LGBT rights in the Americas
LGBT rights Americas.svg
StatusLegal in 26 out of 35 states
Legal in all 21 territories
Gender identityLegal in 13 out of 35 states
Legal in 8 out of 21 territories
MilitaryAllowed to serve openly in 14 out of 29 states that have an army
Allowed in all 21 territories
Discrimination protectionsProtected in 22 out of 35 states
Protected in 14 out of 21 territories
Family rights
Recognition of relationshipsRecognized in 10 out of 35 states
Recognized in 18 out of 21 territories
RestrictionsSame-sex marriage constitutionally banned in 7 out of 35 states
AdoptionLegal in 7 out of 35 states
Legal in 13 out of 21 territories

Laws governing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights are complex in the Americas, and acceptance of LGBT persons varies widely.

Same-sex marriages are currently legal in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, United States and Uruguay. In Mexico, same-sex marriages are recognized nationwide but can be performed only in 26 out of 31 states and in Mexico City, although same-sex marriages have been performed in all states since judges are required to grant injunctions to any couples willing to marry. Among non-independent states, same-sex marriage is also legal in Greenland, the British Overseas Territories of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, all French territories (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Barthélemy, French Guiana, Saint Martin, and Saint Pierre and Miquelon), and in the Caribbean Netherlands, while marriages performed in the Netherlands are recognized in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten. More than 700 million people live in nations or sub-national entities in the Americas where same-sex marriages are available.

In January 2018, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled that the American Convention on Human Rights recognizes same-sex marriage as a human right.[1] This has made the legalization of such unions mandatory in the following countries: Barbados, Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and Suriname. Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Uruguay are also under the court's jurisdiction but had already same-sex marriage before the ruling was handed down.

However, nine other nations still have criminal punishment for "buggery" on their statute books.[2] These nine countries are Jamaica, Dominica, Barbados, Saint Lucia, Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and Guyana, the last of which is on mainland South America and the rest of which are Caribbean islands. They are all former parts of the British West Indies.

Religion and LGBT acceptance

The British, French, Spanish and Portuguese colonists, who settled most of the Americas, brought Christianity from Europe. In particular, the [Roman Catholic Church] and the Protestants, both of which oppose legal recognition of homosexual relationships followed by Eastern Orthodox church,[3] the Methodist Church,[4][5] and some other Mainline (Protestant) denominations, such as the Reformed Church in America[6] and the American Baptist Church,[7] as well as Conservative Evangelical organizations and churches, such as the Evangelical Alliance. The Southern Baptist Convention.[8][9][10] Pentecostal churches such as the Assemblies of God,[11] as well as Restorationist churches, like Jehovah's Witnesses and Mormons, also take the position that homosexual sexual activity is sinful.[12][13]

However, other denominations have become more accepting of LGBT people in recent decades, including the Episcopal Church in the United States, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, the Anglican Church of Canada, the United Church of Canada, the United Church of Christ, the Unitarian Universalist Association, and the Society of Friends (Quakers), and some congregations of the Presbyterian Church (U. S. A.). Most of these denominations now perform same-sex weddings or blessings. Furthermore, many churches in the United Methodist Church in the US are choosing to officiate and bless same-sex marriage despite denomination-wide restrictions.[14] In addition, in the United States Conservative Judaism, Reform Judaism, and Reconstructionist Judaism now welcome LGBT worshippers and perform same-sex weddings.

  Indicates the country/territory has legalized same-sex adoption nationwide
  Indicates that same-sex adoption is legal in certain parts of the country
  Indicates that the country has step-child adoption or partner-guardianship
Opinion polls for same-sex adoption in Americas
Country Pollster Year For Against Don't Know/Neutral/No answer/Other
 Argentina Ipsos 2021 73%[15] 21% 6%
 Brazil Ipsos 2021 69%[15] 25% 7%
 Canada Ipsos 2021 81%[15] 13% 6%
 Chile CADEM 2021 61%[16] 37% 2%
 Colombia Ipsos 2021 46%[15] 44% 8%
 Mexico Ipsos 2021 59%[15] 34% 7%
 Perù Ipsos 2021 41%[15] 52% 7%
 USA Ipsos 2021 72%[15] 22% 6%
 Uruguay Equipos Consultores 2013 52% [17] 39% 9%
State recognition of same-sex relationships in North America & Hawaii.   Same-sex marriage   Other type of partnership   Same-sex marriages recognized, but not performed   Binding judicial ruling against a ban on same-sex marriage
State recognition of same-sex relationships in North America & Hawaii.
  Same-sex marriage
  Other type of partnership
  Same-sex marriages recognized, but not performed
  Binding judicial ruling against a ban on same-sex marriage
Homosexuality laws in Central America and the Caribbean Islands.   Same-sex marriage   Other type of partnership   Unregistered cohabitation   Country subject to IACHR ruling   No recognition of same-sex couples   Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples   Same-sex sexual activity illegal but law not enforced   .mw-parser-output .navbar{display:inline;font-size:88%;font-weight:normal}.mw-parser-output .navbar-collapse{float:left;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .navbar-boxtext{word-spacing:0}.mw-parser-output .navbar ul{display:inline-block;white-space:nowrap;line-height:inherit}.mw-parser-output .navbar-brackets::before{margin-right:-0.125em;content:"[ "}.mw-parser-output .navbar-brackets::after{margin-left:-0.125em;content:" ]"}.mw-parser-output .navbar li{word-spacing:-0.125em}.mw-parser-output .navbar a>span,.mw-parser-output .navbar a>abbr{text-decoration:inherit}.mw-parser-output .navbar-mini abbr{font-variant:small-caps;border-bottom:none;text-decoration:none;cursor:inherit}.mw-parser-output .navbar-ct-full{font-size:114%;margin:0 7em}.mw-parser-output .navbar-ct-mini{font-size:114%;margin:0 4em}vte
Homosexuality laws in Central America and the Caribbean Islands.
  Same-sex marriage
  Other type of partnership
  Unregistered cohabitation
  Country subject to IACHR ruling
  No recognition of same-sex couples
  Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples
  Same-sex sexual activity illegal but law not enforced

Recognition of same-sex unions in the Lesser Antilles    Same-sex marriage   Other type of partnership   Unregistered cohabitation   No recognition of same-sex couples   Constitutional ban on same-sex marriage   Same-sex sexual activity illegal but penalties not enforced   Island subject to IACHR ruling, penalty not enforced   vte
Recognition of same-sex unions in the Lesser Antilles
  Same-sex marriage
  Other type of partnership
  Unregistered cohabitation
  No recognition of same-sex couples
  Constitutional ban on same-sex marriage
  Same-sex sexual activity illegal but penalties not enforced
  Island subject to IACHR ruling, penalty not enforced

Recognition of same-sex unions in South America    Marriage   Other type of partnership   Country subject to IACHR ruling   Unrecognized   Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples   Same-sex sexual activity illegal, though penalties not enforced   vte
Recognition of same-sex unions in South America
  Marriage
  Other type of partnership
  Country subject to IACHR ruling
  Unrecognized
  Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples
  Same-sex sexual activity illegal, though penalties not enforced


Legislation by country or territory

Main article: LGBT rights by country or territory

Tables:

North America

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Bermuda Bermuda
(Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes
Legal since 1994
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
Domestic partnerships since 2018[18]
No
Legal between November 2018 and March 2022 and between May 2017 and June 2018
Yes
Legal since 2015[19]
Yes
UK responsible for defence
No
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[20]
No
Canada Canada
Yes
Legal since 1969
+ UN decl. sign.[2][21]
Yes
Domestic partnerships in Nova Scotia (2001);[22]
Civil unions in Quebec (2002);[23]
Adult interdependent relationships in Alberta (2003);[24]
Common-law relationships in Manitoba (2004)[25]
Yes
Legal in some provinces and territories since 2003, nationwide since 2005[26]
Yes
Legal in some provinces and territories since 1996, nationwide since 2011[27]
Yes
Since 1992[28]; Includes transgender people[29]
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination. Ban on conversion therapy since 2022 nationwide
Yes
Transgender people can change their gender and name without completion of medical intervention and human rights protections explicitly include gender identity or expression within all of Canada since 2017[30][31][32][33]
Greenland Greenland
(Autonomous Territory within the Kingdom of Denmark)
Yes
Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
Registered partnerships between 1996 and 2016 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[34]
Yes
Legal since 2016
Yes
Stepchild adoption since 2009;[35]
joint adoption since 2016[36]
Yes
The Kingdom of Denmark responsible for defence
Yes
Bans some anti-gay discrimination[2]
Yes
Legal gender change and recognition possible without surgery or hormone therapy[37][38]
Mexico Mexico
Yes
Legal since 1871
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
/
No
Civil unions in Mexico City (2007), Coahuila (2007),[39] Colima (between 2013 and 2016),[40] Campeche (2013),[41] Jalisco (between 2014 and 2018),[42] Michoacán (2015), Tlaxcala (2017), and Veracruz (2020)
Yes
/
No
Legal in Mexico City (2010),[43] Quintana Roo (2012),[44] Coahuila (2014), Chihuahua (2015), Nayarit (2015), Jalisco (2016), Campeche (2016), Michoacán (2016), Colima (2016), Morelos (2016), Chiapas (2017), Puebla (2017), Baja California (2017), Nuevo León (2019), Aguascalientes (2019), San Luis Potosí (2019), Hidalgo (2019), Baja California Sur (2019), Oaxaca (2019), Tlaxcala (2020), Querétaro (2021), Sinaloa (2021), Sonora (2021), Guanajuato (2021), Zacatecas (2021) and Yucatán (2022)
All states are obliged to recognise same-sex marriages performed in states where it is legal.[43][45][46]
The Supreme Court has declared that it is unconstitutional to deny marriage licenses to same-sex couples in all states,[47] but as state laws were not invalidated, individual injunctions must still be obtained from the courts[48][49]
Yes
/
No
Legal in Mexico City (2010),[50] Coahuila (2014), Chihuahua (2015), Jalisco (2016), Michoacán (2016), Colima (2016), Morelos (2016), Campeche (2016), Veracruz (2016), Baja California (2017), Querétaro (2017), Chiapas (2017), Puebla (2017),[51][52] Aguascalientes (2018), Nuevo León (2019), San Luis Potosí (2019)[53] and Hidalgo (2019)[54]
Emblem-question.svg
(ambiguous)
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[55] Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal in Mexico City (2020), México (2020), Baja California Sur (2020), Colima (2021), Tlaxcala (2021), Yucatán (2021) and Zacatecas (2021)
Yes
/
No
Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name in Mexico City (2008),[56] Michoacán (2017), Nayarit (2017), Coahuila (2018), Hidalgo (2019), San Luis Potosí (2019), Colima (2019), Baja California (2019), Oaxaca (2019), Tlaxcala (2019), Chihuahua (2019), Sonora (2020), Jalisco (2020), Quintana Roo (2020), Puebla (2021), Baja California Sur (2021), México (2021), and Morelos (2021)[57]
Flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.svg
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
(Overseas collectivity of France)
Yes
Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
Civil solidarity pact since 1999[58]
Yes
Legal since 2013[59]
Yes
Legal since 2013[60]
Yes
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[61]
Yes
Under French law[62]
United States United States
Yes
Legal in some states since 1962, nationwide since 2003
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
Domestic partnerships in California (1999), the District of Columbia (2002), Maine (2004), Washington (2007), Maryland (2008), Oregon (2008), Nevada (2009) and Wisconsin (2009).
Civil unions in Vermont (2000), Connecticut (2005), New Jersey (2007), New Hampshire (2008), Illinois (2011), Rhode Island (2011), Delaware (2012), Hawaii (2012) and Colorado (2013).
Yes
Legal in some states since 2004, nationwide since 2015
Yes
Legal in some states since 1993, nationwide since 2016
Yes
/
No
Lesbians, gays, and bisexuals have been allowed to serve openly in the U.S. military since 2011, following the repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy.
Transgender people have been allowed to serve openly since 2021.[63]
Transvestites are currently banned from the military since 2012.[64]
Most openly Intersex people may be banned from the military under the Armed Forces ban of "hermaphrodites".[65]
Yes
/
No
Employment discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation is prohibited nationwide since 2020.
More extensive protections exist in 23 states, DC, and some municipalities.
Conversion therapy for minors is banned in 20 states, DC, and some municipalities.
Sexual orientation is covered by the federal hate crime law since 2009.
Yes
/
No
Since April 11, 2022 by legal self determination - gender X became available and recognized formally on US passports.[66] Gender change is legal on birth certificates (under varying conditions by state), in 48 states + DC.
Nonbinary gender markers are available, under varying circumstances, in 25 states + DC.
Employment discrimination on the basis of gender identity is prohibited nationwide since 2020.
More extensive protections exist in 22 states, DC, and some municipalities.
Gender identity is covered by the federal hate crime law since 2009.

Central America

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Belize Belize
Yes
Legal since 2016[67]
No
No
No
No
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[68][69][70]
No
[71]
Costa Rica Costa Rica
Yes
Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
Unregistered cohabitation since 2014[72][73]
Yes
Legal since May 2020
Yes
Legal since May 2020[74]
Has no military
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[2]
Yes
/
No
Transgender persons can change their legal name without surgeries or judicial permission since 2018. Legal gender cannot be changed. Sex indicator removed from all ID cards issued since May 2018[75][76][77] One-time sex change allowed for passports. [78]
El Salvador El Salvador
Yes
Legal since 1822
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No
No
No
Yes
[79][80]
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[79]
No
[81] Bans discrimination based on gender identity.
Guatemala Guatemala
Yes
Legal since 1871
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No
Pending
No
No
Emblem-question.svg
Yes
Bans some anti-gay discrimination
No
[82]
Honduras Honduras
Yes
Legal since 1899
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No
Constitutional ban on de facto unions since 2005
No
Constitutional ban since 2005;[83][84] court decision pending
No
Constitutional ban since 2005
No
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[85]
No
Nicaragua Nicaragua
Yes
Legal since 2008
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No
No
No
Emblem-question.svg
Yes
Bans some anti-gay discrimination[2]
No
Panama Panama
Yes
Legal since 2008
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No
Court decision pending
No
Court decision pending
No
Court decision pending
Has no military
Yes
Bans some anti-gay discrimination[86][87]
Yes
Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name after completion of medical intervention since 2006[88][89]

Caribbean

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Anguilla Anguilla
(Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes
Legal since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No
No
No
Yes
UK responsible for defence
No
Emblem-question.svg
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda
No
Illegal
Penalty: 15-year prison sentence (Not enforced).[2]
No
No
No
No
No
No
Aruba Aruba
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Yes
Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country)
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
Registered partnerships since 2016[90]
No
/
Yes
Same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands recognized[91]
No
Yes
The Netherlands responsible for defence
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[92]
Emblem-question.svg
The Bahamas Bahamas
Yes
Legal since 1991;
Age of consent discrepancy
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No
No
No
Yes
[2]
No
No
Barbados Barbados
No
Illegal
Penalty: Life imprisonment (Not enforced).[2] Legalization proposed
No
/
Yes
Foreign Domestic Partnerships recognized for immigration purposes "Welcome Stamp"[93]

Civil Unions proposed.[94]

No
No
No
Yes
Bans some anti-gay discrimination[95]
No
Bonaire Bonaire
(a special municipality of the Netherlands)
Yes
Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the municipalities)
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
[96]
Yes
Legal since 2012[97]
Yes
[98]
Yes
The Netherlands responsible for defence
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[99]
Yes
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands
(Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes
Legal since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No
No
No
Yes
UK responsible for defence
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[100]
No
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands
(Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes
Legal since 2001; Age of consent discrepancy[2]
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes
Civil Partnerships since 2020[101]
No
Yes
Legal since 2020
Yes
UK responsible for defence
No
No
Cuba Cuba
Yes
Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No
No
Legalization pending [102]
No
Yes
[2][103]
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination [104][105][106]
Yes
Transgender people allowed to change gender after sex change operations[107]
Curaçao Curaçao
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Yes
Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country)
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No
Pending
No
/
Yes
Same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands recognized[91]
No
Yes
The Netherlands responsible for defence
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[108]
Emblem-question.svg
Dominica Dominica
No
Illegal
Penalty: 10-year prison sentence or incarceration in a psychiatric institution (Not enforced).
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No
No
No
No
No
No
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic
Yes
Legal since 1822
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No
No
Constitutional ban since 2010[citation needed]
No
No
[109]
No
No
Grenada Grenada
No
Male illegal
Penalty: 10-year prison sentence (Rarely enforced).[110]
Yes
Female always legal[2]
No
No
No
Has no military
No
No
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe
(Overseas department of France)
Yes
Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
Civil solidarity pact since 1999[58]
Yes
Legal since 2013[59]
Yes
Legal since 2013[60]
Yes
France responsible for defence
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[61]
Yes
Under French law[62]
Haiti Haiti
Yes
Legal since 1791 (as Saint-Domingue)[2]
No
No
No
Has no military
No
No
Jamaica Jamaica
No
Male illegal
Penalty: 10 years and/or hard labor (Not enforced). Legalization proposed
Yes
Female always legal.[2]
No
No
Constitutional ban since 1962
No
No
No
No
Martinique Martinique
(Overseas department of France)
Yes
Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
Civil solidarity pact since 1999[58]
Yes
Legal since 2013[59]
Yes
Legal since 2013[60]
Yes
France responsible for defence
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[61]
Yes
Under French law[62]
Montserrat Montserrat
(Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes
Legal since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No
No
No
Yes
UK responsible for defence
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[111]
Emblem-question.svg
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico
(Commonwealth of the United States)
Yes
Legal since 2003
Yes
Legal since 2015
Yes
Legal since 2015[112]
Yes
Legal since 2015
Yes
United States responsible for defense[113][114]
Yes
Bans some anti-gay discrimination
Yes
Gender change legal since 2018; does not require surgery
Saba Saba
(a special municipality of the Netherlands)
Yes
Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the municipalities)
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
[96]
Yes
Legal since 2012[97]
Yes
[98]
Yes
The Netherlands responsible for defence
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[99]
Yes
[115]
Flag of Saint Barthelemy (local).svg
Saint Barthélemy
(Overseas collectivity of France)
Yes
Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
Civil solidarity pact since 1999[58]
Yes
Legal since 2013[59]
Yes
Legal since 2013[60]
Yes
France responsible for defence
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[61]
Yes
Under French law[62]
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis
No
Male illegal
Penalty: 10 years (Not enforced).
Yes
Female always legal[2]
No
No
No
No
No
Emblem-question.svg
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia
No
Male illegal
Penalty: Fine and/or 10-year prison sentence (Not enforced). Legalization proposed
Yes
Female always legal[2]
No
No
No
Has no military
Yes
Bans some anti-gay discrimination
No
Flag of France.svg
Saint Martin
(Overseas collectivity of France)
Yes
Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
Civil solidarity pact since 1999[58]
Yes
Legal since 2013[59]
Yes
Legal since 2013[60]
Yes
France responsible for defence
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[61]
Yes
Under French law[62]
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
No
Illegal
Penalty: Fine and/or 10-year prison sentence (Not enforced).[2] Legalization proposed
No
No
No
Has no military
No
Emblem-question.svg
Sint Eustatius Sint Eustatius
(a special municipality of the Netherlands)
Yes
Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the municipalities)
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
[96]
Yes
Legal since 2012[97]
Yes
[98]
Yes
The Netherlands responsible for defence
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[99]
Yes
Sint Maarten Sint Maarten
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Yes
Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country)
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No
No
/
Yes
Same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands recognized[91]
No
Yes
The Netherlands responsible for defence
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[116]
Emblem-question.svg
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago
Yes
Legal since 2018[117]
No
No
No
No
No
No
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands
(Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes
Legal since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No
No
No
Yes
UK responsible for defence
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[2]
No
United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands
(Territory of the United States)
Yes
Legal since 1985
Yes
Legal since 2015[118]
Yes
Legal since 2015[118]
Yes
Legal since 2015[118]
Yes
United States responsible for defense[113][114]
No
No

South America

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Argentina Argentina
Yes
Legal since 1887
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
Civil unions in Buenos Aires (2003),[119] Río Negro Province (2003),[120] Villa Carlos Paz (2007) and Río Cuarto (2009)
Cohabitation unions nationwide since 2015[121]
Yes
Legal since 2010[122]
Yes
Legal since 2010
Yes
Since 2009[123]
Yes
/
No
Legal protection in some cities;[124]
pending nationwide.
Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal since 2010
Yes
Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name without surgeries or judicial order since 2012[125]

Transgender persons have a law reserving 1% of Argentina's public sector jobs. Economic incentives included in the new law aim to help trans people find work in all sectors. [126]

Bolivia Bolivia
Yes
Legal since 1832
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No
[127]
Family life agreement pending[128][129]
No
Constitutional ban since 2009[130]
No
LGBT individuals may adopt, but not same-sex couples[131]
Yes
Since 2015[132][133][134]; Includes transgender people[135]
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[2]
Yes
Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name without surgeries or judicial order since 2016[136][137][138][139]
Brazil Brazil
Yes
Legal since 1831
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
"Stable unions" legal in some states since 2004; all rights as recognized family entities available nationwide since 2011[140][141]
Yes
Legal in some states since 2012, nationwide since 2013[142][143]
Yes
Legal since 2010[144]
Yes
Since 1969[145]
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[146]
Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal since 1999[147][148]
Yes
Transgender people can change their legal gender and name before a notary without the need of surgeries or judicial order since 2018. The sex reassignment surgery, hormonal and psychological treatment are offered free of charge by the brazilian Unified Health System (UHS) [149][150][151]
Chile Chile
Yes
Legal since 1999;
Age of consent discrepancy
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
Civil unions since 2015[152]
Yes
Legal since 2022[153]
Yes
Legal since 2022[153]
Yes
Since 2012[154]; Includes transgender people[155]
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[156]
Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal since 2021
Yes
Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name since 1974.
No surgeries or judicial order since 2019.[157]
Colombia Colombia
Yes
Legal since 1981
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
De facto marital union since 2007[158]
Yes
Legal since 2016[159]
Yes
Stepchild adoption since 2014;[160] joint adoption since 2015[161]
Yes
Since 1999[2]
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[162]
Yes
Since 2015, transgender persons can change their legal gender and name manifesting their solemn will before a notar, no surgeries or judicial order required[163]
Ecuador Ecuador
Yes
Legal since 1997
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
De facto unions since 2009[164][165]
Yes
Legal since 2019[166]
No
LGBT individuals may adopt, but not same-sex couples[167]
Emblem-question.svg
[168]
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[169]
Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal since 2014
Yes
Since 2016, transgender persons are allowed to change their birth name and gender identity; no surgeries or judicial order required[170][171][172]
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands
(Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes
Legal since 1989
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
Civil partnerships since 2017[173]
Yes
Legal since 2017[173]
Yes
Legal since 2017
Yes
UK responsible for defence
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[174]
No
French Guiana French Guiana
(Overseas department of France)
Yes
Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
Civil solidarity pact since 1999[58]
Yes
Legal since 2013[59]
Yes
Legal since 2013[60]
Yes
France responsible for defence
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[61]
Yes
Under French law[62]
Guyana Guyana
No
Illegal
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment (Not enforced).[2]
No
No
Emblem-question.svg
[175]
Yes
[176]
No
No
Paraguay Paraguay
Yes
Legal since 1880; Age of consent discrepancy
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No
Constitutional ban since 1992[177]
No
Constitutional ban since 1992[178]
No
Yes
[179]
No
No
Peru Peru
Yes
Legal since 1924
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No
Proposed[180]
No
Proposed
No
Yes
Since 2009[181]
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[182][183][184][185][186]
Yes
Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name without the need for the completion of medical intervention since 2016. Judicial order required.[187][188]
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
(Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes
Legal since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes
Legal since 2014[189]
Yes
Legal since 2014[189]
Emblem-question.svg
Yes
UK responsible for defence
Emblem-question.svg
No
Suriname Suriname
Yes
Legal since 1869 (as Dutch Guiana);
Age of consent discrepancy
No
No
No
Emblem-question.svg
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination[190]
No
Court decision pending[191][192]
Uruguay Uruguay
Yes
Legal since 1934
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
Yes
Concubinage union since 2008[193]
Yes
Legal since 2013[194]
Yes
Legal since 2009[195]
Yes
Since 2009[196]
Yes
Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[197] Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal since 2017
Yes
Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name without surgeries or judicial order required since 2009.[198] Self-determination since 2018.
Venezuela Venezuela
Yes
Legal since 1997
+ UN decl. sign.[2]
No
Constitutional ban on de facto unions since 1999;
Proposed
No
Constitutional ban since 1999;
court decision pending[199]
No
No
Yes
Bans some anti-gay discrimination[2]
No


See also

References

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Further reading