Anti-Chechen sentiment or Chechenophobia, Noxchophobia and Anti-Chechenism refers to fear, dislike, hostility, and racism towards ethnic Chechens and anything related to Chechen culture in general. Anti-Chechen sentiment has been historically strong in Russia, and, for some part, spread to the other countries such as former Soviet Union like Azerbaijan, Armenia, to Europe (Poland, France), Middle East (Syria) to further United States. The causes of hatred against Chechens have been largely due to Chechens' aggressive behaviors, criminal activities, violent mentality of Chechens and its adherence to Islam.

Examples of anti-Chechen hostility

Russia

See also: Caucasian War and Chechen–Russian conflict

A mass grave in Chechnya during the Second Chechen War. Chechen exiles accused Russian military of committing genocide.

The fear and negative stereotype against Chechens have been largely uprooted by history of Russian conquest of Chechnya and Dagestan, when Russia managed to conquer the Chechen territory in 1864 and merging it within the Russian Empire. During the conquest, Russian general Aleksey Yermolov openly disliked Chechens, considering the Chechens dangerous and hypocritical, while calling for mass genocide on Chechens due to its resistance against Russia.[1] Eventually, when Russia managed to turn Chechnya into its territory, mass ethnic genocide on Chechens occurred in 1860s.[2]

Due to Chechens' refusal to accept Russian rule, a number of violent conflicts erupted in Chechnya in attempt to free Chechnya from Russia. This has often met with brutal reprisals by the Russian authorities, such as the bloody repression of Chechens in 1932 by the Soviet military.[3][4] In the World War II, the Soviet authorities blamed Chechens for supporting Nazi Germany, resulting with the tragic Aardakh which many Chechens were deported to Siberia and Central Asia, many had died on its brutal journey.[5] These tensions were superseded with the ethnic conflict in 1950s and 1960s, where Russians and Chechens clashed in Grozny; Soviet authorities had largely sided with Russians against Chechens.[6]

The conflict between Chechens and Russians reached its peak when the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, when Chechen nationalists, led by Dzhokhar Dudayev, proclaimed the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria and sought to separate from Russia, causing two brutal Chechen Wars.[7] In response, Russian military responded brutally against ethnic Chechens, especially in the second war where more than an estimated thousand of Chechen civilians were killed by Russian military.[8]

Ethnic violence between Russians and Chechens were common in 2000s, due to Chechen link of Islamic terrorism, leading to an increase number of racist killing against Chechens.[9] In 2007, 18-year-old Artur Ryno claimed responsibility for 37 racially motivated murders in the course of one year, saying that "since school [he] hated people from the Caucasus."[10] On 5 June 2007, an anti-Chechen riot involving hundreds of people took place in the town of Stavropol in southern Russia. Rioters demanded the eviction of ethnic Chechens following the murder of two young Russians who locals believed were killed by Chechens. The event revived memories of a recent clash between Chechens and local Russians in Kondopoga over an unpaid bill, when two Russians were killed.[11] Chechens in the Russian Armed Forces have also faced frequent violent activities against them by Russian military instructors.[12]

Dagestan

Imam Shamil, who led anti-Russian resistance until 1859. His surrender was the turning point leading to hostility between Dagestanis and Chechens.

Anti-Chechen sentiment is sometimes felt in Dagestan, a fellow Caucasus Republic within Russia. This was stemmed since the Caucasian War, when Shamil surrendered to Russia and subsequent Chechen accusation of Dagestanis as Russian collaborators; this was best understood with the War of Dagestan, when Adilgerei Magomedtagirov was openly Chechenophobic and supported Russian invasion of Chechnya; majority of Dagestanis collaborated with the Russian authorities on invading Chechnya.[13][14][15][16]

In modern time, this was also evoked by Irish martial art fighter Conor McGregor when he faced against Khabib Nurmagomedov, stating that the Chechens and Dagestanis are hostile to each other, due to memoir of old Chechen conflict and accusation of betrayal imposed on Dagestanis by Chechens.[17]

North Ossetia

In North Ossetia–Alania, during the East Prigorodny Conflict at 1990s, ethnic Ossetian militia groups, many were supported by the Russian government, committed ethnic cleansing of Ingush, a close relative to the Chechens, as well as the Chechens together, due to Chechen support for Ingush against Ossetians.[18][19]

Georgia

Pankisi Gorge

Pankisi Gorge is home of a large Chechen population within Georgia, and the region has suffered from poverty and xenophobia due to increasing radical Islamism penetrating within the gorge; in addition, the Pankisi Gorge crisis in early 2000s has led to stereotype against Chechen population as terrorists and jihadists since.[20][21][22]

South Ossetia

In South Ossetia, a breakaway region of Georgia, Chechens have generally supported Georgia against the separatist movement in South Ossetia. This had also led to ethnic cleansing against Chechens in 1990s by South Ossetian force, and it was soon escalated by the Russo-Georgian War in 2008; virtually today there are no Chechen communities left in South Ossetia.[19]

Armenia

Anti-Chechen sentiment was felt in Armenia due to Chechnya's tacit support for Azerbaijan, the arch-foe of Armenia in the Nagorno-Karabakh War, with Chechen force under Shamil Basayev participated directly in the conflict.[23][24][25] Chechens had also been accused of fighting against Armenia on the side of Azerbaijan during the recent 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.

Poland

Historically, Poland had welcomed Chechen refugees during 1990s in support for Chechen quest to regain freedom from Russia.[26] However, since 2010s, especially with the rise of the Law and Justice, an openly right-wing party, and increasing Islamic terrorism in Europe, Polish attitude toward Chechens have become increasingly negative, with some blamed Chechens for inflaming terrorist attacks due to its Islamic belief, notably by Polish interior minister in 2016, Mariusz Błaszczak, who accused Chechens as terrorists.[27] This was followed by the increasing denial of Chechen asylum seekers since 2015, with over 20–80,000 Chechens fleeing Russia had been forcibly sent back to Russia by Polish authorities.[28][29] The anti-Chechen policy by the Polish government has been criticized by the European Union, which Poland is a member, and European Court of Human Rights in 2020 had ruled against Poland for perceived Chechenophobic response by the Polish authorities.[30]

In 2019, a Chechen refugee who was granted asylum in Poland, Nurmagomed Nurmagomedov, was revoked of his asylum right and faced charges of terrorism, and was about to be deported back to Russia before Polish Lawyer at the Border organization intervened, Nurmagomed himself was unaware before he was surprisingly arrested by the Polish authorities.[31]

United States

Following the Boston Marathon bombing caused by two Chechen immigrants to the country, anti-Chechen sentiment intermingled with Islamophobia grew in the United States, due to Chechens are majority Muslims.[32][33] Many Chechen Americans had expressed fear of reprisals and racism by many American nationalists.[34]

The United States Senate, in May 2013, amended to tighten visa rules, which is thought to be deliberately anti-Chechen.[35]

Azerbaijan

Historically, Azerbaijan has been seen as welcoming to Chechens, and during 1990s, there was a strong mutual respect between Chechens and Azerbaijanis; the Chechens volunteered to fight for Azerbaijan against Armenia in Karabakh, while Azerbaijan welcomed Chechen refugees fleeing war at homeland.[36] However, increasing adherence to Salafi movement by Chechens, Chechen involvement in kidnapping and mass murder, as well as its terrorist tendencies, had led to a sharp rise of Chechen Islamic radicalism, thus deteriorated Chechen image in Azerbaijan.[37]

Syria

Chechens have largely been able to integrate within the Syrian society.[38] However, due to the alliance between al-Assad family to Russia, antagonism against Chechens have started to bear witness in 2011, following Chechen participation on the opposition forces against the al-Assad government.[39] Chechens have also endured repression by the Ba'athist regime due to its cultural difference and has largely been less successful in preserving its original heritage.[38]

Israel

As Chechens mostly sympathize with Palestinians due to common Islamic belief, there is a significant hostility against Chechens in Israel. In 2010, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu openly compared Hamas with the Chechens, stating they are terrorists, in response to Russia and Turkey's quest to not exclude Hamas in the peace process between Israel and Palestine.[40]

In 2013, after Beitar Jerusalem signed two Chechen Muslim players, Zaur Sadayev and Dzhabrail Kadiyev, anti-Chechen protest erupted by Beitar Jerusalem's supporters due to their Islamic belief.[41] Beitar fans also showed anti-Chechen sentiment by leaving stadium on 3 March when Sadayev scored the first goal for the club, in addition, many stated openly it's not racist to hate Chechens and Muslims.[42][43]

France

Due to criminal activities and associated violent behavior of Chechen mafia, there is an ongoing anti-Chechen sentiment grow within French population.

In June 2020, Dijon was erupted by Chechens causing unrest in the city, which has caused French police to patrol.[44]

Meanwhile, Chechen terrorism has also been witnessed on the rise in France. In 2018, a Chechen-born terrorist waged knife attack in Paris.[45] In 2020, a Chechen teen had beheaded a teacher over Prophet Muhammad's controversy.[46] This has led to increasing Chechenophobia in France.

See also

References

  1. ^ "'Proconsul of the Caucasus': a Re-examination of Yermolov". www.socionauki.ru.
  2. ^ "Sources in Translation: A Chechen Immigrant's Petition to the Ottoman State (1870)".
  3. ^ Мухтар Ибрагимов, Гунки Хукиев (2014-04-30). "По следам далёкой трагедии". j-vaynah.ru. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  4. ^ Гудаев Л. (2013-09-23). "Чеченские хроники. 1932 г. Моца Шуанинский - последний имам Чечни". checheninfo.ru. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  5. ^ "The Massive Deportation of the Chechen People: How and why Chechens were Deported | Sciences Po Violence de masse et Résistance - Réseau de recherche". massive-deportation-chechen-people-how-and-why-chechens-were-deported.html. April 29, 2019.
  6. ^ https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1348833/1226_1350913897_220-the-north-caucasus-the-challenges-of-integration-i-ethnicity-and-conflict.pdf
  7. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287241345_An_analysis_of_causes_of_the_Chechen_wars_of_the_1990s
  8. ^ Perlez, Jane (March 2, 2000). "3 Massacres In Chechnya Are Described (Published 2000)" – via NYTimes.com.
  9. ^ The warlord and the spook Archived 26 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine The Economist, 31 March 2007
  10. ^ Teenager Admits to Over 30 Murders Archived 22 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine The Moscow Times, 29 May 2007
  11. ^ Nationalists rally in Russian town near Chechnya Archived 3 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine Reuters, 5 June 2007
  12. ^ Racist Violence Plagues Russian Army Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine IWPR, 15-Sep-00
  13. ^ "Dagestan: Crisis in the Caucasus". www.infoplease.com.
  14. ^ "Sufism and Fundamentalism in Dagestan and Chechnya - Persée".
  15. ^ "Дагестан-1999: итоги событий десятилетней давности". Актуальные комментарии.
  16. ^ "Дагестан-1999: итоги событий десятилетней давности / Войны и конфликты / Независимая газета". nvo.ng.ru.
  17. ^ "Conor McGregor's latest press conference was like the weirdest history lesson ever". JOE.ie.
  18. ^ "East Prigorodny conflict – Ingushetia North Ossetia". June 15, 2014.
  19. ^ a b "Five bloody days in North Ossetia". openDemocracy.
  20. ^ https://reliefweb.int/report/georgia/chechen-refugees-georgia-pankisi-gorge-and-akhmeta
  21. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228283750_Secularism_and_Belief_in_Georgia%27s_Pankisi_Gorge
  22. ^ https://eurasianet.org/georgias-pankisi-gorge-fights-terrorism-stereotypes
  23. ^ Taarnby, Michael (2008). The Mujahedin in Nagorno-Karabakh: A Case Study in the Evolution of Global Jihad. Real Instituto Elcano. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
  24. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Chechen fighter's death reveals conflicted feelings in Azerbaijan". Refworld.
  25. ^ https://www.panorama.am/en/news/2013/05/17/bigcaucasus/516995
  26. ^ https://academic.oup.com/jrs/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/jrs/fez052/5531276?redirectedFrom=fulltext
  27. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Poland slams door on Chechnyan refugees | DW | 31.08.2016". DW.COM.
  28. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Chechens waiting at Europe's door | DW | 14.12.2016". DW.COM.
  29. ^ "How and why Chechen refugees are storming the Polish border with Belarus". July 4, 2019.
  30. ^ https://polandin.com/49152700/strasbourg-rules-against-poland-over-chechen-migrants
  31. ^ "A Chechen refugee Poland wants to give up to Russia".
  32. ^ Gottschalk, Peter (January 1, 2015). "Islamophobia and Anti-Muslim Sentiment in the United States". The Oxford Handbook of American Islam. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199862634.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780199862634-e-004.
  33. ^ "Muslim Bashing in the Wake of Boston Bombing". National Geographic News. April 26, 2013.
  34. ^ Schwirtz, Michael (April 21, 2013). "Struggle at Home Intrudes on Chechen Haven in America (Published 2013)" – via NYTimes.com.
  35. ^ "Senators tighten student visa rules in immigration bill". Los Angeles Times. May 14, 2013.
  36. ^ "AZERBAIJANI-CHECHEN INTERACTIONS: THE PRESENT AND THE PAST – KAFKASSAM – Kafkasya Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi".
  37. ^ "Growing Anti-Chechen Sentiment in Azerbaijan". Jamestown.
  38. ^ a b Jaimoukha, Amjad M. (2008), "Syria", The Chechens: A Handbook, Routledge, p. 232, ISBN 0415323282
  39. ^ "Chechens drawn south to fight against Syria's Assad". November 20, 2013 – via www.bbc.com.
  40. ^ https://www.haaretz.com/1.5119477
  41. ^ Boker, Moshe (30 March 2018). "Beitar Jerusalem to Sign Two Muslim Players Despite Fans Protests". Retrieved 30 March 2018 – via Haaretz.
  42. ^ Dawber, Alistair; Walker, Shaun (4 March 2013). "'It's not racism. The Muslim players just shouldn't be here': Beitar Jerusalem fans walk out over signing of two Muslim Chechen players". The Independent. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  43. ^ Zinshtein, Maya (2017-05-30), Forever Pure, Eli Cohen, Arcadi Gaydamak, Ariel Harush, retrieved 2018-05-18
  44. ^ https://www.france24.com/en/20200616-french-city-of-dijon-rocked-by-unrest-blamed-on-chechens-seeking-revenge
  45. ^ https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-44098615
  46. ^ https://time.com/5901145/paris-beheading-chechen-suspect/

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