Central Delta Academy in Inverness, Mississippi, was a segregation academy.[1]
Central Delta Academy in Inverness, Mississippi, was a segregation academy.[1]

Segregation academies are private schools in the Southern United States that were founded in the mid-20th century by white parents to avoid having their children attend desegregated public schools. They were founded between 1954, when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that segregated public schools were unconstitutional,[2][3] and 1976, when the court ruled similarly about private schools.

While many of these schools still exist – most with low percentages of minority students even today – they may not legally discriminate against students or prospective students based on any considerations of religion, race or ethnicity that serve to exclude non-white students. The laws that permitted their racially-discriminatory operation, including government subsidies and tax exemption, were invalidated by U.S. Supreme Court decisions. After Runyon v. McCrary (1976), all of these private schools were forced to accept African-American students. As a result, segregation academies changed their admission policies, ceased operations, or merged with other private schools.

Most of these schools remain overwhelmingly white institutions, both because of their founding ethos and because tuition fees are a barrier to entry. In communities where many or most white students are sent to these private schools, the percentages of African-American students in tuition-free public schools are correspondingly elevated. For example, in Clarksdale, Mississippi, in 2010, 92% of the students at Lee Academy were white, while 92% of the students at Clarksdale High School were black.[4] The effects of this de facto racial segregation are compounded by the unequal quality of education produced in communities where whites served by former segregation academies seek to minimize tax levies for public schools.


A 1970 advertisement for a segregation academy appealed to parents who were concerned about desegregation busing.
A 1970 advertisement for a segregation academy appealed to parents who were concerned about desegregation busing.

The first segregation academies were created by white parents in the late 1950s in response to the U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education (1954), which required public school boards to eliminate segregation "with all deliberate speed" (Brown II). At the time, segregation under Jim Crow laws was still widely enforced in the South, where most adult blacks were still disfranchised and excluded from politics.[5][6] The Brown ruling did not apply to private schools,[7] so founding new academies gave white parents a way to continue to educate their children separately from blacks. In Virginia, the "massive resistance" campaign led Prince Edward County to close its public schools from 1959 to 1964; the only education in the county was a segregation academy, funded by state "tuition grants."

A 1972 report on school desegregation noted that segregation academies could usually be identified by the word "Christian" or "church" in the school's name.[8] The report observed that while individual Protestant churches were often deeply involved in the establishment of segregation academies, Catholic dioceses usually indicated that their schools were not meant to be havens from desegregation.[8] Many segregation academies claimed they were established to provide a "Christian education", but the sociologist Jennifer Dyer has argued that such claims were simply a "guise" for the schools' actual objective of allowing parents to avoid enrolling their children in racially integrated public schools.[9][10]

Reasons why whites pulled their children out of public schools have been debated: whites insisted that "quality fueled their exodus", and blacks said "white parents refused to allow their children to be schooled alongside blacks".[11] Scholars estimate that, across the nation, at least half a million white students were withdrawn from public schools between 1964 and 1975 to avoid mandatory desegregation.[5] In the 21st century, Archie Douglas, the headmaster of Montgomery Academy (founded as a segregation academy), said that he is sure "that those who resented the Civil Rights Movement or sought to get away from it took refuge in the academy".[12] As of 2014, the student body of The Montgomery Academy was 10% percent non-white.[13]

IRS involvement and definitions

In 1969, parents of Mississippi black children brought suit to revoke tax-exemption status for non-profit segregation academies (Green v. Connally).[14] They won a temporary injunction in the D.C. Circuit in early 1970 and the suit in June 1971. The United States government appealed to the Supreme Court, where the lower court's decision was summarily affirmed in Coit v. Green (1971). Meanwhile, on July 10, 1970, the Internal Revenue Service announced it could "no longer legally justify allowing tax-exempt status to private schools which practice racial discrimination."[15] For a school to get or keep its tax-exempt status, it would have to publish a policy of non-discrimination and not practice overt discrimination. Many schools simply refused to comply. In the 1980s, Southern Republican Members of Congress such as Trent Lott and Strom Thurmond began to pressure the Reagan administration to halt revocation of tax-exempt status from segregation academies. In 1982, during congressional debate on the Voting Rights Act Amendments of 1982, the administration considered support for such a policy, leading to what one of its aides called "our worst public-relations and political disaster yet."[16]

A decade later, similarly aggrieved appellees argued once again in Allen v. Wright (1983) that the standards were too low. The appellees had asserted that "there are more than 3,500 racially segregated private academies operating in the country having a total enrollment of more than 750,000 children."[17] The court considered whether the parents had standing to sue, and concluded not, because they did not allege that they or their children had applied to, been discouraged from applying to, or been denied admission to any private school or schools.[18] Specifically, it ruled that citizens do not have standing to sue a federal government agency based on the influence that the agency's determinations might have on third parties (such as private schools). The judges noted the parents were in the posture of disappointed observers of the governmental process. The IRS would continue to enforce the regulations it had promulgated in 1970. Any school that was not tax-exempt in this period was likely a segregation academy, the standard for non-discrimination being low.[19] Not many of the 3,500 appear in lists, if there were 3,500. After 1983, any school named in a judgement or IRS document in this period absolutely was.[20] Many schools did not regain tax-exempt status until the 1990s.

By state

Virginia was an early adopter of techniques to establish and finance segregation academies. Virginia was the first state to respond to Brown with the establishment of segregation academies and was also the first to be told in federal court that segregation academies were unconstitutional (Runyon v. McCrary (1976)), leading to their decline. The state was a bellwether for other states. Eventually, five states—Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina and Virginia—defied the court's decision in Brown by 1970.[21] Segregated private schools lost their tax-exempt status in Coit v. Green (1971). Between 1961 and 1971, non-Catholic Christian schools doubled their enrollments nationally.[22] By 1969, 300,000 of 7,400,000 white students attended segregated school in eleven southern states.[23]


In Virginia, segregation academies were part of a policy of massive resistance declared by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. He worked to unite other white Virginia politicians and leaders in taking action to prevent school desegregation after the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court ruling in 1954.

In its September/October 1956 special session, the Virginia General Assembly passed a series of laws known as the Stanley Plan to implement massive resistance. In January, Virginia's voters had approved an amendment to the state constitution to allow tuition grants to parents enrolling their children in private schools. Part of the Stanley Plan established tuition grants program, which allowed parents who refused to allow their children to attend desegregated schools funding so each could attend a private school of choice. In practice, this meant state support of newly established all-white private schools which became known as "segregation academies".

On February 18, 1958, the General Assembly passed (and Governor Almond signed) additional legislation protecting segregation, what the Byrd Organization called the "Little Rock Bill" (responding to President Eisenhower's use of federal powers to assist the court-ordered desegregation of schools in Little Rock, Arkansas).[24] Since new segregation academy facilities often failed to meet construction, health and safety standards for public schools, these were also loosened.

Segregation academies opened in various Virginia cities and counties subject to desegregation lawsuits, including Arlington, Charlottesville and Norfolk where Governor Almond had ordered the schools closed rather than comply with Federal court orders to desegregate.[25] Arlington and Norfolk desegregated peacefully in February 1959. In Arlington, many (if not most) white students remained in the desegregated schools. However, that was not the case in Norfolk and other areas such as Richmond where whites largely abandoned the public schools for segregation academies and other private schools, home schooling, or moved to predominately white suburbs. Today, more than a half-century after school desegregation, largely due to white flight, the Richmond City and Norfolk Public Schools are the school divisions with the most racially and economically isolated schools in Virginia.[26]

Segregation academies in Warren and Prince Edward Counties and the City of Norfolk are discussed below, as examples of why even in the fall of 1963, only 3,700 black pupils or 1.6% attended school with whites. NAACP litigation had resulted in some desegregation by the fall of 1960 in eleven localities, and the number of at least partially desegregated districts had slowly risen to 20 in the fall of 1961, 29 in the fall of 1962, and 55 (out of 130 school districts) in 1963.[27]

Warren County also planned to integrate its only high school, Warren County High School, but Governor Almond closed the school (along with schools in Charlottesville and Norfolk) in the fall of 1958. Education continued in private and church facilities for that school year. By the fall of 1959, the John S. Mosby Academy (1-12) was constructed and opened as an all-white school. A public high school for black students was built and opened (Criser High School), and Warren County High School reopened with a significantly reduced white student population and 22 black students. Criser operated until 1966, and Mosby operated through the 1968–69 school year.

When faced with an order to integrate, Prince Edward County closed its entire school system in September 1959, and kept county schools closed until 1964, as it kept litigating (although Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County had been a companion case to Brown). The newly-founded private Prince Edward Academy operated as the de facto school system for white students. It enrolled K-12 students at several facilities throughout the county. Many black students were forced to move in with relatives in other counties, attend makeshift schools in church basements, or move to northern states to live with host families through a program of the Society of Friends in order to gain education. Even after public schools re-opened, Prince Edward Academy remained segregated as discussed below.

In Norfolk, churches and other organizations offered classes, teachers from the shuttered public schools formed tutorial groups, and classes were also held in private homes. The Norfolk Division of the College of William & Mary (now Old Dominion University) provided classes for some high school students. Other students from Norfolk attended schools in the neighboring cities of Hampton, Chesapeake, Virginia Beach and Portsmouth. Some parents sent their children to live with relatives in other parts of Virginia or in other states. The Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties founded the Tidewater Educational Foundation to create a private school for white students in Norfolk. The Tidewater Academy opened as a segregation academy on October 22, 1958, with 250 white students with classes meeting in local churches.[citation needed]

Although on January 19, 1959, the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals struck down the new Virginia law that closed schools before integration, as contrary to a public schooling provision in the state constitution (and a three-judge federal panel struck down other provisions of the Stanley Plan on the same day, (the Virginia state holiday honoring Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson),[28] individual state tuition grants to parents continued, allowing them to patronize segregation academies.

In 1964, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County that Virginia's tuition grants where the public schools had been closed for reasons of race (such as in Prince Edward County) violated the U.S. Constitution.[29] This decision finally effectively ended massive resistance within state governments, and dealt some segregation academies a fatal blow. Later rulings put the academies' tax exemption status in jeopardy if they practiced racial discrimination.[30]

In 1978, Prince Edward Academy lost its tax exempt status. In 1986, it changed its admission policy to allow black students to attend but few black students can afford the tuition to attend the school, which today is known as the Fuqua School. All other Virginia segregation academies have either closed, adopted non-racial discrimination policies, or merged with other schools that already had non-discrimination policies in place. Because the Catholic Church had desegregated its schools before Brown, the Huguenot Academy (a segregation academy implicitly disavowing that Catholic policy by its title), merged with Blessed Sacrament High School, a nearby Catholic High School, to become Blessed Sacrament-Huguenot. In 1985 the Bollingbrook School, another private school originally founded as a segregation academy for white students in 1958 merged with a nearby Catholic High School in Petersburg, Gibbons High School, to become St. Vincent de Paul High School.[31]

Most segregation academies founded in Virginia during "Massive Resistance" are still thriving more than a half century later and some like Hampton Roads Academy, the Fuqua School, Nansemond-Suffolk Academy and Isle of Wight Academy continue to expand in the 21st century. Enrollment at Isle of Wight Academy now stands at approximately 650 students, the most ever enrolled at the school.[32] In 2016 Nansemond Suffolk Academy opened a second campus, that includes an additional 22,000 square foot building for students in pre-kindergarten through grade 3.[33] All of these schools had officially adopted non-discrimination policies and begun admitting non-white students by the end of the 1980s and like other private schools, are now eligible for federal education money through what are known as Title programs that flow through public school districts.[34] However, few blacks can afford the high cost of tuition to send their children to these private schools. In some cases their association with "old money" and past discrimination still cause some tension in the community, especially among non-whites and students of the local public schools. These racist past histories may cause black parents who can afford the tuition to be reluctant to enroll their children in these schools.[35]

The abandonment of public schools by most whites in Virginia's rural counties that lie within the Black Belt and white flight from inner cities to suburbs after the failure of "Massive Resistance" has ultimately led to increasingly racially and economically isolated public schools in Virginia. As of 2016 there were 74,515 students in these isolated schools, including 17 percent of all black students in Virginia’s public schools and 8 percent of all Hispanic students. Many of these schools are inner city schools located in Richmond, Norfolk, Petersburg, Roanoke, and Newport News. By contrast, less than 1 percent of Virginia's non-Hispanic white students attended these isolated schools.,[36]


Further information: Education segregation in the Mississippi Delta

Further information: Education segregation in the Mississippi Red Clay region

In Mississippi, many of the segregation academies were first established in the black-majority Mississippi Delta region in northwestern Mississippi. The Delta has historically had a very large majority-black population, related to the history of the use of slave labor on cotton plantations. The potential for integration resulted in white parents' establishing segregation academies in every county in the Delta. Many academies are still operating, from Indianola, Mississippi to Humphreys County. These schools began to accept black students later in the 20th century, although many of them still enroll relatively small numbers of black students. In a region with low incomes among blacks, many African-American parents cannot afford the private schools. At least one school in Mississippi, Carroll Academy, receives substantial funding from the segregationist Council of Conservative Citizens.[37][38] Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett said in September 1962, "I submit to you tonight, no school will be integrated in Mississippi while I am your governor".[39]


Between 1966 and 1972, at least 32 segregation academies were established in Arkansas.[40] By 1972, about 5,000 white students attended such schools.[40]

Arkansas is one of twelve states that have not adopted the Blaine Amendment to their state constitutions. The amendment forbids direct government aid to educational institutions that have a religious affiliation. Many segregation academies have since adopted curricula with a "Christian world view".[citation needed]


The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana mandated integration of public schools in Washington Parish (1969) and St. Tammany Parish (1969), and the United States District Court for the Western District of Louisiana did so for Tensas Parish (1970), Claiborne Parish (1970), and Jackson Parish (1969).[41]


Alabama, like Mississippi, largely ignored the 1954 ruling of Brown v. Board of Education. In 1958, a conflict over segregation in city parks brought Martin Luther King Jr. to Montgomery. The city closed its parks; King recommended that black parents attempt to enroll their children in city schools, expecting to establish cases testing the Alabama Pupil Placement Act. Montgomery Academy was the first segregation academy established in Alabama; others followed in the late 1960s.

North Carolina

Following the Brown v. Board of Education decision in 1954, Governor William B. Umstead established a committee to consider the effects of complying the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling. The bi-racial committee made up of blacks and whites reported to the General Assembly that desegregation “throughout the state cannot be accomplished and should not be attempted.” Luther Hodges became governor in 1955, and although opposed to integration, he formed a new committee to study the issue, because the Court had ruled that school desegregation must happen “with all deliberate speed.” When it became clear that the federal government was not going to force the issue, the state began to look for ways to circumvent the Supreme Court, using legal means, while avoiding the outright defiance of court orders that was taking place in Virginia where the legislature had adopted a policy of massive resistance.[42]

This committee established the Pearsall Plan, named after its chairman, Thomas J. Pearsall of Rocky Mount. In 1956 the Pearsall Plan established a system of local control, freedom of choice, and school vouchers. The Pearsall Plan also gave school districts the option of shutting down schools by public referendum if they were faced with a desegregation order.[42] The freedom-of-choice system allowed students to attend the school their parents wanted them to attend, and the voucher system allowed parents to use state money to support their child’s education in a private school. As in other southern states a number of private segregation academies were founded.

In 2019 the North Carolina State Board of Education voted unanimously to approve the conversion of Halifax County’s private Hobgood Academy, founded in 1969 as a segregation academy, to a public charter school. Hobgood’s student population is 88 percent white, while only 4 percent of those attending the Halifax County public Schools are white. This had led to concerns by some teachers that while charter schools in some states have helped low-income students improve academically, in North Carolina they have primarily been used as a means for whites to opt out of traditional public schools.[43]

South Carolina

In South Carolina, where private schools have existed since the 1800s, there were no fully racially integrated private schools before 1954. Some 200 private schools were created between 1963 and 1975; private school enrollment hit a peak of 50,000 in 1978.[44] In Clarendon County, for example, the private academy Clarendon Hall was established in late 1965, after four black students enrolled in a previously all-white public school in the fall term. By 1969, only 281 white students were left in the public school system, and only 16 white students were in public schools when they officially desegregated a year later.[45]


Texas was an early opponent of desegregation. In 1956, blacks were turned away from Mansfield High School in defiance of Brown and other federal orders to integrate. In Dallas, for example, the Dallas Independent School District subdivided itself into six subdistricts, each of which was "one race" (more than ninety percent white or black).[46] The Texas Education Agency was ordered in November 1970 to desegregate Texas public schools (United States v. Texas).[47] The state did not offer any financial assistance to private schools as Virginia, Mississippi, and Alabama had.

List of schools founded as segregation academies

A partial list of segregation academies includes the following:[n 1]

School State Est. Ref.
Abbeville Christian Academy Alabama 1970 [48]
Autauga Academy Alabama 1969 [49]
Bessemer Academy Alabama 1969 [50]
Central Alabama Academy Alabama 1970 [49][50]
Chambers Academy Alabama 1969 [50]
Clarke Preparatory School Alabama 1970 [51][50]
Coosa Valley Academy Alabama 1972 [50]
Dixie Academy Alabama 1967 [50]
Edgewood Academy Alabama 1967 [52][53]
Escambia Academy Alabama 1970 [54]
Eclectic Academy Alabama 1972 [50]
Grove Hill Academy Alabama 1970 [50]
Houston Academy Alabama 1970 [55]
Indian Springs School Alabama 1952 [56]
Inglenook Academy Alabama 1970 [50]
John T. Morgan Academy Alabama 1965 [57]
Lowndes Academy Alabama 1966 [58]
Macon East Academy Alabama 1963 [59]
Monroe Academy Alabama 1969 [60]
Montgomery Academy Alabama 1959 [61]
Pickens Academy Alabama 1969 [62]
Saint James School Alabama 1955 [63]
South Choctaw Academy Alabama 1969 [48]
Springwood School Alabama 1970 [60]
Sumter Academy Alabama 1970 closed 2017 [64]
Trinity Presbyterian School Alabama 1970 [65]
Tuscaloosa Academy Alabama 1967 [66][60][67]
Wilcox Academy Alabama 1970 [68]
Bellaire Academy Arkansas 1970 [69]
Central Arkansas Christian School Arkansas 1970 [70][40]
Central Baptist Academy Arkansas 1970 [40]
Edgewood Academy Arkansas 1970 [69]
England Academy Arkansas 1970 [69]
Hughes Academy Arkansas 1971 [40]
Jefferson Preparatory Academy Arkansas 1971 [71]
Marvell Academy Arkansas 1966 [40]
Montrose Academy Arkansas 1970 [69]
Pulaski Academy Arkansas 1971 [40]
Southeast Academy Arkansas 1970 [69]
Tabernacle Baptist Academy Arkansas 1970 [40]
Watson Chapel Academy Arkansas 1971 [71]
West Memphis Christian School Arkansas 1970 [40]
Bayshore Christian School Florida 1971 [72][73]
Dade Christian School Florida 1961 [74][75][76]
Glades Day School Florida 1965 [77]
Lake Highland Preparatory School Florida 1970 [78]
Maclay School Florida 1968 [79]
Oak Hall School Florida 1970 [80]
Robert F. Munroe Day School Florida 1969 [81]
Rolling Green Academy Florida 1970 [82]
North Florida Christian School Florida 1968 [79]
Tallavana Christian School Florida 1971 [81]
University Christian School Florida 1970 [83]
Bulloch Academy Georgia 1971 [84]
Flint River Academy Georgia 1967 [85][86]
George Walton Academy Georgia 1969 [87]
Gordon Ivey Independent High School Georgia 1970 [50]
John Hancock Academy Georgia 1966 [50]
Nathanael Greene Academy Georgia 1969 [88]
Valwood School Georgia 1969 [89]
Savannah Country Day Georgia 1955 [90]
Southland Academy Georgia 1967 [91]
Southwest Georgia Academy Georgia 1970 [92]
The Westfield School Georgia 1970 [93][94]
Pinewood Christian Academy Georgia 1970 [41]
Bowling Green School Louisiana 1970 [41]
Briarfield Academy Louisiana 1970 [50]
Caddo Community School Louisiana 1969 [95]
Central Private School Louisiana 1971 [50]
Claiborne Academy Louisiana 1969 [50]
False River Academy Louisiana 1969 [97]
Glenbrook School Louisiana 1966 [95]
Grawood Christian School Louisiana 1966 [95]
Guy Beuche Louisiana 1969 [98]
LeJeune Academy Louisiana 1969 [98]
Livonia Academy Louisiana 1969 [98]
River Oaks School Louisiana 1969 [99]
Old River Academy Louisiana 1969 [98]
West End Academy Louisiana 1969 [95]
Prytania Private School Louisiana 1960 [95]
Tenth Ward Private School Louisiana 1969 [98]
Adams County Christian School Mississippi 1964 [50]
Amite Center School Mississippi 1968 [50]
Bayou Academy Mississippi 1964 [100][101]
Benton Academy Mississippi 1969 [102]
Brandon Academy Mississippi 1968

closed 1989

Brookhaven Academy Mississippi 1970 [103][104][50]
Calhoun Academy Mississippi 1968 [105]
Canton Academy Mississippi 1965 [106]
Carroll Academy Mississippi 1969 [107][102][50]
Central Academy Mississippi 1969

closed 2017

Central Delta Academy Mississippi c 1969
closed 2010
Centreville Academy Mississippi 1967 [88]
Central Holmes Academy Mississippi 1967 [108]
Copiah Academy Mississippi 1967 [101]
Cruger-Tchula Academy Mississippi 1965 [106][109]
Council Manhattan High School Mississippi 1966 [110]
Deer Creek Academy Mississippi 1970 [111]
Delta Academy Mississippi 1964 [112]
East Holmes Academy Mississippi 1964
Closed 2006
East Rankin Academy Mississippi 1970
Greenville Christian School Mississippi 1969 [114]
Hillcrest Christian School Mississippi 1965 [101]
Indianola Academy Mississippi 1965 [101]
Heidelberg Academy Mississippi 1970 [50]
Heritage Academy Mississippi 1964 [115]
Humphreys Academy Mississippi 1968 [116]
Jackson Academy Mississippi 1959 [101]
Jackson Preparatory School Mississippi 1970 [101]
Jefferson Davis Academy Mississippi 1969 [50]
Kirk Academy Mississippi 1966 [117]
Lamar School Mississippi 1964 [113]
Lawrence County Academy Mississippi 1970 [103]
Lee Academy Mississippi 1970 [118]
Leake Academy Mississippi 1970[119] [120]
Leland Academy Mississippi 1969 [121]
Madison-Ridgeland Academy Mississippi 1969 [122]
Magnolia Heights Mississippi 1970 [123]
Manchester Academy Mississippi 1969 [124][125]
Marshall Academy Mississippi 1968 [126]
McCluer Academy Mississippi 1970 [110][101]
Northpoint Christian School Mississippi 1973 [127]
North Sunflower Academy Mississippi 1969 [128][1]
Oak Hill Academy (Mississippi) Mississippi 1966 [129]
Parklane Academy Mississippi 1970 [101]
Pillow Academy Mississippi 1966 [101]
Sharkey-Issaquena Academy Mississippi 1970 [130]
St. George's Episcopal Day School Mississippi [131]
Starkville Academy Mississippi 1969 [132]
Strider Academy Mississippi 1971
closed 2018
Tri-County Academy Mississippi 1970 [50]
Tunica Institute of Learning Mississippi 1964 [134]
Walthall Academy Mississippi 1969 [50]
Washington School Mississippi 1969 [135]
Wilkinson County Christian Academy Mississippi 1969 [136]
Winona Christian School Mississippi 1970 [137]
Winston Academy Mississippi 1969 [105]
Woodland Hills Academy Mississippi 1970


Arendell Parrott Academy North Carolina 1964 [139]
Cape Fear Academy North Carolina 1968 [140]
Forsyth Country Day School North Carolina 1970 [141]
Lawrence Academy North Carolina 1968 [142]
Northside Christian Academy North Carolina 1961 [141]
Providence Day School North Carolina 1970 [141]
Rocky Mount Academy North Carolina 1968 [143]
Wake Christian Academy North Carolina 1966 [144]
Christian Heritage Academy Oklahoma 1972 [145]
Bowman Academy South Carolina 1966 [146][147]
Clarendon Hall Academy South Carolina 1965 [91]
Calhoun Academy South Carolina 1969 [148]
Hilton Head Preparatory School South Carolina 1985 [149]
Jefferson Davis Academy South Carolina 1965 [150][151]
John C. Calhoun Academy South Carolina 1966 [151]
Hammond School South Carolina 1966 [152][153][149]
Patrick Henry Academy South Carolina 1965 [154]
Thomas Heyward Academy South Carolina 1970 [155][156]
Richard Winn Academy South Carolina 1966 [157][158]
Roy Hudgens Academy South Carolina 1966 [159]
Sea Island Academy South Carolina 1970 [160]
Wade Hampton Academy South Carolina 1964 [161]
Wilson Hall South Carolina 1967 [162]
Willington Academy South Carolina 1970 [149][163]
Coastal Academy South Carolina 1970 [164]
Stonewall Jackson Academy (Orangeburg) South Carolina 1965 [149][163]
Williamsburg Academy South Carolina 1970 [165][166]
Robert E. Lee Academy South Carolina 1965 [150][151]
Brentwood Academy Tennessee 1969 [9]
Briarcrest Baptist High School Tennessee 1973 [3]
Evangelical Christian School Tennessee 1965 [167]
Franklin Road Academy Tennessee 1971 [9]
Harding Academy (Nashville) Tennessee 1971 [168][169]
Lakehill Preparatory School Texas 1971 [170]
Northwest Academy Texas 1970 [8]
Trinity Christian Academy Texas 1970 [171]
Amelia Academy Virginia 1964 [172]
Bobbe's School Virginia 1958 [173]
Bollingbrook School Virginia 1958 [31]
Broadwater Academy Virginia 1966 [174]
Brunswick Academy Virginia 1964 [175]
Carlisle School Virginia 1968 [176]
Fairfax-Brewster School Virginia 1955 [173]
Prince Edward Academy Virginia 1959 [177]
Hampton Roads Academy Virginia 1959 [178]
Huguenot Academy Virginia 1959 [179]
Isle of Wight Academy Virginia 1967 [178]
Jamestown Academy Virginia 1964 [180]
John S. Mosby Academy Virginia 1959 [181]
Lynchburg Christian Academy Virginia 1967 [22]
Nansemond-Suffolk Academy Virginia 1966 [178]
Robert E. Lee Academy Virginia 1959 [182]
Rock Hill Academy Virginia 1959 [182]
Southampton Academy Virginia 1969 [183]
Tidewater Academy (Wakefield) Virginia 1964 [178]
Tidewater Academy (Norfolk) Virginia 1958 [184]
Tomahawk Academy Virginia 1964 [185]
Surry Academy Virginia 1963 [186]
York Academy Virginia 1965 [187]
  1. ^ This list is incomplete. Reliable sources are required for inclusion. Closed segregation academies, especially, may not have sufficient references to support inclusion. See also Category:Segregation academies

In federal law

Green v. Connally (1971) set the standard by which the Internal Revenue Service identifies a segregation academy, a so-called "Paragraph (1) School".[30] The IRS must deny exemption to schools:

which have been determined in adversary or administrative proceedings to be racially discriminatory; or were established or expanded at or about the time the public school districts in which they are located or which they serve were desegregating, and which cannot demonstrate that they do not racially discriminate in admissions, employment, scholarships, loan programs, athletics, and extracurricular programs.

See also

Further reading


  1. ^ a b c Moye, J. Todd (2004). Let the People Decide: Black Freedom and White Resistance Movements in Sunflower County, Mississippi, 1945-1986. UNC Press Books. p. 243. ISBN 9780807855614. Retrieved March 2, 2011. Sunflower County's two other segregation academies— North Sunflower Academy, between Drew and Ruleville, and Central Delta Academy in Inverness— both sprouted in a similar fashion
  2. ^ "A History of Private Schools & Race in the American South". Southern Education Foundation. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
  3. ^ a b White, Jack (December 15, 1975). "Segregated Academies". Time. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  4. ^ Dellinger, Matt (2010). Interstate 69: The Unfinished History of the Last Great American Highway. Simon and Schuster. p. 147. ISBN 978-1439175736.
  5. ^ a b Coulson, Andrew J. (1999). Market Education: The Unknown History. Transaction Publishers. p. 275. ISBN 0-7658-0496-4.
  6. ^ David Salisbury, ed. (2004). Educational Freedom in Urban America: Brown V. Board After Half a Century. CATO Institute. p. 32. ISBN 1-930865-56-2.
  7. ^ Younge, Gary (November 30, 2004). "Alabama clings to segregationist past". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 2, 2006.
  8. ^ a b c ERIC (May 1972). ERIC ED065646: It's Not Over in the South: School Desegregation in Forty-Three Southern Cities Eighteen Years After Brown.
  9. ^ a b c Dyer, Jennifer Eaton (April 12, 2007). The Core Beliefs of Southern Evangelicals: A Psycho-Social Investigation of the Evangelical Megachurch Phenomenon. etd.library.vanderbilt.edu (PhD). Vanderbilt University. p. 23. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
  10. ^ Nagasawa, Mako A. (January 6, 2021). Abortion Policy and Christian Social Ethics in the United States. Wipf and Stock. p. 286. ISBN 978-1-7252-7189-0.
  11. ^ Crowder, Carla (October 27, 2002). "Private white academies struggle in changing world". The Birmingham News. Archived from the original on November 15, 2012. Retrieved May 2, 2006.
  12. ^ Connolly, Regan Loyola (January 12, 2004). "Private schools diversify". The Montgomery Advertiser. p. 1. Archie Douglas, the headmaster of The Montgomery Academy, said that the school was started in 1959 in what he believed was a reaction to desegregation of public schools. He said, "I am sure that those who resented the civil rights movement or sought to get away from it took refuge in the academy. But, it's not 1959 anymore and The Montgomery Academy has a philosophy today that reflects the openness ... and utter lack of discrimination with regard to race or religion that was evident in prior decades."
  13. ^ "Montgomery Academy Profile". Private School Review. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
  14. ^ "The Real Origins of the Religious Right". POLITICO Magazine.
  15. ^ Hall, Isabelle (July 18, 1970). "IRS sets the rules". Pittsburgh Courier. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
  16. ^ Troy, Gil (2005). Morning in America : how Ronald Reagan invented the 1980s. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 94–96. ISBN 978-1-4008-4930-7. OCLC 868971097.
  17. ^ "Wright v. Miller, 480 F. Supp. 790 (D.D.C. 1979)". U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. November 26, 1979. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
  18. ^ "No. 81-757, No. 81-970". Office of the solicitor general, United States department of justice. 1983. Archived from the original on May 23, 2005. Retrieved May 2, 2006. Text of the Allen v. Wright ruling, Supreme Court of the United States.
  19. ^ "IRS vs. 'segregation academies'". Christian Science Monitor. May 27, 1980. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
  20. ^ Johnson, Olati (February 11, 2010). "The Story of Bob Jones University v. United States: Race, Religion, and Congress' Extraordinary Acquiescence". Columbia Public Law & Legal Theory Working Papers: 25. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
  21. ^ Evans, Martin C. (May 16, 2004). "Despite landmark ruling, schools still segregated" (PDF). Newsday. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
  22. ^ a b Merritt, Jonathan (September 18, 2016). "Segregation Is Still Alive at These Christian Schools". Daily Beast. Retrieved November 4, 2017.
  23. ^ "Private Schools: The Last Refuge". Time. November 14, 1969. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
  24. ^ Richmond Times-Dispatch (February 18, 1958) Almond Signs the Little Rock Bill Encyclopedia Virginia
  25. ^ Brian J. Daugherity, (August 2016) "Keep on Keeping On": African Americans and the Implementation of Brown v. Board of Education in Virginia University of Virginia Press
  26. ^ Chris Duncombe; Michael Cassidy (November 4, 2016) Increasingly Separate and Unequal in U.S. and Virginia Schools The Commonwealth Institute for Fiscal Analysis
  27. ^ Brian Daugherity, Keep On Keeping On (University of Virginia Press, 2016) at p. 99
  28. ^ "Massive Resistance". The Civil Rights Movement in Virginia. Virginia Historical Society. 2004.
  29. ^ "Closing Prince Edward County's Schools". The Civil Rights Movement in Virginia. Virginia Historical Society. 2004.
  30. ^ a b Berkovsky, Terry (2000). "Private School Update" (PDF). Internal Revenue Service. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
  31. ^ a b Tobias, Carl (1996). "Public School Desegregation In Virginia During The Post-Brown Decade". William and Mary Law Review. 37 (4): 1288.
  32. ^ "History".
  33. ^ "NSA Quick Facts". Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  34. ^ Carr, Sarah (December 13, 2012). "In Southern Towns, 'Segregation Academies' Are Still Going Strong". The Atlantic.
  35. ^ Robert E. Pierre (December 16, 2011). "Is the Fuqua School's racist past still present?". Washington Post. p. B02.
  36. ^ "» Increasingly Separate and Unequal in U.S. and Virginia Schools".
  37. ^ Kifner, John (1999). "Lott, and Shadow of a Pro-White Group". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  38. ^ "White Supremacist Group Backs Private Academies in Mississippi". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  39. ^ Ellis, Kate. "The Riot at Ole' Miss". American Public Media. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Private School Movement - Encyclopedia of Arkansas". www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
  41. ^ a b c "Brumfield v. Dodd, 405 F. Supp. 338 (E.D. La. 1975)". E. D. La. December 2, 1975. Retrieved September 1, 2017.
  42. ^ a b "Desegregation in North Carolina's Elementary and High Schools · Crossing the Color Line: One at a Time, 1950-1960 · The State of History". soh.omeka.chass.ncsu.edu.
  43. ^ Strauss, Valerie. "Perspective | A new story of school segregation in North Carolina: A private white-flight academy is turning charter". Washington Post.
  44. ^ Edgar, Walter B. (1992). South Carolina in the modern age. University of South Carolina Press. p. 129. ISBN 9780872498310. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
  45. ^ Burton, Vernon and Lewie Reece. "The Palmetto Revolution: School Desegregation in South Carolina." In With all Deliberate Speed; Implementing Brown v. Board of Education, ed. Brian J. Daugherity and Charles C. Bolton, 59-91. Fayetteville, Ark.: The University of Arkansas Press, 2008.
  46. ^ "Tasby v. Estes, 572 F. 2d 1010". Court of Appeals, 5th Circuit. April 21, 1978. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
  47. ^ Kemerer, Frank R. "UNITED STATES V. TEXAS". Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
  48. ^ a b Bagley, Joseph (December 15, 2018). The Politics of White Rights: Race, Justice, and Integrating Alabama's Schools. University of Georgia Press. p. 180. ISBN 9780820354187. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  49. ^ a b Kennedy, Robert Francis (June 1978). Judge Frank M. Johnson, Jr: a biography. Putnam. ISBN 9780399121234.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Smith, Patrick. "The Rebel Made Me Do It: Mascots, Race, and the Lost Cause". Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  51. ^ Bagley, Joseph (2018). The politics of white rights: race, justice, and integrating Alabama's schools. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-8203-5418-7. OCLC 1065537539.
  52. ^ Hilliard III-Baffour Amankwatia, Asa G. (July 2006). "Aliens in the Education Matrix: Recovering Freedom". The New Educator. 2 (2): 87–102. doi:10.1080/15476880600657348. S2CID 219625220.
  53. ^ Nicholas, Bruce (July 31, 1973). "No immediate effections seen here from school ruling". Montgomery Advertiser. p. 1.
  54. ^ McDonald, Anna (May 2005). Southern Normal?: An Exploration of Integration in a Deep South Town: Brewton, Alabama, 1954-1971 (Thesis).
  55. ^ Cook, Jim (July 27, 2016). "Houston Academy has changed since Hillary Clinton's 1972 visit". Retrieved November 22, 2016.
  56. ^ Jones, Pam (Summer 2005). "Where There's a Will: The Story of Indian Springs School". Alabama Heritage Magazine. 77: 26–33.
  57. ^ Holthouse, David (Winter 2008). "Activists Confront Hate in Selma, Ala". Intelligence Report. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  58. ^ Carla Crowder (October 27, 2002). "Private white academies struggle in changing world". Birmingham News. Archived from the original on November 15, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  60. ^ a b c Bagley, Joseph (December 15, 2018). The politics of white rights: race, justice, and integrating Alabama's schools. Athens: University of Georgia Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-8203-5418-7. OCLC 1065537539.
  61. ^ "Segregation Academies and State Action". The Yale Law Journal. 82 (7): 1436–1461. 1973. doi:10.2307/795573. JSTOR 795573.
  62. ^ "Segregation Academies: Past, Still Present". Retrieved November 14, 2017.
  63. ^ "Recreational facilities Ruling Made," The Tuscaloosa News, Jan 21, 1972.
  64. ^ Johnson, Wanda B.; Pearson, Curtis W. D. (December 1983). Fifteen Years Ago...Rural Alabama Revisited. Clearinghouse Publication Number 82. ERIC ED244030.
  65. ^ Bagley, Joseph (2018). The Politics of White Rights: race, justice, and integrating Alabama's schools. Athens: University of Georgia Press. p. 227. ISBN 9780820354187. OCLC 1065537539. Most whites who remained in the city's increasingly tiny, affluent white enclaves enrolled their children in one of its large segregation academies, each of which accepted a token number of black students—Montgomery Academy, no black students among 819; St James School, 49 out of 996; and Trinity Presbyterian, just 1 of 906.
  66. ^ Pete Cobun (April 29, 1971). "Epilogue". Crimson White.((cite news)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  67. ^ Mariah Katherine (April 25, 2021). "Segregation Academies--Episode 3: Interview with Dr. Bryan Oliver, headmaster of Tuscaloosa Academy".
  68. ^ Carla Crowder (October 27, 2002). "Private white academies struggle in changing world". The Birmingham News. Archived from the original on November 15, 2012.
  69. ^ a b c d e "Private School Group Formed". Camden, Arkansas: Camden News. June 25, 1973. Retrieved June 21, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  70. ^ "Our History and Mission | Central Arkansas Christian Schools". Central Arkansas Christian Schools. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
  71. ^ a b "Private Schools". Education Week. August 3, 1988. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
  72. ^ Ringle, William (October 12, 1971). "Seg Academies go hand and hand with Integration". Port Huron Times Herald. p. 8. After schools opened here this year, an estimated 3,100 pupils, almost entirely white, failed to show up. It was a similar story in Mobile, Ala.: 2,000 missing. In Indianapolis, Ind., 4,000 pupils stayed away. In Savannah, Ga. an estimated 4,000 eligible pupils are not in public school. In Pasadena, Calif., 1,700. Where are they? Mostly in private schools — dubbed "segregation academies" — which have sprung up wherever schools have been integrated, North and South. Since the Supreme Court's 1954 decision outlawing schools separated by race, the number of private schools has more than doubled. About 300,000 pupils attend "seg academies" across the nation, according to estimates presented to the Senate Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity. In this city, where full-scale desegregation was imposed this year for the first time, five academies have opened on top of nine already here. Among the new ones is Bayshore Christian School. Its principal, Winton A. Porter, rejects the suggestion that it was planned to defeat either busing or desegregation.
  73. ^ Johnson, Maria (April 28, 1992). "Bayshore principal called basketball evangelist". The Tampa Tribune. p. 8. The school was founded by the Rev. Robert Shelley 20 years ago, [principle Herman] Valdes said, when busing became an issue in the county's public school system.
  74. ^ "Racial Exclusion by Religious Schools: Brown v. Dade Christian Schools, Inc". Harvard Law Review. 91 (4): 879–886. 1978. doi:10.2307/1340360. JSTOR 1340360.
  75. ^ "Private Religious Schools / Segregation / Court, Ruling | Vanderbilt Television News Archive". tvnews.vanderbilt.edu. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  76. ^ "EDUCATIONAL POLICY AND THE LAW" (PDF). Washington University in St. Louis School of Law. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 16, 2018. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  77. ^ Clary, Mike (December 29, 2006). "School's racial divides blur on football field". Florida Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  78. ^ Pynn, Roger (February 25, 1970). "Private Prep School Plans Announced". The Orlando Sentinel. p. 8A. Retrieved May 4, 2021 – via Newspapers.com. [Board of trustees chairman Joseph] Guernsey refused comment on whether the move was a result of suggestions that private schools were needed in light of federally ordered Integration of public schools.
  79. ^ a b Glenda Alice Rabby, The Pain and the Promise: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Tallahassee, Florida, Athens, Ga., University of Georgia Press, 1999, ISBN 082032051X, p. 255.
  80. ^ "Just 'one of the boys'". Pulitzer.org.
  81. ^ a b White, Headley J. (2006). Effects of Desegregation on Gadsden County, Florida Public Schools 1968-1972 (PhD). Florida State University. p. 84. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  82. ^ Davis, Horace G Jr. (August 3, 1970). "Do you, Governor Kirk?". Retrieved June 4, 2021.
  83. ^ White, Tim; Smith, Kimberly M. (October 8, 2012). At the End of the Road: One Man's Journey from Chaos to Clarity. BookBaby. ISBN 9780985917715.
  84. ^ Deever, Bryan (April 1991). The Panopticon of Tracking: Desegregation and Curriculum Change in a Southern School, 1968-1972 (Thesis). ERIC ED406459.
  85. ^ Hearings Before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity. United States Senate. March 3–6, 1971. Retrieved May 7, 2021.
  86. ^ "Six Schools kicked out for alleged segregation". Aiken Standard. May 1, 1972. p. 9 – via Newspapers.com. Six schools have been banished from the Georgia Association of Independent Schools (GAIS) after being accused of maintaining segregationist ties... They are ... Flint River Academy in Macon
  87. ^ Ezell, Hank. "A new era for academies".
  88. ^ a b Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity, United States. Congress. Senate. (1970). Equal Educational Opportunity: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity, Ninety-first Congress, Second Session-92nd Congress, First Session, Volume 10. Hearings before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 2018,2120. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  89. ^ Pinholster, Johnna. "Consolidation: A history of two systems". Valdosta Daily Times.
  90. ^ Williams, Roger M. (August 21, 1976). "Savannah - Historic Roots at an Affordable Price (Saturday Review)". Saturday Review Magazine. p. 18. ((cite magazine)): Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  91. ^ a b King, Wayne (May 9, 1979). "South Leads the Country In School Desegregation". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
  92. ^ Oney, Steve (March 2, 1980). "A town lost in time". Atlanta Journal Construction. p. 12. Leary is consequently a profoundly segregated town. Nine hundred and sixty-one people live in the hamlet. About seven hundred are black, and the rest are white. The whites live in several dozen neat brick and frame houses in the southwestern end of town. They live on paved streets with sidewalks, and their children attend private schools in Albany, Damascus, or Shellman. In 1970 when the Calhoun County schools consolidated, several of Leary's more prosperous whites pooled their money, bought a yellow Bluebird school bus, lettered it "Southwest Georgia Academy", and now, at great expense, trundle their boys and girls off in it every morning for the long ride necessary to assure that they will not attend classes with blacks.
  93. ^ "History - The Westfield School". The Westfield School. July 9, 2020.
  94. ^ "Houston Home Journal". Georgia Historic Newspapers. December 31, 1970. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
  95. ^ a b c d e Brumfield v. Dodd, 425 F. Supp. 528 (E.D. La. 1977)
  96. ^ Jim Carl (September 13, 2011). Freedom of Choice: Vouchers in American Education: Vouchers in American Education. ABC-CLIO. pp. 54–6. ISBN 978-0-313-39328-0. Retrieved September 7, 2012.
  97. ^ Klingler, Thomas (August 1, 2003). If I Could Turn My Tongue Like That: The Creole Language of Pointe Coupee Parish, Louisiana. LSU Press. p. 124. ISBN 9780807127797.
  98. ^ a b c d e Fabre, Alvin Joseph Jr. (May 1975). Changes in the Pointe Coupee Parish School System During the Years of School Desegregation 1965-1972. Louisiana State University. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
  99. ^ Tax-exempt status of private schools: hearing before the Subcommittee on Oversight of the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives, Ninety-ninth Congress, first session. November 1, 1985. hdl:2027/uc1.31210024924332.
  100. ^ Thornton, Mary (April 21, 1983). "A Legacy of Legal Segregation Returns to Haunt a Small Town". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved November 4, 2017.
  101. ^ a b c d e f g h i j McGee, Meredith Coleman (March 21, 2013). James Meredith: Warrior and the America that Created Him. ABC-CLIO. p. 40. ISBN 9780313397400.
  102. ^ a b Carr, Sarah (December 13, 2012). "In Southern Towns, 'Segregation Academies' Are Still Going Strong". The Atlantic.
  103. ^ a b Pittman, Ashton (November 23, 2018). "Hyde-Smith Attended All-White 'Seg Academy' to Avoid Integration". Retrieved November 24, 2018. There's "no doubt that's why those schools were set up," said former U.S. Rep Ronnie Shows, a Democrat who was Hyde's junior high basketball coach at Lawrence County Academy in the 1970s.
  104. ^ Campbell, Donna (May 9, 2017). "Governor to speak at BA graduation". The Daily Leader. Retrieved November 24, 2018. Anna-Michael Smith is one of 34 graduates who will be receiving diplomas in John R. Gray Gymnasium at BA Friday. The ceremony begins at 7 p.m. and it is open to the public. Smith is the daughter of Mike Smith and Cindy Hyde-Smith, of Brookhaven. Her mom is the commissioner of agriculture and commerce for the state. The Smiths also raise cattle, which makes Anna-Michael a fifth generation farmer.
  105. ^ a b c Bolton, Charles C. (2005). The Hardest Deal of All. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 9781578067176.
  106. ^ a b Coffey v. State Educational Finance Commission 296 F. Supp. 1389 (S.D. Miss. 1969)
  107. ^ "About Carroll Academy". Retrieved November 4, 2017.
  108. ^ Howell, Jeffery B. (March 22, 2017). Hazel Brannon Smith: The Female Crusading Scalawag. Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 224. ISBN 9781496810823.
  109. ^ Sojourner, Sue [Lorenzi] (January 3, 2013). Thunder of Freedom: Black Leadership and the Transformation of 1960s Mississippi. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0813140940.
  110. ^ a b Kanengiser, Andy (December 10, 1985). "Desegregation Helps them Cope Now". Clarion Ledger.
  111. ^ Boyd, Bob (February 1, 1970). "Mayor J.W. Fore is worried over school situation". Delta Democrat Times. p. 20.
  112. ^ "History." Delta Academy. Retrieved on April 8, 2012.
  113. ^ a b Johnston, Erle (1990). Mississippi's Defiant Years, 1953-1973: An Interpretive Documentary with Personal Experiences. Lake Harbor Publishers. p. 309. ISBN 9789991746159.
  114. ^ Rose, Bill (October 11, 1970). "Textbook suite may affect 1 area school". Delta Democrat Times. p. 6.
  115. ^ "A Goal-line Stand For Prejudice". tribunedigital-chicagotribune. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
  116. ^ "Belzoni private academy loses tax-exempt status". Enterprise-Tocsin. September 17, 1970. p. 1.
  117. ^ "Coffey v. State Educational Finance Commission, 296 F. Supp. 1389 (S.D. Miss. 1969)". Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  118. ^ Massey, Richard (March 17, 2001). "Is Bussing Order Still Needed?". Clarksdale Press Register. p. 1.
  119. ^ "Student Handbook 2020-21 – Leake Academy".
  120. ^ "Leake Academy". National Center for Educational Statistics. US Department of Education. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
  121. ^ Hewitt Smith, Debbie (June 29, 2020). "As Sesame Street Started So Did Our Seg Academy". Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  122. ^ Wolfe, Anna (December 17, 2014). "What is a 'Segregation Academy'?". Jackson Free Press. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
  123. ^ Aiken, Charles S. (March 24, 2003). The Cotton Plantation South Since the Civil War. JHU Press. p. 278. ISBN 9780801873096.
  124. ^ Nicholas, Teresa (September 9, 2009). "The Times They Are A-Changin' (Back)". NPR. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  125. ^ Langston, Caroline (April 8, 2020). "It's Just Like the Good Old Days Again". Academy Stories. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  126. ^ Callejo-Pérez, David M., 1972- (2001). Southern hospitality : identity, schools, and the civil rights movement in Mississippi, 1964-1972, CHAPTER TEN: Options in the Aftermath of Integration, 1965-1972. New York: P. Lang. pp. 119–127. ISBN 0820450138. OCLC 45129006.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  127. ^ Pohlmann, Marcus D. (2008). Opportunity Lost: Race and Poverty in the Memphis City Schools. Univ. of Tennessee Press. p. 85. ISBN 9781572336384.
  128. ^ Asch, Chris Myers (February 1, 2011). The Senator and the Sharecropper: The Freedom Struggles of James O. Eastland and Fannie Lou Hamer. Univ of North Carolina Press. p. 27. ISBN 9780807878057.
  129. ^ Selection and confirmation of Federal judges: hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Ninety-sixth Congress. United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. 1981.
  130. ^ Weaver, Nancy (November 29, 1982). "Race Remains a Factor in School Choice". Clarion Ledger. p. 12.
  131. ^ "Academies Lose Decision". Deta Democrat-Times. July 16, 1975. Retrieved May 25, 2021.
  132. ^ "Private Academy Backlash". Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  133. ^ McLaughlin, Eliott (May 27, 2016). "Could Mississippi integration ruling trigger 'white flight'?". CNN. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
  134. ^ Herbert, Bob (May 16, 1999). "In America; Haunted by Segregation". New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
  135. ^ "Commentary: The Fight for Education Equity in Mississippi - NBC News". NBC News. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
  136. ^ Dangerfileld, Celnisha. "Mapping Race, School Segregation, and Black Identities in Woodville, Mississippi: A Case Study of a Rural Community". Journal of Rural Community Psychology - Mapping Race. Archived from the original on January 23, 2009.
  137. ^ Conference, United Methodist Church (U S. ) General (2008). The book of resolutions of the United Methodist Church, 2008. United Methodist Pub. House. p. 27. ISBN 9780687032211.
  138. ^ Rosenthal, Jack (September 11, 1970). "BOOKS OUT AND IN AT JACKSON, MISS". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
  139. ^ George, Dustin. "50 Years of Parrott Academy". The Free Press. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  140. ^ Godwin, John L. (2000). Black Wilmington and the North Carolina Way: Portrait of a Community in the Era of Civil Rights Protest. University Press of America. p. 205. ISBN 9780761816829.
  141. ^ a b c d Franklin, Lewis Glenn (1975). Desegregation and the rise of private education (Thesis). OCLC 1699203.
  142. ^ "NC NAACP Amicus Brief outlines history of private-school vouchers in NC". The Carolina Mercury. February 14, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2017.
  143. ^ Myers, Christopher (2004). "White Freedom Schools: The White Academy Movement in Eastern North Carolina, 1954-1973". The North Carolina Historical Review. 81 (4): 393–425. JSTOR 23523212.
  144. ^ Adam, Jerry; Covington, Sam R (September 7, 1969). "Private schools include buildings old and new". Charlotte Observer. p. 12.
  145. ^ "CHA: Our History". Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  146. ^ Vaden, Luci (2014). Before the Corridor of Shame: The African American Fight for Equal Education After Jim Crow. University of South Carolina Scholar Commons. p. 147.
  147. ^ Brown, Martha Rose (February 8, 2010). "Dwindling enrollment, weak economy force closure of Bowman Academy". T&D. Retrieved November 4, 2017.
  148. ^ Calhoun Academy v. Commissioner United States Tax Court 94 T.C. 284 (March 1, 1990)
  149. ^ a b c d Hawes, Jennifer Berry; Adcox, Seanna; Bowers, Paul; Moore, Thad; Smith, Glenn (November 14, 2018). "No accident of history". Post and Courier. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  150. ^ a b Ladson-Billings, Gloria (October 2004). "Landing on the Wrong Note: The Price We Paid for Brown". Educational Researcher. 33 (7): 3–13. doi:10.3102/0013189x033007003. JSTOR 3700092. S2CID 144660677.
  151. ^ a b c Estes, Steve (July 10, 2015). Charleston in Black and White: Race and Power in the South after the Civil Rights Movement. UNC Press Books. p. 93. ISBN 9781469622330.
  152. ^ Wachter, Paul (February 10, 2015). "The Seventh Coming". Grantland. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
  153. ^ Egerton, John (September 1, 1991). Archaeology of Louisiana: Dispatches from the Modern South. LSU Press. p. 237. ISBN 9780807117057.
  154. ^ Herndon, Nancy (May 19, 1988). "Children of a split community". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved March 31, 2023. Once all of the white children here attended the public schools in the Hampton II district. But when the public schools were integrated in 1965 - bringing in five times the number of black children as white from the rural countryside - the white parents formed the Patrick Henry Academy.
  155. ^ "White Parents Flee Public Schools". Federal Times. Army Times Publishing Company. January 1, 1971.
  156. ^ Hawes, Jennifer; Adcox, Seanna; Bowers, Paul; Moore, Thad; Smith, Glenn (November 14, 2018). "No accident of history". The Post and Courier. Retrieved February 24, 2021. Thomas Heyward Academy opened in rural Jasper County in 1970, the year that most districts in South Carolina desegregated under court order. It was one of dozens of private schools that opened to white students as the state resisted integration in the late 1960s and 1970s.
  157. ^ "Elizabeth Martin". Fairfield High School Oral History Collection. University of South Carolina Libraries. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  158. ^ "Jerome & Nadine Boyd". Fairfield High School Oral History Collection. University of South Carolina Libraries. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  159. ^ Canup, William Shane (2015). "The Geography of Public-Private School Choice and Race: A Case Study of Sumter, Clarendon, and Lee Counties, South Carolina" (PDF). Retrieved May 6, 2021.
  160. ^ David Quick (November 5, 2013). "Charleston Collegiate weaves outdoors into curricula". Post and Courier. And unlike many private schools, Collegiate's student body is diverse, with about 30 percent being minorities. That fact bears noting because the school, which originated as Sea Island Academy, was among a wave of low-cost, rural 'segregation academies' that emerged in the South during the 1970s as a reaction to desegregation.(subscription required)
  161. ^ Hawkins, J. Russell Hawkins. "Religion, Race, and Resistance: White Evangelicals and the Dilemma of Integration in South Carolina 1950-1975" (PDF). Retrieved January 4, 2014.
  162. ^ Canup, William Shane The Geography of Public-Private School Choice and Race: A Case Study of Sumter, Clarendon, and Lee Counties, South Carolina (2015)
  163. ^ a b Reid, Richard (May 26, 2006). "Black Education Martyrs". The Times and Democrat. p. 2.
  164. ^ "The South and Her Children: School Desegregation 1970-1971" (PDF). Southern Regional Council, Atlanta. March 1971. Retrieved August 26, 2022.
  165. ^ Nelson, David (February 18, 1974). "Answer to problem in Williamsburg County could affect every American". The Times and Democrat. p. B1.
  166. ^ "Mt. Zion AME Church in Greeleyville, SC is Currently on Fire". Daily Kos.
  167. ^ Pohlmann, Marcus D. (2008). Opportunity Lost: Race and Poverty in the Memphis City Schools. Univ. of Tennessee Press. p. 85. ISBN 9781572336384.
  168. ^ Ritter, Frank (December 12, 1971). "New Private Schools Filled to Capacity". The Tennessean. p. 1.
  169. ^ O'hara, Jim (July 22, 1973). "The 'Christian' schools are on the boom". The Tennessean. p. 1B.
  170. ^ "40 years of DISD desegregation - Lakewood/East Dallas". Lakewood/East Dallas. July 22, 2011. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
  171. ^ "Private School Enrollment $$$ Help for Institution". Baytown Sun. August 4, 1972. p. 8.
  172. ^ Baker, Donald P. (August 9, 1993). "A SCHOOL LEFT BEHIND BY THE TIMES". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
  173. ^ a b "Runyon v. McCrary, 427 U.S. 160 (1976)". Justia. Retrieved November 9, 2017.
  174. ^ "About Broadwater Academy". Retrieved February 10, 2019.
  175. ^ "About Brunswick Academy". Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  176. ^ "At-A-Glance | Carlisle School". carlisleschool.org. Retrieved November 12, 2017.
  177. ^ Brookover, Wilbur B. (1993). "Education in Prince Edward County, Virginia, 1953-1993". The Journal of Negro Education. 62 (2): 149–161. doi:10.2307/2295190. JSTOR 2295190.
  178. ^ a b c d HANTHORN, Jessica (May 16, 2004). "Overcoming Exclusion". Daily Press. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  179. ^ Wasson, Wynne W. (August 9, 1998). "Disparate Pasts - Equal Future - Blessed Sacrament, Huguenot Academy Merger Promises Gains for Schools, Students". Richmond Times-Dispatch. pp. B1. Retrieved November 2, 2011.
  180. ^ Public Education : 1964 Staff Report (PDF). United States Commission on Civil Rights. 1964. p. 277. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  181. ^ Keelor, Josette (October 17, 2014). "Classmates recall divided schools". Northern Virginia Daily. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
  182. ^ a b Gilliam, George. "Interview with Judge Barry Marshall". Virginia Center for Digital History, University of Virginia. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
  183. ^ Modlin, Carolyn Carter (August 25, 1998). The Desegregation of Southampton County, Virginia Schools 1954-1970 (Thesis). hdl:10919/30040.
  184. ^ Watson, Denise. "The Norfolk 17 face a hostile reception as schools reopen". Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
  185. ^ 1964 Staff Report Public Education (PDF). United States Commission on Civil Rights. October 1964. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  186. ^ LENZ, BY JESSICA HANTHORN AND KIMBERLY. "Overcoming Exclusion". dailypress.com.
  187. ^ Press, MARY MONTAGUE SIKESSpecial to the Daily. "OLD CLASSMATES, NEW MEMORIES". dailypress.com.