Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people can face violence motivated by hateful attitudes towards their sexuality or gender identity.[1] Violence may be executed by the state, as in laws prescribing corporal punishment for homosexual acts (see homosexuality laws), or by individuals engaging in intimidation, mobbing, assault, or lynching (see gay bashing, trans bashing). Violence targeted at people because of their perceived sexuality can be psychological or physical and can extend to murder. These actions may be motivated by homophobia, lesbophobia, biphobia, transphobia, and may be influenced by cultural, religious, or political mores and biases.[2]

Currently, homosexual acts are legal in almost all Western countries, and in many of these countries violence against LGBT people is classified as a hate crime,[3] with such violence often being connected with conservative or religious leaning ideologies which condemn homosexuality, or being perpetrated by individuals who associate homosexuality with being weak, ill, feminine, or immoral. Outside the West, many countries, particularly those where the dominant religion is Islam, most African countries (excluding South Africa), most Asian countries (excluding the LGBT-friendly countries of Israel, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and the Philippines) and some former-Communist countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, such as Russia, Poland, Albania, Kosovo, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, are currently very dangerous for LGBT people because of discrimination against homosexuals which influences both discriminatory legislation and physical violence.[4]

In Europe, the European Union's Employment Equality Framework Directive and Charter of Fundamental Rights offer some protection against sexuality-based discrimination.

Historically, state-sanctioned persecution of homosexuals was mostly limited to male homosexuality, termed "sodomy". During the medieval and early modern period, the penalty for sodomy was usually death. During the modern period (from the 19th century to the mid-20th century) in the Western world, the penalty was usually a fine or imprisonment.

There was a drop in locations where homosexual acts remained illegal from 2009 when there were 80 countries worldwide (notably throughout the Middle East, Central Asia and in most of Africa, but also in some of the Caribbean and Oceania) with five carrying the death penalty[5] to 2016 when 72 countries criminalized consensual sexual acts between adults of the same sex.[6]

Brazil is reported to have the world's highest LGBT murder rate, with more than 380 murders in 2017 alone, an increase of 30% compared to 2016.[7]

State-sanctioned violence

Historic

The knight von Hohenburg and his squire, being burned at the stake for sodomy, Zurich 1482 (Zurich Central Library)

The Middle East

An early law against sexual intercourse between men is recorded in Leviticus by the Hebrew people, prescribing the death penalty. A violent law regarding homosexual intercourse is prescribed in the Middle Assyrian Law Codes (1075 BCE), stating: "If a man lay with his neighbor, when they have prosecuted him (and) convicted him, they shall lie with him (and) turn him into a eunuch".

In the account given in Tacitus Germania, the death penalty was reserved for two kinds of capital offenses: military treason or desertion was punished by hanging, and moral infamy (cowardice and homosexuality: ignavos et imbelles at corpore infames); Gordon translates corpore infames as "unnatural prostitutes"; Tacitus refers to male homosexuality, see David F. Greenberg, The construction of homosexuality, p. 242 f. Scholarship compares the later Germanic concept of Old Norse argr, Langobardic arga, which combines the meanings "effeminate, cowardly, homosexual", see Jaan Puhvel, 'Who were the Hittite hurkilas pesnes?' in: A. Etter (eds.), O-o-pe-ro-si (FS Risch), Walter de Gruyter, 1986, p. 154.

Europe

Execution by fire and torture of five homosexual Franciscan friars, Bruges, 26 July 1578
Execution by fire and torture of five homosexual Franciscan friars, Bruges, 26 July 1578

In Republican Rome, the poorly attested Lex Scantinia penalized an adult male for committing a sex crime (stuprum) against an underage male citizen (ingenuus). It is unclear whether the penalty was death or a fine. The law may also have been used to prosecute adult male citizens who willingly took a pathic role in same-sex acts, but prosecutions are rarely recorded and the provisions of the law are vague; as John Boswell has noted, "if there was a law against homosexual relations, no one in Cicero's day knew anything about it."[8] When the Roman Empire came under Christian rule, all male homosexual activity was increasingly repressed, often on pain of death.[9] In 342 CE, the Christian emperors Constantius and Constans declared same-sex marriage to be illegal.[10] Shortly after, in the year 390 CE, emperors Valentinian II, Theodosius I and Arcadius declared homosexual sex to be illegal and those who were guilty of it were condemned to be publicly burned alive.[9] Emperor Justinian I (527–565 CE) made homosexuals a scapegoat for problems such as "famines, earthquakes, and pestilences."[11]

Laws and codes prohibiting homosexual practice were in force in Europe from the fourth[9] to the twentieth centuries, and Muslim countries have had similar laws from the beginnings of Islam in the seventh century up to and including the present day. Abbasid Baghdad, under the Caliph Al-Hadi (785–786 CE), punished homosexuality with death.

During the Middle Ages, the Kingdom of France and the City of Florence also instated the death penalty. In Florence, a young boy named Giovanni di Giovanni (1350–1365?) was castrated and burned between the thighs with a red-hot iron by court order under this law.[12][13] These punishments continued into the Renaissance, and spread to the Swiss canton of Zürich. Knight Richard von Hohenberg (died 1482) was burned at the stake together with his lover, his young squire, during this time. In France, French writer Jacques Chausson (1618–1661) was also burned alive for attempting to seduce the son of a nobleman.

In 17th century Malta, there was harsh prejudice and laws towards those who were found guilty or speak openly of being involved in same-sex activity. English voyager and author William Lithgow, writing in March 1616, says a Spanish soldier and a Maltese teenage boy were publicly burnt to ashes for confessing to have practiced sodomy together.[14] As a consequence, and fear to similar faith, about a hundred males involved in same-sex prostitution sailed to Sicily the following day. This episode, published abroad by a foreign writer, is the most detailed account of LGBT life during the rule of the Order. It represents that homosexuality was still a taboo, but a widespread practice, an open secret, and LGBT-related information was suppressed.[15]

In England, the Buggery Act of 1534 made sodomy and bestiality punishable by death. This act was replaced in 1828, but sodomy remained punishable by death under the new act until 1861. The last executions were in 1835.

In Nazi Germany, homosexuals were among the groups targeted by the Holocaust (See Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust). (In 1936, the homosexual Federico García Lorca was executed by right-wing rebels who became Franco's dictatorship in Spain, Hitler's ally.) Neo-Nazis generally oppose homosexuality to the extent of supporting a renewed persecution the way it took place in Nazi Germany. Being homosexual is equated with being unmasculine and the German word ″Schwul″ ('gay') is used by German Neonazis as a curse word.[16]

Contemporary

Main article: LGBT rights by country or territory

Worldwide laws regarding same-sex intercourse, unions and expression
Same-sex intercourse illegal. Penalties:
  Death
  Prison; death not enforced
  Death under militias
  Prison, with arrests or detention
  Prison, not enforced1
Same-sex intercourse legal. Recognition of unions:
  Extraterritorial marriage2
  Limited foreign
  Optional certification
  None
  Restrictions of expression
Rings indicate local or case-by-case application.
1No imprisonment in the past three years or moratorium on law.
2Marriage not available locally. Some jurisdictions may perform other types of partnerships.

As of August 2016, 72 countries criminalize consensual sexual acts between adults of the same sex.[6] They are punishable by death in eight countries:

Countries where homosexual acts are criminalized but not punished by death, by region, include:[19]

Africa

Algeria, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Comoros, Egypt, Eritrea, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Morocco, Namibia, Nigeria (death penalty in some states), Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia (death penalty in some states), South Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Asia

Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, Kuwait, Malaysia, Aceh, Maldives, Oman, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Syria, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Gaza Strip under Palestinian Authority

Americas

Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Pacific Islands

Kiribati, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Cook Islands[20]

Afghanistan, where such acts remain punishable with fines and a prison sentence, dropped the death penalty after the fall of the Taliban in 2001, who had mandated it from 1996. India criminalized homosexuality until June 2, 2009, when the High Court of Delhi declared section 377 of the Indian Penal Code invalid.[20]

Jamaica has some of the toughest sodomy laws in the world, with homosexual activity carrying a 10-year jail sentence.[21][21][22][23]

International human rights organizations such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International condemn laws that make homosexual relations between consenting adults a crime.[24][25] Since 1994, the United Nations Human Rights Committee has also ruled that such laws violated the right to privacy guaranteed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.[26][27][28]

See also: Mahmoud Asgari and Ayaz Marhoni

LGBT rights statistics

By continent

Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania Total
Yes 29 entities (45.31%) Yes 47 entities (83.93%) Yes 26 entities (56.52%) Yes 62 entities (100.00%) Yes 19 entities (73.08%) Yes 182 entities (71.77%)
No 35 entities (54.69%) No 9 entities (16.07%) No 20 entities (43.48%) No 0 entities (0.00%) No 7 entities (26.92%) No 72 entities (28.23%)
64 entities (100.00%) 56 entities (100.00%) 46 entities (100.00%) 62 entities (100.00%) 26 entities (100.00%) 254 entities (100.00%)

By Human Development Index (HDI)

Categories Position Country/ Territory Continent Region Population 2018 rankings Legal status Level of criminilization
Very high 1  Norway Europe Northern Europe 5 328 212 0.953 Legal -
2   Switzerland Europe Central Europe 8 508 898 0.944 Legal -
3  Australia (including territories of  Christmas Island,  Cocos (Keeling) Islands and  Norfolk Island) Oceania Australasia 25 331 400 0.939 Legal -
4  Ireland Europe Western Europe 4 857 000 0.938 Legal -
5  Germany Europe Central Europe 83 000 000 0.936 Legal -
6  Iceland Europe Northern Europe 357 050 0.935 Legal -
7  Hong Kong (Special administrative region of China) Asia East Asia 7 448 900 0.933 Legal -
 Sweden Europe Northern Europe 10 223 505 0.933 Legal -
9  Singapore Asia Southeast Asia 5 612 300 0.932 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
10  Netherlands (including constituent country of  Aruba,  Curaçao and  Sint Maarten, special municipalities of  Caribbean Netherlands (Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius)) Europe Western Europe 17 308 133 0.931 Legal -
11  Denmark (including constituent country of  Faroe Islands and  Greenland) Europe Northern Europe 5 806 015 0.929 Legal -
12  Canada Americas North America 37 314 442 0.926 Legal -
13  United States (including Commonwealth of  Puerto Rico and Territory of  United States Virgin Islands; and Unincorporated territory of  American Samoa,  Guam,  Northern Mariana Islands and  United States Minor Outlying Islands) Americas North America 327 167 434 0.924 Legal -
14  United Kingdom (including Crown dependency of  Guernsey,  Isle of Man and  Jersey; and Overseas Territory of  Akrotiri and Dhekelia,  Anguilla,  Bermuda,  British Indian Ocean Territory,  British Virgin Islands,  Cayman Islands,  Falkland Islands,  Gibraltar,  Montserrat,  Pitcairn Islands,  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha,  South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and  Turks and Caicos Islands) Europe Western Europe 66 040 229 0.922 Legal -
15  Finland (includes Åland Islands) Europe Northern Europe 5 520 535 0.920 Legal -
16  New Zealand (including  Cook Islands,  Niue and  Tokelau as part of the Realm of New Zealand) Oceania Australasia 4 956 760 0.917 Legal -
17  Belgium Europe Western Europe 11 420 163 0.916 Legal -
 Liechtenstein Europe Central Europe 38 547 0.916 Legal -
19  Japan Asia East Asia 126 440 000 0.909 Legal -
20  Austria Europe Central Europe 8 857 960 0.908 Legal -
21  Luxembourg Europe Western Europe 602 005 0.904 Legal -
22  Israel Asia West Asia 9 020 190 0.903 Legal -
 South Korea Asia East Asia 51 446 201 0.903 Legal -
24  France (including Overseas Territory of  French Southern and Antarctic Lands; Overseas region of  Mayotte and  Réunion; Overseas collectivity of  French Polynesia,  Saint Barthélemy,  Saint Martin and  Saint Pierre and Miquelon and  Wallis and Futuna; Overseas department of  French Guiana,  Guadeloupe and  Martinique; and Special collectivity of  New Caledonia) Europe Western Europe 65 167 000 0.901 Legal -
25  Slovenia Europe Central Europe 2 076 598 0.896 Legal -
26  Spain (including Autonomous community of  Canary Islands; Autonomous city of  Ceuta and  Melilla) Europe Southern Europe 46 733 038 0.891 Legal -
27  Czech Republic Europe Central Europe 10 610 947 0.888 Legal -
28  Italy Europe Southern Europe 60 483 973 0.880 Legal -
29  Malta Europe Southern Europe 475 700 0.878 Legal -
30  Estonia Europe Northern Europe 1 323 824 0.871 Legal -
31  Greece Europe Southern Europe 10 768 477 0.870 Legal -
32  Cyprus (including Disputed territory of  Northern Cyprus) Asia Eurasia 1 170 125 0.869 Legal -
33  Poland Europe Central Europe 38 433 600 0.865 Legal -
34  United Arab Emirates Asia West Asia 9 541 615 0.863 Ilegal Imprisonment
35  Andorra Europe Southern Europe 77 281 0.858 Legal -
 Lithuania Europe Northern Europe 2 790 842 0.858 Legal -
37  Qatar Asia West Asia 2 641 669 0.856 Ilegal Imprisonment
38  Slovakia Europe Central Europe 5 445 087 0.855 Legal -
39  Brunei Asia Southeast Asia 422 678 0.853 Ilegal No Death penalty
 Saudi Arabia Asia West Asia 33 413 660 0.853 Ilegal No Death penalty
41  Latvia Europe Northern Europe 1 925 800 0.847 Legal -
 Portugal Europe Southern Europe 10 291 027 0.847 Legal -
43  Bahrain Asia West Asia 1 425 171 0.846 Legal -
44  Chile (including Special territory of  Easter Island) Americas South America 17 574 003 0.843 Legal -
45  Hungary Europe Central Europe 9 797 561 0.838 Legal -
46  Croatia Europe Central Europe 4 154 200 0.831 Legal -
47  Argentina Americas South America 43 847 430 0.825 Legal -
48  Oman Asia West Asia 5 011 022 0.821 Ilegal Imprisonment
49  Russia Europe Eurasia 146 793 744 0.816 Legal -
50  Montenegro Europe Southern Europe 678 901 0.814 Legal -
51  Bulgaria Europe Southern Europe 7 050 034 0.813 Legal -
52  Romania Europe Eastern Europe 19 518 117 0.811 Legal -
53  Belarus Europe Eastern Europe 9 491 800 0.808 Legal -
54  Bahamas Americas Caribbean 391 232 0.807 Legal -
55  Uruguay Americas South America 3 444 006 0.804 Legal -
56  Kuwait Asia West Asia 4 226 920 0.803 Ilegal Imprisonment
57  Malaysia Asia Southeast Asia 32 655 700 0.802 Ilegal Imprisonment
58  Barbados Americas Caribbean 286 388 0.800 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
 Kazakhstan Asia Eurasia 18 311 700 0.800 Legal -
High 60  Iran Asia West Asia 81 756 900 0.798 Ilegal No Death penalty
 Palau Oceania Micronesia 21 503 0.798 Legal -
62  Seychelles Africa Indian Ocean States 94 228 0.797 Legal -
63  Costa Rica Americas Central America 4 857 274 0.794 Legal -
64  Turkey Asia Eurasia 82 003 882 0.791 Legal -
65  Mauritius Africa Indian Ocean States 1 264 887 0.790 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
66  Panama Americas Central America 4 034 119 0.789 Legal -
67  Serbia (including Disputed territory of  Kosovo) Europe Southern Europe 7 001 444 0.787 Legal -
68  Albania Europe Southern Europe 2 876 591 0.785 Legal -
69  Trinidad and Tobago Americas Caribbean 1 359 193 0.784 Legal -
70  Antigua and Barbuda Americas Caribbean 100 963 0.780 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
 Georgia (including Disputed territory of  Abkhazia and  South Ossetia) Europe Eurasia 3 432 862 0.780 Legal -
72  Saint Kitts and Nevis Americas Caribbean 54 821 0.778 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
73  Cuba Americas Caribbean 11 221 060 0.777 Legal -
74  Mexico Americas North America 126 577 691 0.774 Legal -
75  Grenada Americas Caribbean 107 317 0.772 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
76  Sri Lanka Asia South Asia 21 670 000 0.770 Legal -
77  Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe Southern Europe 3 511 372 0.768 Legal -
78  Venezuela Americas South America 31 568 179 0.761 Legal -
79  Brazil Americas South America 210 147 125 0.759 Legal -
80  Azerbaijan Europe Eurasia 10 000 000 0.757 Legal -
 Lebanon Asia West Asia 6 093 509 0.757 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
 North Macedonia Europe Southern Europe 2 103 721 0.757 Legal -
83  Armenia (including Disputed territory of  Artsakh) Europe Eurasia 2 773 884 0.755 Legal -
 Thailand Asia Southeast Asia 68 863 514 0.755 Legal -
85  Algeria Africa Northern Africa 42 545 964 0.754 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
86  China (including Special administrative region of  Macau) Asia East Asia 1 403 500 365 0.752 Legal -
 Ecuador Americas South America 16 385 068 0.752 Legal -
88  Ukraine Europe Eastern Europe 42 418 235 0.751 Legal -
89  Peru Americas South America 32 495 510 0.750 Legal -
90  Colombia Americas South America 49 996 445 0.747 Legal -
 Saint Lucia Americas Caribbean 178 844 0.747 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
92  Fiji Oceania Melanesia 912 241 0.741 Legal -
 Mongolia Asia East Asia 3 081 677 0.741 Legal -
94  Dominican Republic Americas Caribbean 10 735 896 0.736 Legal -
95  Jordan Asia West Asia 10 171 480 0.735 Legal -
 Tunisia Africa Northern Africa 11 446 300 0.735 Ilegal Imprisonment
97  Jamaica Americas Caribbean 2 890 299 0.732 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
98  Tonga Oceania Polynesia 100 651 0.726 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
99  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Americas Caribbean 109 643 0.723 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
100  Suriname Americas South America 558 368 0.720 Legal -
101  Botswana Africa Southern Africa 2 302 878 0.717 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
 Maldives Asia South Asia 427.756 0.717 Ilegal Imprisonment
103  Dominica Americas Caribbean 73 543 0.715 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
104  Samoa Oceania Polynesia 199 052 0.713 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
105  Uzbekistan Asia Central Asia 32 979 000 0.710 Ilegal Imprisonment
106  Belize Americas Central America 398 050 0.708 Legal -
 Marshall Islands Oceania Micronesia 53 066 0.708 Legal -
108  Libya Africa Northern Africa 6 653 210 0.706 Ilegal Imprisonment
 Turkmenistan Asia Central Asia 5 851 466 0.706 Ilegal Imprisonment
110  Gabon Africa Central Africa 1 979 786 0.702 Legal -
 Paraguay Americas South America 7 152 703 0.702 Legal -
112  Moldova (including Disputed territory of  Transnistria) Europe Eastern Europe 2 881 900 0.700 Legal -
Medium 113  Philippines Asia Southeast Asia 100 981 437 0.699 Legal -
 South Africa Africa Southern Africa 57 725 600 0.699 Legal -
115  Egypt Africa Northern Africa 97 496 600 0.696 Ilegal Imprisonment
116  Indonesia Asia Southeast Asia 261 115 456 0.694 Legal -
 Vietnam Asia Southeast Asia 94 569 072 0.694 Legal -
118  Bolivia Americas South America 11 428 245 0.693 Legal -
119  Palestine (Disputed territory) Asia West Asia 4 816 503 0.686 Legal -
120  Iraq Asia West Asia 37 202 572 0.685 Legal -
121  El Salvador Americas Central America 6 344 722 0.674 Legal -
122  Kyrgyzstan Asia Central Asia 6 019 480 0.672 Legal -
123  Morocco Africa Northern Africa 35 237 415 0.667 Ilegal Imprisonment
124  Nicaragua Americas Central America 6 167 237 0.658 Legal -
125  Cape Verde Africa Western Africa 539 560 0.654 Legal -
 Guyana Americas South America 782 225 0.654 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
127  Guatemala Americas Central America 17 263 239 0.650 Legal -
 Tajikistan Asia Central Asia 8 734 951 0.650 Legal -
129  Namibia Africa Southern Africa 2 606 971 0.647 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
130  India Asia South Asia 1 324 171 354 0.640 Legal -
131  Micronesia Oceania Micronesia 104 937 0.627 Legal -
132  East Timor Asia Southeast Asia 1 167 242 0.625 Legal -
133  Honduras Americas Central America 9 112 867 0.617 Legal -
134  Kiribati Oceania Micronesia 120 100 0.612 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
 Bhutan Asia South Asia 797 765 0.612 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
136  Bangladesh Asia South Asia 165 126 000 0.608 Ilegal Up to life imprisonment
137  Republic of the Congo Africa Central Africa 5 125 821 0.606 Legal -
138  Vanuatu Oceania Melanesia 270 402 0.603 Legal -
139  Laos Asia Southeast Asia 6 758 353 0.601 Legal -
140  Ghana Africa Western Africa 29 614 337 0.592 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
141  Equatorial Guinea Africa Central Africa 1 358 276 0.591 Legal -
142  Kenya Africa Southeast Africa 50 950 879 0.590 Ilegal Imprisonment
143  São Tomé and Príncipe Africa Central Africa 199 910 0.589 Legal -
144  Eswatini Africa Southern Africa 1 343 098 0.588 Ilegal Imprisonment
 Zambia Africa Southern Africa 16 887 720 0.588 Ilegal Up to life imprisonment
146  Cambodia Asia Southeast Asia 16 245 729 0.582 Legal -
147  Angola Africa Southern Africa 25 789 024 0.581 Legal -
148  Myanmar Asia Southeast Asia 53 862 731 0.578 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
149    Nepal Asia South Asia 28 982 771 0.574 Legal -
150  Pakistan Asia South Asia 212 742 631 0.562 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
151  Cameroon Africa Central Africa 23 794 164 0.556 Ilegal Imprisonment
Low 152  Solomon Islands Oceania Melanesia 667 044 0.546 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
153  Papua New Guinea Oceania Melanesia 8 558 800 0.544 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
154  Tanzania Africa Southeast Africa 55 572 201 0.538 Ilegal Up to life imprisonment
155  Syria Asia West Asia 18 284 407 0.536 Ilegal Imprisonment (law de facto suspended)
156  Zimbabwe Africa Southern Africa 16 150 362 0.535 Ilegal Imprisonment
157  Nigeria Africa Western Africa 197 397 783 0.532 Ilegal Imprisonment
158  Rwanda Africa Southeast Africa 11 262 564 0.524 Legal -
159  Lesotho Africa Southern Africa 2 203 821 0.520 Legal -
 Mauritania Africa Western Africa 4 301 018 0.520 Ilegal No Death penalty
161  Madagascar Africa Indian Ocean States 24 894 551 0.519 Legal -
162  Uganda Africa Southeast Africa 41 487 965 0.516 Ilegal Up to life imprisonment
163  Benin Africa Western Africa 10 872 298 0.515 Legal -
164  Senegal Africa Western Africa 15 726 037 0.505 Ilegal Imprisonment
165  Comoros Africa Indian Ocean States 850 688 0.503 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
 Togo Africa Western Africa 7 965 055 0.503 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
167  Sudan Africa Northern Africa 40 797 005 0.502 Ilegal No Death penalty
168  Haiti Americas Caribbean 10 847 334 0.498 Legal -
 Afghanistan Asia Central Asia 34 656 032 0.498 Ilegal Imprisonment
170  Ivory Coast Africa Western Africa 24 905 843 0.492 Legal -
171  Malawi Africa Southern Africa 18 091 575 0.477 Ilegal Imprisonment
172  Djibouti Africa Horn of Africa 942 333 0.476 Legal -
173  Ethiopia Africa Horn of Africa 107 534 882 0.463 Ilegal Imprisonment
174  Gambia Africa Western Africa 2 163 765 0.460 Ilegal Up to life imprisonment
175  Guinea Africa Western Africa 12 395 924 0.459 Ilegal Imprisonment
176  Democratic Republic of the Congo Africa Central Africa 91 931 000 0.457 Legal -
177  Guinea-Bissau Africa Western Africa 1 815 698 0.455 Legal -
178  Yemen Asia West Asia 28 915 284 0.452 Ilegal No Death penalty
179  Eritrea Africa Horn of Africa 5 187 948 0.440 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
180  Mozambique Africa Southern Africa 28 829 476 0.437 Legal -
181  Liberia Africa Western Africa 4 503 000 0.435 Ilegal Imprisonment
182  Mali Africa Western Africa 19 329 841 0.427 Legal -
183  Burkina Faso Africa Western Africa 20 107 509 0.423 Legal -
184  Sierra Leone Africa Western Africa 7 719 729 0.419 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
185  Burundi Africa Southeast Africa 10 681 186 0.417 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
186  Chad Africa Central Africa 15 353 184 0.404 Ilegal Imprisonment
187  South Sudan Africa Northern Africa 12 323 419 0.388 Ilegal Imprisonment
188  Central African Republic Africa Central Africa 4 594 621 0.367 Legal -
189  Niger Africa Western Africa 20 672 987 0.354 Legal -
- -  Monaco Europe Western Europe 38 400 No data Legal -
 Nauru Oceania Micronesia 11 200 Legal -
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Africa Northern Africa 502 585 Ilegal Imprisonment
 San Marino Europe Southern Europe 33 344 Legal -
 Somalia Africa Horn of Africa 7 523 206 Ilegal Imprisonment
 Somaliland Africa Horn of Africa 3 508 180 Ilegal Imprisonment
 Tuvalu Oceania Polynesia 11 192 Ilegal Unenforced penalty
 Vatican City Europe Southern Europe 1 000 Legal -

LGBT rights by country or territory

By population

Illegal

Position Country Continent Level of criminilization Population (april 2019)
1  Pakistan Asia Unenforced penalty 212 742 631
2  Nigeria Africa Imprisonment 197 397 783
3  Bangladesh Asia Up to life imprisonment 165 126 000
4  Ethiopia Africa Imprisonment 107 534 882
5  Egypt Africa Imprisonment 97 496 600
6  Iran Asia No Death penalty 81 756 900
7  Tanzania Africa Up to life imprisonment 55 572 201
8  Myanmar Asia Unenforced penalty 53 862 731
9  Kenya Africa Imprisonment 50 950 879
10  Algeria Africa Unenforced penalty 42 545 964
11  Uganda Africa Up to life imprisonment 41 487 965
12  Sudan Africa No Death penalty 40 797 005
13  Morocco Africa Imprisonment 35 237 415
14  Afghanistan Asia Imprisonment 34 656 032
15  Saudi Arabia Asia No Death penalty 33 413 660
16  Uzbekistan Asia Imprisonment 32 979 000
17  Malaysia Asia Imprisonment 32 655 700
18  Ghana Africa Unenforced penalty 29 614 337
19  Yemen Asia No Death penalty 28 915 284
20  Cameroon Africa Imprisonment 23 794 164
21  Syria Asia Imprisonment (law de facto suspended) 18 284 407
22  Malawi Africa Imprisonment 18 091 575
23  Zambia Africa Up to life imprisonment 16 887 720
24  Zimbabwe Africa Imprisonment 16 150 362
25  Senegal Africa Imprisonment 15 726 037
26  Chad Africa Imprisonment 15 353 184
27  Guinea Africa Imprisonment 12 395 924
28  South Sudan Africa Imprisonment 12 323 419
29  Tunisia Africa Imprisonment 11 446 300
30  Burundi Africa Unenforced penalty 10 681 186
31  United Arab Emirates Asia Imprisonment 9 541 615
32  Papua New Guinea Oceania Unenforced penalty 8 558 800
33  Togo Africa Unenforced penalty 7 965 055
34  Sierra Leone Africa Unenforced penalty 7 719 729
35  Somalia Africa Imprisonment 7 523 206
36  Libya Africa Imprisonment 6 653 210
37  Lebanon Asia Unenforced penalty 6 093 509
38  Turkmenistan Asia Imprisonment 5 851 466
39  Singapore Asia Unenforced penalty 5 612 300
40  Eritrea Africa Unenforced penalty 5 187 948
41  Oman Asia Imprisonment 5 011 022
42  Liberia Africa Imprisonment 4 503 000
43  Mauritania Africa No Death penalty 4 301 018
44  Kuwait Asia Imprisonment 4 226 920
45  Somaliland Africa Imprisonment 3 508 180
46  Jamaica Americas Unenforced penalty 2 890 299
47  Qatar Asia Imprisonment 2 641 669
48  Namibia Africa Unenforced penalty 2 606 971
49  Botswana Africa Unenforced penalty 2 302 878
50  Gambia Africa Up to life imprisonment 2 163 765
51  Eswatini Africa Imprisonment 1 343 098
52  Mauritius Africa Unenforced penalty 1 264 887
53  Comoros Africa Unenforced penalty 850 688
54  Bhutan Asia Unenforced penalty 797 765
55  Guyana Americas Unenforced penalty 782 225
56  Solomon Islands Oceania Unenforced penalty 667 044
57  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Africa Imprisonment 502 585
58  Maldives Asia Imprisonment 427.756
59  Brunei Asia No Death penalty 422 678
60  Barbados Americas Unenforced penalty 286 388
61  Samoa Oceania Unenforced penalty 199 052
62  Saint Lucia Americas Unenforced penalty 178 844
63  Kiribati Oceania Unenforced penalty 120 100
64  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Americas Unenforced penalty 109 643
65  Grenada Americas Unenforced penalty 107 317
66  Antigua and Barbuda Americas Unenforced penalty 100 963
67  Tonga Oceania Unenforced penalty 100 651
68  Dominica Americas Unenforced penalty 73 543
69  Saint Kitts and Nevis Americas Unenforced penalty 54 821
70  Cook Islands Oceania Unenforced penalty 17 459
71  Tuvalu Oceania Unenforced penalty 11 192
Total 1 659 157 906

Legal

Position Country Continent Population (april 2019)
1  China Asia 1 403 500 365
2  India Asia 1 324 171 354
3  United States Americas 327 167 434
4  Indonesia Asia 261 115 456
5  Brazil Americas 210 147 125
6  Russia Europe 146 793 744
7  Mexico Americas 126 577 691
8  Japan Asia 126 440 000
9  Philippines Asia 100 981 437
10  Vietnam Asia 94 569 072
11  Democratic Republic of the Congo Africa 91 931 000
12  Germany Europe 83 000 000
13  Turkey Asia 82 003 882
14  Thailand Asia 68 863 514
15  United Kingdom Europe 66 040 229
16  France Europe 65 167 000
17  Italy Europe 60 483 973
18  South Africa Africa 57 725 600
19  South Korea Asia 51 446 201
20  Colombia Americas 49 996 445
21  Spain Europe 46 733 038
22  Argentina Americas 43 847 430
23  Ukraine Europe 42 418 235
24  Poland Europe 38 433 600
25  Canada Americas 37 314 442
26  Iraq Asia 37 202 572
27  Peru Americas 32 495 510
28  Venezuela Americas 31 568 179
29    Nepal Asia 28 982 771
30  Mozambique Africa 28 829 476
31  Angola Africa 25 789 024
32  North Korea Asia 25 368 620
33  Australia (including territories of  Christmas Island,  Cocos (Keeling) Islands and  Norfolk Island) Oceania 25 331 400
34  Ivory Coast Africa 24 905 843
35  Madagascar Africa 24 894 551
36  Taiwan Asia 23 577 271
37  Sri Lanka Asia 21 670 000
38  Niger Africa 20 672 987
39  Burkina Faso Africa 20 107 509
40  Romania Europe 19 518 117
41  Mali Africa 19 329 841
42  Kazakhstan Asia 18 311 700
43  Chile Americas 17 574 003
44  Netherlands Europe 17 308 133
45  Guatemala Americas 17 263 239
46  Ecuador Americas 16 385 068
47  Cambodia Asia 16 245 729
48  Bolivia Americas 11 428 245
49  Belgium Europe 11 420 163
50  Rwanda Africa 11 262 564
51  Cuba Americas 11 221 060
52  Benin Africa 10 872 298
53  Haiti Americas 10 847 334
54  Greece Europe 10 768 477
55  Dominican Republic Americas 10 735 896
56  Czech Republic Europe 10 610 947
57  Portugal Europe 10 291 027
58  Sweden Europe 10 223 505
59  Jordan Asia 10 171 480
60  Azerbaijan Europe 10 000 000
61  Hungary Europe 9 797 561
62  Belarus Europe 9 491 800
63  Honduras Americas 9 112 867
64  Israel Asia 9 020 190
65  Austria Europe 8 857 960
66  Tajikistan Asia 8 734 951
67   Switzerland Europe 8 508 898
68  Hong Kong (Special administrative region of China) Asia 7 448 900
69  Paraguay Americas 7 152 703
70  Bulgaria Europe 7 050 034
71  Serbia Europe 7 001 444
72  Laos Asia 6 758 353
73  El Salvador Americas 6 344 722
74  Nicaragua Americas 6 167 237
75  Kyrgyzstan Asia 6 019 480
76  Denmark Europe 5 806 015
77  Finland (includes Åland Islands) Europe 5 520 535
78  Slovakia Europe 5 445 087
79  Norway Europe 5 328 212
80  Republic of the Congo Africa 5 125 821
81  New Zealand Oceania 4 956 760
82  Costa Rica Americas 4 857 274
83  Ireland Europe 4 857 000
84  Palestine (Disputed territory) Asia 4 816 503
85  Central African Republic Africa 4 594 621
86  Croatia Europe 4 154 200
87  Panama Americas 4 034 119
88  Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 3 511 372
89  Uruguay Americas 3 444 006
90  Georgia Europe 3 432 862
91  Puerto Rico (Commonwealth of the United States) Americas 3 195 153
92  Mongolia Asia 3 081 677
93  Moldova Europe 2 881 900
94  Albania Europe 2 876 591
95  Lithuania Europe 2 790 842
96  Armenia Europe 2 773 884
97  Lesotho Africa 2 203 821
98  Canary Islands (Autonomous community of Spain) Europe 2 127 865
99  North Macedonia Europe 2 103 721
100  Slovenia Europe 2 076 598
101  Gabon Africa 1 979 786
102  Kosovo (Disputed territory) Europe 1 958 080
103  Latvia Europe 1 925 800
104  Guinea-Bissau Africa 1 815 698
105  Bahrain Asia 1 425 171
106  Trinidad and Tobago Americas 1 359 193
107  Equatorial Guinea Africa 1 358 276
108  Estonia Europe 1 323 824
109  Cyprus Asia 1 170 125
110  East Timor Asia 1 167 242
111  Djibouti Africa 942 333
112  Fiji Oceania 912 241
113  Réunion (Overseas region of France) Africa 866 506
114  Montenegro Europe 678 901
115  Macau (Special administrative region of China) Asia 653 100
116  Luxembourg Europe 602 005
117  Suriname Americas 558 368
118  Cape Verde Africa 539 560
119  Malta Europe 475 700
120  Transnistria (Disputed territory) Europe 469 000
121  Belize Americas 398 050
122  Guadeloupe (Overseas department of France) Americas 395 700
123  Bahamas Americas 391 232
124  Martinique (Overseas department of France) Americas 376 480
125  Iceland Europe 357 050
126  Northern Cyprus (Disputed territory) Asia 326 000
127  French Guiana (Overseas department of France) Americas 296 711
128  Madeira (Autonomous region of Portugal) Europe 289 000
129  New Caledonia (Special collectivity of France) Oceania 278 500
130  French Polynesia (Overseas collectivity of France) Oceania 275 918
131  Vanuatu Oceania 270 402
132  Mayotte (Overseas region of France) Africa 270 372
133  Abkhazia (Disputed territory) Europe 243 206
134  São Tomé and Príncipe Africa 199 910
135  Guam (Unincorporated territory of the United States) Oceania 162 742
136  Curaçao (Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands) Americas 160 012
137  Artsakh (Disputed territory) Europe 150 932
138  Micronesia Oceania 104 937
139  United States Virgin Islands (Territory of the United States) Americas 104 901
140  Aruba (Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands) Americas 104 822
141  Jersey (Crown dependency of the United Kingdom) Europe 100 080
142  Seychelles Africa 94 228
143  Isle of Man (Crown dependency of the United Kingdom) Europe 83 314
144  Ceuta (Autonomous city of Spain) Africa 82 376
145  Melilla (Autonomous city of Spain) Africa 78 476
146  Andorra Europe 77 281
147  Bermuda (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom) Americas 71 176
148  Cayman Islands (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom) Americas 64 420
149  Guernsey (Crown dependency of the United Kingdom) Europe 63 026
150  Greenland (constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark) Europe 55 877
151  American Samoa (Unincorporated territory of the United States) Oceania 55 689
152  Northern Mariana Islands (Unincorporated territory of the United States) Oceania 55 144
153  South Ossetia (Disputed territory) Europe 53 532
154  Marshall Islands Oceania 53 066
155  Faroe Islands (Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark) Europe 51 095
156  Liechtenstein Europe 38 547
157  Monaco Europe 38 400
158  Saint Martin (Overseas collectivity of France) Americas 35 107
159  Sint Maarten (Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands) Americas 33 609
160  San Marino Europe 33 344
161  Gibraltar (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom) Europe 32 194
162  British Virgin Islands (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom) Americas 31 758
163  Turks and Caicos Islands (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom) Americas 31 458
164  Caribbean Netherlands (Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius; special municipalities of the Netherlands) Americas 25 019
165  Palau Oceania 21 503
166  Anguilla (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom) Americas 14 764
167  Akrotiri and Dhekelia (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom) Asia 13 500
168  Wallis and Futuna (Overseas collectivity of France) Oceania 11 558
169  Nauru Oceania 11 200
170  Saint Barthélemy (Overseas collectivity of France) Americas 9 625
171  Easter Island (Special territory of Chile) Oceania 7 750
172  Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Overseas collectivity of France) Americas 6 080
173  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom) Africa 5 633
174  Montserrat (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom) Americas 5 215
175  Falkland Islands (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom) Americas 3 398
176  British Indian Ocean Territory (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom) Asia 2 500
177  Niue (Part of the Realm of New Zealand) Oceania 1 624
178  Tokelau (Part of the Realm of New Zealand) Oceania 1 499
179  Vatican City Europe 1 000
180  United States Minor Outlying Islands (Unincorporated territories of the United States) Oceania 300
181  Pitcairn Islands (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom) Oceania 50
182  South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom) Americas 36
183  French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Overseas territory of France) Africa 0
Total 5 902 309 582

By percentage

AFRICA (64)
Northern Africa (12)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
Yes  Canary Islands (Autonomous community of Spain)

Yes  Ceuta (Autonomous city of Spain)

Yes  Madeira (Autonomous region of Portugal)

Yes  Melilla (Autonomous city of Spain)

4 33.33 No  Algeria

No  Egypt

No  Libya

No  Morocco (including Southern Provinces)

No  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (Disputed territory; excluding Southern Provinces)

No  South Sudan

No  Sudan

No  Tunisia

8 66.66
Western Africa (16)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
Yes  Benin

Yes Burkina Faso

Yes Cape Verde

Yes Guinea-Bissau

Yes Ivory Coast

Yes Mali

Yes Niger

7 43.75 No  Gambia

No  Ghana

No  Guinea

No  Liberia

No  Mauritania

No  Nigeria

No  Senegal

No  Sierra Leone

No  Togo

9 56.25
Central Africa (9)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
Yes Central African Republic

Yes  Democratic Republic of the Congo

Yes  Equatorial Guinea

Yes  Gabon

Yes  Republic of the Congo

Yes  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

Yes  São Tomé and Príncipe

7 77.78 No  Cameroon

No  Chad

2 22.22
Southeast Africa (5)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
Yes  Rwanda 1 20.00 No  Burundi

No  Kenya

No  Tanzania

No  Uganda

4 80.00
Horn of Africa (5)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
Yes  Djibouti 1 20.00 No  Eritrea

No  Ethiopia

No  Somalia

No  Somaliland (Disputed territory)

4 80.00
Indian Ocean States (7)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
Yes  French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Overseas territory of France)

Yes  Madagascar

Yes  Mayotte (Overseas region of France)

Yes  Réunion (Overseas region of France)

Yes  Seychelles

5 71.43 No  Comoros

No  Mauritius

2 28.57
Southern Africa (10)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
Yes  Angola

Yes  Lesotho

Yes  Mozambique

Yes  South Africa

4 40.00 No  Botswana

No  Eswatini

No  Malawi

No  Namibia

No  Zambia

No  Zimbabwe

6 60.00
Total 29 45.31 Total 35 54.69
AMERICAS (56)
North America (6)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
Yes  Bermuda (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

Yes  Canada

Yes  Greenland (constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)

Yes  Mexico

Yes  Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Overseas collectivity of France)

Yes  United States

6 100.00 - 0 0.00
Central America (7)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
Yes  Belize

Yes  Costa Rica

Yes  El Salvador

Yes  Guatemala

Yes  Honduras

Yes  Nicaragua

Yes  Panama

7 100.00 - 0 0.00
Caribbean (28)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
Yes  Anguilla (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

Yes  Aruba (Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Yes  Bahamas

Yes  British Virgin Islands (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

Yes  Caribbean Netherlands (Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius; special municipalities of the Netherlands)

Yes  Cayman Islands (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

Yes  Cuba

Yes  Curaçao (Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Yes  Dominican Republic

Yes  Guadeloupe (Overseas department of France)

Yes  Haiti

Yes  Martinique (Overseas department of France)

Yes  Montserrat (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

Yes  Puerto Rico (Commonwealth of the United States)

Yes  Saint Barthélemy (Overseas collectivity of France)

Yes  Saint Martin (Overseas collectivity of France)

Yes  Sint Maarten (Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Yes  Trinidad and Tobago

Yes  Turks and Caicos Islands (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

Yes  United States Virgin Islands (Territory of the United States)

20 71.43 No  Antigua and Barbuda

No  Barbados

No  Dominica

No  Grenada

No  Jamaica

No  Saint Kitts and Nevis

No  Saint Lucia

No  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

8 28.57
South America (15)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
Yes  Argentina

Yes  Bolivia

Yes  Brazil

Yes  Chile

Yes  Colombia

Yes  Ecuador

Yes  Falkland Islands (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

Yes  French Guiana (Overseas department of France)

Yes  Paraguay

Yes  Peru

Yes  South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

Yes  Suriname

Yes  Uruguay

Yes  Venezuela

14 93.33 No  Guyana 1 6.67
Total 47 83.93 Total 9 16.07
ASIA (58)
Central Asia (5)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
Yes  Kyrgyzstan

Yes  Tajikistan

2 40.00 No  Afghanistan

No  Turkmenistan

No  Uzbekistan

3 60.00
Eurasia (12)
LGBT rights in Total % LGBT rights in Total %
Yes  Abkhazia (Disputed territory)

Yes  Akrotiri and Dhekelia (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)

Yes  Armenia

Yes  Artsakh (Disputed territory)

Yes  Azerbaijan

Yes  Cyprus

Yes  Georgia

Yes  Kazakhstan