. In China, the Han race is the focus of the government's newfound, post-communist nationalism. In Korea, it is only the racial unity of minjeok that has helped keep Korea independent all these centuries. In Japan, the Yamato race is so important that even ethnic Koreans living there for generations can't get citizenship and there's no immigration despite a contracting population. MC in NEA faces huge political opposition that the already existing multiculturalism of South and Southeast Asia (SEA) don't face.
  3. ^ Gi-Wook Shin, Ethnic Nationalism in Korea: Genealogy, Politics, and Legacy (Stanford University Press, 2006), p. 223.
  4. ^ a b Max Ko-wu Huang (15 March 2008). The Meaning of Freedom: Yan Fu and Origins of Chinese Liberalism. Chinese University of Hong Kong Press. p. 97. ... racial nationalism (minzu zhuyi 民族主義) was characteristic of any race, but he asked: "Will racial nationalism strengthen our race? In my opinion, it definitely will not."151 In Yan's view, China required above all else a strong ...
  5. ^ Olsson, Jojje (10 January 2018). "Racial Thinking in Modern China: A Bridge to Ethnonationalism?". Taiwan Sentinel. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  6. ^ a b Anderlini, Jamil (21 June 2017). "The dark side of China's national renewal". Financial Times. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  7. ^ David Tobin (October 2022). Securing China's Northwest Frontier: Identity and Insecurity in Xinjiang. Cambridge University Press. p. 235. Repeated use of what should now be translated as 'Chinese race, (Zhonghua Minzu 中华民族), alongside omission of ethnic minorities in official narratives ...
  8. ^ a b Diana Lary (2010). The Chinese People at War: Human Suffering and Social Transformation, 1937-1945. Cambridge University Press. p. 80. Yamato nationalism that inspired most Japanese soldiers and civilians at the time and made them feel racially superior to the Chinese.
  9. ^ "Aso says Japan is nation of 'one race'". 18 October 2005 – via Japan Times Online.
  10. ^ "麻生太郎氏「日本は2千年、一つの民族」政府方針と矛盾". 13 January 2020 – via The Asahi Shimbun.

Sources