Transmisogyny (sometimes trans-misogyny) is the intersection of transphobia and misogyny as experienced by trans women and transfeminine people.[1][2] The term was coined by Julia Serano in her 2007 book Whipping Girl to describe a particular form of oppression experienced by trans women.[3][4][5]

Transmisogyny is a central concept in transfeminism and is commonly referenced in intersectional feminist theory. An individual who does not experience transmisogyny is referred to as "transmisogyny exempt" or "TME".

Framework

The concept of transmisogyny hinges on two other concepts first described by Serano: traditional sexism and oppositional sexism. The former is the idea that "maleness and masculinity are superior to femaleness and femininity", while the latter holds male and female as "rigid, mutually exclusive categories". Transmisogyny stems from both these concepts.[2]

In Whipping Girl, Julia Serano writes that the existence of trans women is seen as a threat to a "male-centered gender hierarchy".[6] Gender theorist Judith Butler echoes this assumption, stating that the murder of transgender women by men is "the most toxic form that masculinity can take", a way for the killer to assert power over the victim in the instant, in response to the idea of the intrinsic nature of his power (ie, his masculinity) being threatened. Butler states that trans women have relinquished masculinity, showing that it is possible to do so.[7]

Instances

It has been suggested that this section be merged into Trans woman#Discrimination. (Discuss) Proposed since October 2021.

United States

Transgender women face harsher levels of discrimination than other transgender people. A study on workplace experiences after people receive sex changes found that trans women, on average, lose almost one third of their salary, are respected less, and receive more harassment. At the same time, trans men often experience salary raises and greater authority in the workplace.[8]

According to Laura Kacere (2014), trans people experience a disproportionately large number of hate crimes, with trans women experiencing the majority of these crimes.[9] The National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (2012) found that police violence is three times higher against transgender people than it is against cisgender people.[10] In fact, over half of all anti-LGBTQIA+ homicides were perpetrated against transgender women.[9] In the United States, the majority of transmisogyny is directed at trans women of color. The Human Rights Campaign Foundation (2018) reports significant overlaps between the gender identity and race of anti-trans violence victims: of the known homicides of transgender people from 2013 to 2018, approximately 92% were trans women, and approximately 70% were black.[11] Kacere (2014) also states that 21% of transgender women and 47% of black transgender women have experienced incarceration, rates that are much higher than those for the overall U.S. population.[9]

Ecuador

A study on discrimination of lesbian, bisexual, transsexual, transgender and intersex women in Ecuador found that transgender women "lack protection against discrimination in both law and practice." As a result, trans women have faced violence, sexual abuse, and discrimination in educational, health and workforce institutions.[12]

Sexualisation and harassment

Julia Serano has stated that many trans women experience an additional layer of misogyny in the form of fetishization.[13] She notes that, despite transitioning, trans women are still commonly perceived as male; however, they are rarely sexualized as such. In the porn industry, whose target audience is primarily heterosexual men, trans women are largely presented as sexual objects rather than "predatory".[6]

According to Serano, the sexualisation of trans women is not solely because transgender women, by nature of their relative rarity, are viewed as "exotic": she notes that trans women are sexualized particularly much even compared to other types of "rare" women.[6] In Whipping Girl, Serano writes on what she calls a "predator–prey dichotomy" where "men are invariably viewed as predators and women as prey." Because of this view, trans women are perceived to be luring men by transitioning and "turning [themselves] into sexual objects that no red-blooded man can resist."[6]

Relation to transphobia

Transmisogyny is a distinct category of transphobia in that transmisogyny mainly focuses on trans women and other transgender individuals who demonstrate femininity, whereas transphobia is a more general term, covering a broader spectrum of prejudice and discrimination towards transsexual and transgender individuals. [14] Julia Serano states in Whipping Girl that "[w]hen the majority of jokes made at the expense of trans people center on 'men wearing dresses' or 'men who want their penises cut off' that is not transphobia – it is transmisogyny. When the majority of violence and sexual assaults committed against trans people is directed at trans women, that is not transphobia – it is transmisogyny."[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ Kevin L. Nadal (2017). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Psychology and Gender. SAGE Publications. pp. 1728–1731. ISBN 978-1-5063-5324-1.
  2. ^ a b Arayasirikul, Sean; Wilson, Erin C. (24 August 2019). "Spilling the T on Trans-Misogyny and Microaggressions: An Intersectional Oppression and Social Process Among Trans Women". Journal of Homosexuality. 66 (10): 1415–1438. doi:10.1080/00918369.2018.1542203. PMID 30475682. S2CID 53729580.
  3. ^ Krell, Elías Cosenza (2017). "Is Transmisogyny Killing Trans Women of Color?". TSQ: Transgender Studies Quarterly. 4 (2): 226–242. doi:10.1215/23289252-3815033.
  4. ^ Serano, Julia. "Transmisogyny primer" (PDF). Retrieved 10 September 2014.
  5. ^ Harrison, Kelby (2013). Sexual deceit: the ethics of passing. Lexington Books. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-7391-7706-8.
  6. ^ a b c d e Serano, Julia (2016). Whipping Girl: A Transsexual Woman on Sexism and the Scapegoating of Femininity. Basic Books. ISBN 978-1-58005-623-6.[page needed]
  7. ^ "Why Do Men Kill Trans Women? Gender Theorist Judith Butler Explains". Broadly. 16 December 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  8. ^ Schilt, Kristen; Wiswall, Matthew (11 September 2008). "Before and After: Gender Transitions, Human Capital, and Workplace Experiences". The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy. 8 (1). doi:10.2202/1935-1682.1862. S2CID 51580726.
  9. ^ a b c Kacere, Laura (27 January 2014). "Transmisogyny 101: What It Is and What Can We Do About It". Everyday Feminism. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
  10. ^ National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (2013). "A Report from the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (NCAVP): Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and HIV-Affected Hate Violence in 2012" (PDF). National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  11. ^ "A National Epidemic: Fatal Anti-Transgender Violence in America". HRC.
  12. ^ Almeida, Aline Britto de; Vásquez, Elizabeth; Rodríguez, Mónica; Klein, Guayaquil Dayane; Cordero, Tatiana Mendieta; Varea, Soledad (2008). "Ecuador: Discrimination of Lesbian, Bisexual, Transsexual, Transgender and Intersex Women". CiteSeerX 10.1.1.563.8340. S2CID 154832726. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  13. ^ Bianco, Marcie (September–October 2016). "A manifesto for all: Bisexual trans activist and author Julia Serano wants to make feminism inclusive" (PDF). Curve. Vol. 26 no. 5. pp. 28–29.
  14. ^ How Fake “Experts” Are Driving the Campaign Against Trans People (Website), GenderGP Transgender Services, 13 September 2021