In the Western world or in non-Asian countries, terms such as "racism against Asians" or "anti-Asian racism" are typically used in reference to racist policies, discrimination against, and mistreatment of Asian people and Asian immigrants by institutions and/or non-Asian people.[1][2]


The concept of 'racism against Asians' is most common in communities or countries where the ethnic or racial majority is non-Asian, or it is most common in communities or countries where the national character is Western. The concept is most frequently employed in reference to Anti-Asian phenomena which exist in countries which are located outside the Asian continent, such as countries which are located in Africa, Europe, North America and South America.


Main article: Racism by country


Main article: Racism in Australia


Main article: Racism in Canada


Main article: Racism in Africa § Uganda

United States

Main articles: Asian immigration to the United States and History of Asian Americans

Against East and Southeast Asians

Main articles: History of Chinese Americans § Anti-Chinese movement, History of Japanese Americans § Anti-Japanese sentiment, Stereotypes of groups within the United States § Asian and Pacific Islander Americans, and Stereotypes of East and Southeast Asians in the United States


Main article: Racism in France

Racist incidences or perceptions

Racist incidences or perceptions, especially towards East or Southeast Asians, may include:

On the other hand, discrimination against South Asians and/or Middle Easterners includes:

There has been an increase in the amount of psychological or mental distress which has been caused by the aforementioned factors.[32][33][34] Myopic depictions of Asian cultures continues to be a problem.[35]

Additionally, racism in Asia (racist attitudes which Asians have towards each other as well as racist attitudes which Asians have towards non-Asians) is also impacted by differences in nationality as well as regional differences.

See also


  1. ^ Zheng, Lily (27 May 2021). "To Dismantle Anti-Asian Racism, We Must Understand Its Roots". Harvard Business Review. Archived from the original on 1 June 2021.
  2. ^ Lee, Jennifer (18 May 2022). "Confronting the invisibility of anti-Asian racism". Brookings. Archived from the original on 18 May 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  3. ^ Ramirez, Rachel (2021-03-19). "The history of fetishizing Asian women". Vox. Retrieved 2023-10-01.
  4. ^ Tu, Jessie (2018-11-27). "Because I am small and Asian, I am fetishised by some white men". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2023-10-01.
  5. ^ Qian, Yue (2020-02-09). "Asian guys stereotyped and excluded in online dating". The Conversation. Retrieved 2023-10-01.
  6. ^ "Here's how pop culture has perpetuated harmful stereotypes of Asian women". 2021-04-01. Retrieved 2023-10-01.
  7. ^ Fang, Janet. "The Deadly Consequences of Hypersexualizing Asian Women". Scientific American. Retrieved 2023-10-01.
  8. ^ "Single Asian Men and Harmful Stereotypes in the Dating World | Psychology Today". Retrieved 2023-10-09.
  9. ^ "When Asians say they're not into Asian men". The Johns Hopkins News-Letter. Retrieved 2023-10-01.
  10. ^ Salesses, Matthew (23 October 2020). "'Good-looking for an Asian': how I shed white ideals of masculinity". The Guardian.
  11. ^ Demel, Walter (2013). "How the 'Mongoloid Race' Came into Being: Late Eighteenth-Century Constructions of East Asians in Europe". Race and Racism in Modern East Asia. pp. 59–85. doi:10.1163/9789004237414_004. ISBN 978-90-04-23741-4.
  12. ^ "Colonialism in Southeast Asia: Resistance, Negotiation and Legacies – University of Hawaii Manoa Library Website". Retrieved 2023-10-01.
  13. ^ "Opinion: White worship in Hong Kong: you can't end it if you refuse to acknowledge it even exists". South China Morning Post. 2015-10-29. Retrieved 2023-10-01.
  14. ^ "Unconscious bias and the bamboo ceiling". 2014-06-10. Retrieved 2023-10-01.
  15. ^ Paner, Isabel (May 2018). The Marginalization and Stereotyping of Asians in American Film (Thesis). doi:10.33015/
  16. ^ Abrams, Zara (December 2019). "Countering stereotypes about asian americans". Monitor on Psychology. American Psychological Association. 50 (11).
  17. ^ Tinkler, Justine; Zhao, Jun; Li, Yan; Ridgeway, Cecilia L. (January 2019). "Honorary Whites? Asian American Women and the Dominance Penalty". Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World. 5: 237802311983600. doi:10.1177/2378023119836000. S2CID 150928622.
  18. ^ Dhingra, Pawan (October 2021). ""Over-zealous Parents, Over-programmed Families": Asian Americans, Academic Achievement, and White Supremacy". Sociology of Race and Ethnicity. 7 (4): 458–471. doi:10.1177/23326492211018483. ISSN 2332-6492. S2CID 236221102.
  19. ^ Panzer, Sarah (2023-07-10). "Honorary Aryans? Japanese German Mischlinge and the Negotiation of Identity in Nazi Germany". Contemporary European History: 1–15. doi:10.1017/S0960777323000334. ISSN 0960-7773. S2CID 259658679.
  20. ^
  21. ^ "Analysis | Asians are stereotyped as 'competent but cold.' Here's how that increases backlash from the coronavirus pandemic". Washington Post. 2020-05-18. Retrieved 2023-10-01.
  22. ^ Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Deng, Shiying; Alvarez, Rocio; Li, Jing (2011). "Accent, Perpetual Foreigner Stereotype, and Perceived Discrimination as Indirect Links between English Proficiency and Depressive Symptoms in Chinese American Adolescents". Developmental Psychology. 47 (1): 289–301. doi:10.1037/a0020712. PMC 3052861. PMID 21244164.
  23. ^ "Covid-19 Fueling Anti-Asian Racism and Xenophobia Worldwide | Human Rights Watch". 2020-05-12. Retrieved 2023-10-01.
  24. ^ "America's long history of scapegoating its Asian citizens". History. 2020-09-02. Archived from the original on February 17, 2021. Retrieved 2023-10-02.
  25. ^ "When Did East Asians Become Yellow? | Center for East Asian & Pacific Studies at Illinois". Retrieved 2023-10-01.
  26. ^ "How did Asians go from being called "white" to "yellow"". Retrieved 2023-10-01.
  27. ^ "AAPI Communities are Not a Monolith - APCO Worldwide". Retrieved 2023-10-02.
  28. ^ Samari, Goleen (November 2016). "Islamophobia and Public Health in the United States". American Journal of Public Health. 106 (11): 1920–1925. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303374. PMC 5055770. PMID 27631738.
  29. ^ Welch, Kelly (April 2016). "Middle Eastern Terrorist Stereotypes and Anti-Terror Policy Support: The Effect of Perceived Minority Threat". Race and Justice. 6 (2): 117–145. doi:10.1177/2153368715590478. S2CID 31176854.
  30. ^ "Racial Profiling | Costs of War". The Costs of War. Retrieved 2023-10-01.
  31. ^ "The Brown Asian American Movement: Advocating for South Asian, Southeast Asian, and Filipino American Communities – Asian American Policy Review". 2020-02-02. Archived from the original on 2022-11-05. Retrieved 2023-10-01.
  32. ^ "The Facts About Asian American Mental Health and Suicide Rates". Newport Institute. 2023-07-01. Retrieved 2023-10-01.
  33. ^ Keum, Brian TaeHyuk; Ahn, Lydia HaRim; Choi, Andrew Young; Choudhry, Adil; Nguyen, Mary; Meizys, Gintare M.; Chu, Annalisa; Hearns, Maynard (July 2023). "Asian American Men's Gendered Racial Socialization and Fragmented Masculinity: Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis". The Counseling Psychologist. 51 (5): 684–718. doi:10.1177/00110000231170310. S2CID 258622070.
  34. ^ Karasz, Alison; Gany, Francesca; Escobar, Javier; Flores, Cristina; Prasad, Lakshmi; Inman, Arpana; Kalasapudi, Vasundhara; Kosi, Razia; Murthy, Meena; Leng, Jennifer; Diwan, Sadhna (August 2019). "Mental Health and Stress among South Asians". Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health. 21 (Suppl 1): 7–14. doi:10.1007/s10903-016-0501-4. PMC 5643212. PMID 27848078.
  35. ^ Adlakha, Siddhant (2023-09-28). "'The Creator' Brings Out the Worst Tendencies of Asian-Inspired Sci-Fi". JoySauce. Retrieved 2023-10-01.