Heterosexism is a system of attitudes, bias, and discrimination in favor of heterosexuality and heterosexual relationships.[1] According to Elizabeth Cramer, it can include the belief that all people are or should be heterosexual and that heterosexual relationships are the only norm[2] and therefore superior.

Although heterosexism is defined in the online editions of the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language and the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary as anti-gay discrimination or prejudice "by heterosexual people"[3] and "by heterosexuals",[4] respectively, people of any sexual orientation can hold such attitudes and bias, and can form a part of internalised hatred of one's sexual orientation.[5]

Heterosexism as discrimination ranks gay men, lesbians, bisexuals and other sexual minorities as second-class citizens with regard to various legal and civil rights, economic opportunities, and social equality in many of the world's jurisdictions and societies. It is often related to homophobia.


While the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary notes the first use of the term heterosexism as having occurred in 1972, the term was first published in 1971 by gay rights activist, Craig Rodwell.[6]

Etymology and usage

Similar terms include "heterocentrism" and "heterosexualism".[7] Although the well-established term heterosexism is often explained as a coinage modeled on sexism, the derivation of its meaning points more to (1.) heterosex(ual) + -ism than (2.) hetero- + sexism.

Given this lack of semantic transparency, researchers, outreach workers, critical theorists and LGBT activists have proposed and use terms such as institutionalized homophobia, state(-sponsored) homophobia,[8] sexual prejudice, anti-gay bigotry, straight privilege, The Straight Mind (a collection of essays by French writer Monique Wittig), heterosexual bias, compulsory heterosexuality[9] or the much lesser known terms heterocentrism, homonegativity, and from gender theory and queer theory, heteronormativity. However, not all of these descriptors are synonymous to heterosexism.

Contrast to homophobia

Homophobia, a form of heterosexism, refers both to "unreasoning fear of or antipathy towards homosexuals and homosexuality"[10] and to "behavior based on such a feeling".[11] Heterosexism, however, more broadly denotes the "system of ideological thought that makes heterosexuality the sole norm to follow for sexual practices".[12] As a bias favoring heterosexuals and heterosexuality, heterosexism has been described as being "encoded into and characteristic of the major social, cultural, and economic institutions of our society"[13] and stems from the essentialist cultural notion that maleness-masculinity and femaleness-femininity are complementary.

Psychology professor Gregory M. Herek states that "[Heterosexism] operates through a dual process of invisibility and attack. Homosexuality usually remains culturally invisible; when people who engage in homosexual behavior or who are identified as homosexual become visible, they are subject to attack by society."[14] Furthermore, in interviews with perpetrators of anti-gay violence, forensic psychologist Karen Franklin believes that "heterosexism is not just a personal value system, [rather] it is a tool in the maintenance of gender dichotomy."[15] She continues by saying that "assaults on homosexuals and other individuals who deviate from sex role norms are viewed as a learned form of social control of deviance rather than a defensive response to personal threat."[15]

Parallels and intersections

Using the term heterosexism highlights the parallels between antigay sentiment and other forms of prejudice, such as racism, antisemitism, and sexism.

— Gregory M. Herek, researcher, author, and professor of psychology at UC Davis.[14]

It has been argued that the concept of heterosexism is similar to the concept of racism in that both ideas promote privilege for dominant groups within a given society. For example, borrowing from the racial concept of white privilege, the concept of heterosexual privilege[16] has been applied to benefits of (presumed) heterosexuality within society that heterosexuals take for granted. The analogy is that just as racism against non-white people places white people as superior to people of color, heterosexism places heterosexual people or relationships as superior to non-heterosexual ones. In trying to rebut this premise, some commentators point to differences[17] between the categories of race and sexual orientation, claiming they are too complex to support any generalizations. For example, "trainer on diversity" and consultant Jamie Washington has commented, although heterosexism and racism are "woven from the same fabric" they are "not the same thing".[18] Some American Conservative leaders such as Rev. Irene Monroe comment that those who suggest or state "gay is the new black", as in a cover story of The Advocate magazine,[19] exploit black people's suffering and experiences to legitimize their own.[20] Nonetheless, a study presented at the British Psychological Society's Division of Occupational Psychology 2009 Conference shows that heterosexist prejudice is more pervasive than racism.[21]

Heterosexism can also intersect with racism by further emphasizing differences among arbitrary groups of people.[22] For example, heterosexism can compound the effects of racism by:

Likewise, racism can allow LGBT people to be subjected to additional discrimination or violence if they belong to or are considered a part of a socially devalued racial category.[23] Some of the privileges afforded to people falling into the categories of white people and (perceived) heterosexuals include, but are not limited to, social acceptance, prestige, freedom from negative stereotypes, and the comfort of being within the social norm and thereby not being marginalized or viewed as different.[24]

As a set of beliefs and attitudes

See also: Religion and homosexuality, Homosexuality and psychology, Timeline of sexual orientation and medicine, and Social attitudes toward homosexuality

Individual and group level

Brochure used by Save Our Children in 1977

Heterosexism as a set of beliefs and attitudes relies on a core tenet according to which homosexuality and bisexuality do not normally exist and, as such, constitute mental illnesses or deviant behaviors.[25] Within a heterosexist ideology or mindset, the concept of sexual orientation is rejected or deemed irrelevant. A set of more nuanced heterosexist views, which some may consider faith, dogma, universal truths, natural law, appeals to authority, or popular beliefs, but others consider to be conventional wisdom or sociobiological knowledge can include, among others, the following:

In an attempt to bring awareness to people who exhibit heterosexist views but are possibly not aware of it, Mark Rochlin constructed a set of questions in 1977 which are questions that non-heterosexual people are often exposed to, but not heterosexuals, such as "What do you think caused your sexuality?" This heterosexuality questionnaire is often distributed around college campuses to bring awareness of heterosexist sexual prejudice against LGBT persons.[26]

Institutional level

As well as comprising attitudes held by an individual or a social group, heterosexism can also exist as the expression of attitudes within an institution. As a result, schools, hospitals, and correctional facilities can act as a showcase for heterosexist attitudes in various ways. First, schools may implement these attitudes and ideas through unequal and inconsistent disciplinary actions. One such example is meting out harsher punishment to a same-sex couple violating the school ground rules while allowing a heterosexual couple to pass with a more lenient disciplinary action for an equal or identical violation. Also, hospitals may limit patient visiting only to immediate family, i.e., relatives, and exclude same-sex partners.[27]

Heterosexism affects the family in several ways. For example, in many countries around the world, same-sex marriage is not allowed, so non-heterosexual persons must remain unmarried or enter into heterosexual marriage.[28] Many countries also deny rights and benefits to same-sex couples, including custodial and adoption rights for children, Social Security benefits, and automatic durable power of attorney and hospital spousal rights.[28]

Research and measurements


Psychologists have aimed to measure heterosexism using various methods. One particular method involves the use of a Likert scale. However, since heterosexism is perceived as something that is unseen it is difficult to determine if someone is heterosexist based on a self-report method. Researchers, thus, have constructed implicit measurements of heterosexism. An example of this would be an Implicit Association Test. A popular implicit association test measuring heterosexism that is open to the public is a virtual laboratory called Project Implicit.

One limitation present in research on heterosexism is that there often is not a distinction between homophobia and heterosexism. Individuals are more likely to be aware of homophobic tendencies rather than heterosexist views; thus, researchers often measure homophobia instead of heterosexism.[29]


Research on heterosexism has focused on variables that may affect views of heterosexism. For instance, in a study by psychologist, Gregory M. Herek, it was found that there was a gender difference between heterosexual attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.[30] Specifically, the study reveals that heterosexual individuals all seem to have some heterosexist tendency, however, heterosexual males have a greater tendency than heterosexual females to exhibit negative attitudes towards non-heterosexual individuals (this includes gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals). Another notable finding of Herek's study was that heterosexual males showed a greater tendency to demonstrate hostility towards gay men rather than lesbians.[30] Other factors that Herek acknowledges to contribute to heterosexism include individual differences, religiosity, conforming to social norms, right-wing authoritarianism, customs and beliefs regarding cultural tradition, and personal experience with non-heterosexual individuals.[30] Research has also recognized the effects of level of education on views of heterosexism.[31] Wright et al. revealed that higher levels of education, or having more years of education, is related to less homophobic tendencies.[31]

As discrimination

Explicit or open

This type of heterosexism includes anti-gay laws, policies, and institutional practices, harassment based on sexual orientation or perceived sexual orientation; stereotyping, discriminatory language and discourse, and other forms of discrimination against LGBT persons such as:

Implicit or hidden

This form of heterosexism operates through invisibility, under-representation, and erasure. It includes:


Heterosexism causes a range of effects on people of any sexual orientation. However, the main effects of heterosexism are marginalization, and anti-LGBT violence and abuse.[citation needed]


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The main effect of heterosexism is the marginalization of gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals within society. Heterosexism has led to stigmatization and persecution of not only these people but also those of other sexual diversity such as transgender, and transsexual people. Along with homophobia, lesbophobia, and internalized homophobia, heterosexism continues to be a significant social reality that compels people to conceal their homosexual or bisexual orientation, or metaphorically, to remain in the closet in an effort to pass for heterosexual.

Marginalization also occurs when marriage rights are heterosexist. More specifically, when marriage rights are exclusive to female–male couples, all same-sex couples, be they gay, lesbian, straight or mixed, are prevented from enjoying marriage's corresponding legal privileges, especially those regarding property rights, health benefits, and child custody. Moreover, such limitation prevents same-sex couples from receiving the inherent social respect of marriage and its cultural symbolism.

Anti-LGBT violence and abuse

Yolanda Dreyer, professor of practical theology at University of Pretoria, has stated that "Heterosexism leads to prejudice, discrimination, harassment, and violence. It is driven by fear and hatred (Dreyer 5)."[36] Along the same lines, forensic psychologist Karen Franklin explains violence caused by heterosexism toward both men and women, regardless of their sexual orientations:[15]

[T]hrough heterosexism, any male who refuses to accept the dominant culture's assignment of appropriate masculine behavior is labeled early on as a "sissy" or "fag" and then subjected to bullying. Similarly, any woman who opposes male dominance and control can be labeled a lesbian and attacked. The potential of being ostracized as homosexual, regardless of actual sexual attractions and behaviors, puts pressure on all people to conform to a narrow standard of appropriate gender behavior, thereby maintaining and reinforcing our society's hierarchical gender structure.

Another form of heterosexist violence as social control that most often targets lesbian women is corrective rape: a gang rape of a lesbian to "cure" her of her same-sex attractions. A notorious example from South Africa is the corrective rape and murder of Eudy Simelane, LGBT-rights activist and member of the women's national football team.[37]

According to a Frontline article titled "Inside the Mind of People Who Hate Gays", bias-related violence against homosexuals is believed to be widespread in the United States, with perpetrators typically described by victims as young men in groups who assault targets of convenience. Victims accounts suggest that assailants possess tremendous rage and hatred; indeed, documentation of horrific levels of brutality has led gay activists to characterize the violence as political terrorism aimed at all gay men and lesbians. Other motives for antigay violence suggested in the literature include male bonding, proving heterosexuality, and purging secret homosexual desires.[38]


According to an article in the Howard Journal of Communications, some LGBT individuals have responded to heterosexism through direct confrontation and communication, or through the removal of self from the hostile environment.[39]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e Jung, Patricia Beattie; Smith, Ralph F. (1993). Heterosexism: An Ethical Challenge. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-1696-8.
  2. ^ Elizabeth Cramer (5 March 2014). Addressing Homophobia and Heterosexism on College Campuses. Routledge. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-317-82328-5. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2018. The definition for heterosexism that I used for authors in the collection is: The expectation that all persons should be or are heterosexual. The belief that heterosexual relations are normal and the norm. These expectations and beliefs occur on individual, institutional, and cultural levels. ...
  3. ^ "Yahoo". Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  4. ^ "Definition of HETEROSEXISM". Archived from the original on 21 April 2009. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  5. ^ Kira Weidner. "Heterosexism and Internalized Heterosexism". Archived from the original on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
  6. ^ Rodwell, Craig. ' 'The Tarnished Golden Rule' ' pg. 5, QQ Magazine, Queen's Quarterly Publishing, New York. (January/February 1971 issue, Vol. 3, No. 1) Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  7. ^ Corsini, Raymond J. (1992). The Dictionary of Psychology. ISBN 1-58391-328-9.
  8. ^ International Lesbian and Gay Association. "State-sponsored Homophobia" Archived 23 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ LGBTQ on-line encyclopedia of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and queer culture
  10. ^ "Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. 2008. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2008.
  11. ^ "homophobia – Dictionary definition and pronunciation – Yahoo! Education". Education.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  12. ^ "Accueil". Granddictionnaire.com. 13 May 2013. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  13. ^ Dines, Gail (2002). Gender, Race, and Class in Media: A Text-Reader. ISBN 0-7619-2261-X.
  14. ^ a b Gregory M. Herek. "Definitions: Sexual Prejudice, Homophobia, and Heterosexism". Psychology.ucdavis.edu. Archived from the original on 29 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  15. ^ a b c Gregory M. Herek, ed. (1998). "Unassuming Motivations: Contextualizing the Narratives of Antigay Assailants". Stigma and Sexual Orientation: Understanding Prejudice Against Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp. 1–20. Cited in Franklin, Karen (1998), Inside The Mind Of People Who Hate Gays, Assault on Gay America, PBS, archived from the original on 12 October 2011, retrieved 29 May 2008
  16. ^ a b Johnson, Allan J. (1997). The Gender Knot. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p. 149. ISBN 1-56639-519-4.
  17. ^ "Celebrities". Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  18. ^ "Issues of race and sexuality discussed, Susquehanna Crusader Online, accessed Aug 29, 2009". Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
  19. ^ "Gay is the New Black, accessed Aug 30, 2009". Archived from the original on 30 January 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
  20. ^ "Gay is NOT the new Black, accessed Aug 29, 2009". Archived from the original on 2 March 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
  21. ^ "Prejudice study finds gay is the new black, accessed Sept 3, 2009". Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 3 September 2009.
  22. ^ Tatum, Beverly (1997). Why are all the Black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?. Basic Books. pp. 21–22.
  23. ^ (2008) Heterosexism and Homophobia. Encyclopedia of Race and Racism, 2, 1–4. Retrieved 31 March 2008 from Gale Virtual Reference Library: http://find.galegroup.com/ips/start.do?prodId=IPS Archived 7 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ Simoni, Jane M.; Walters, Karina L. (2001). "Heterosexual Identity and Heterosexism: Recognizing Privilege to Reduce Prejudice". Journal of Homosexuality. 41 (1): 157–172. doi:10.1300/J082v41n01_06. PMID 11453516. S2CID 142972795.
  25. ^ Johnson, Allan J. (1997). The Gender Knot. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p. 17. ISBN 1-56639-519-4.
  26. ^ "The Pink Practice – Heterosexuality Questionnaire". Archived from the original on 2 May 2018. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  27. ^ Heterosexism and Homophobia. Encyclopedia of Race and Racism, 2, 1–4. Retrieved 31 March 2008 from Gale Virtual Reference Library: http://find.galegroup.com/ips/start.do?prodId=IPS Archived 7 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  28. ^ a b Adams, Maurianne; Bell, Lee Anne; Griffin, Pat (2007). "Appendix 9H". Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2 ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-95200-2.
  29. ^ Herek, Gregory M. (2000). "The Psychology of Sexual Prejudice". Current Directions in Psychological Science. 9 (1): 19–22. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.00051. S2CID 36963920.
  30. ^ a b c Herek, Gregory M. (1988). "Heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: Correlates and gender differences". Journal of Sex Research. 25 (4): 451–477. doi:10.1080/00224498809551476.
  31. ^ a b Wright, Lester W. Jr.; Adams, Henry E.; Bernat, Jeffery (1999). "Development and Validation of the Homophobia Scale". Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. 21 (4): 337–347. doi:10.1023/A:1022172816258. S2CID 142657023.
  32. ^ Garnets, Linda; Kimmel, Douglas C. (1993). Psychological perspectives on lesbian and gay male experiences. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-07884-6.
  33. ^ American Civil Liberties Union: Free Speech, Free Expression and Prom Archived 24 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ "Who are you taking to the prom this year?". American Civil Liberties Union. 31 December 2000. Archived from the original on 11 August 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013. Aaron Fricke decided he wanted to go to his senior prom with Paul Guilbert. His principal wouldn't let him.
  35. ^ "GordonMoyes.com » Parliamentary Inquiries – Same Sex Adoption". Archived from the original on 7 October 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  36. ^ Dreyer, Yolanda. "Hegemony and the Internalisation of Homophobia Caused by Heteronormativity." Department of Practical Theology. 2007. University of Pretoria.5 May 2008 [www.up.ac.za/dspace/bitstream/2263/2741/1/Dreyer_Hegemony(2007).pdf.]
  37. ^ Kelly, Annie (12 March 2009). "Raped and killed for being a lesbian: South Africa ignores 'corrective' attacks". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 June 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
  38. ^ Franklin, Karen. "The Roots Of Homophobia – Inside The Mind Of People Who Hate Gays | Assault On Gay America". FRONTLINE. PBS. Archived from the original on 12 October 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  39. ^ Camara, Sakile K.; Katznelson, Amy; Hildebrandt-Sterling, Jenny; Parker, Todd (2012). "Heterosexism in Context: Qualitative Interaction Effects of Co-Cultural Responses". Howard Journal of Communications. 23 (4): 312–331. doi:10.1080/10646175.2012.722836. S2CID 143268150.