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This article contains a timeline of significant events regarding same-sex marriage and legal recognition of same-sex couples worldwide. It begins with the history of same-sex unions during ancient times, which consisted of unions ranging from informal and temporary relationships to highly ritualized unions, and continues to modern-day state-recognized same-sex marriage. Events concerning same-sex marriages becoming legal in a country or in a country's state are listed in bold.

Ancient times (10000 BC – 100)

Main article: History of same-sex unions

Various types of same-sex marriages have existed,[1] ranging from informal, unsanctioned relationships to highly ritualized unions.[2]

Cicero mentions the marriage (using the Latin verb for "to marry", i.e. nubere) of the son of Curio the Elder, but he does it in a metaphorical form to criticize his enemy Antonius. Cicero states thus that the younger Curio was "united in a stable and permanent marriage" to Antonius.[3] Martial also mentions a number of same-sex marriages, but always in derisory terms against people whom he wants to mock.[4]

Practices and rituals for same sex unions were more recognized in Mesopotamia than in ancient Egypt.[5] In ancient Assyria, there was considered to be nothing wrong with homosexual love between men.[6][7][8] The Almanac of Incantations contained prayers giving equal standing to the love of a man for both a woman and a man.[9]

At least two of the Roman Emperors were in same-sex unions; and in fact, thirteen out of the first fourteen Roman Emperors held to be bisexual or exclusively homosexual.[10] The first Roman emperor to have married a man was Nero, who is reported to have married two other men on different occasions. First with one of his freedmen, Pythagoras, to whom Nero took the role of the bride, and later as a groom Nero married a young boy, who resembled one of his concubines,[11] named Sporus.

Adolescent emperor Elagabalus referred to his chariot driver, a blond slave from Caria named Hierocles, as his husband.[12] He also married an athlete named Zoticus in a lavish public ceremony in Rome amidst the rejoicings of the citizens.[13]

These same-sex marriages continued until Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire. A law in the Theodosian Code (C. Th. 9.7.3) was issued in 342 AD by the Christian emperors Constantius II and Constans. This law prohibited same-sex marriage in ancient Rome and ordered that those who were so married were to be executed.[14][15]

In the Middle Ages, a same-sex marriage between the two men Pedro Díaz and Muño Vandilaz in the Galician municipality of Rairiz de Veiga in Spain occurred on 16 April 1061. They were married by a priest at a small chapel. The historic documents about the church wedding were found at Monastery of San Salvador de Celanova.[16]

The Siwa Oasis in Egypt had a historical acceptance of male homosexuality and even rituals of same-sex marriage—traditions that Egyptian authorities have sought to repress, with increasing success, since the early 20th century.[17] The German egyptologist George Steindorff explored the oasis in 1900 and reported that homosexual relations were common and often extended to a form of marriage.[18]

1970s

1970

Jack Baker and Michael McConnell (r), 1970

The modern gay movement for PRIDE and marriage equality began on the Minneapolis campus (U of M) of the University of Minnesota.[19] James Michael McConnell, librarian,[20] and Richard John Baker,[21] law student, applied for a marriage license.[22] Gerald R. Nelson, Clerk of District Court, denied the license because both applicants were men.[23]

1971

McConnell re-applied in another county,[25] received a license and was married in Minneapolis[26] by a minister from the Hennepin Avenue United Methodist Church.[27] Assistant Chief Judge Gregory Anderson ruled, later, "The marriage is declared to be in all respects valid".[28] Only then did the IRS recognize[29] the marriage and allow them to share Social Security benefits.[30]

1972

On direct appeal, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a one-sentence order: "The appeal [of McConnell and Baker from Hennepin County] is dismissed for want of a substantial federal question."[32][34][35]

1973

1974

1975

1979

1980s

1982

1984

1985

1989

1990s

1990

1991

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

  1. creates a relationship register for both gay and straight couples (called "Pacte civil de solidarité" abbreviated as "PaCS"); and
  2. redefines the non-registered partnership as the stable union between two adults regardless of their gender (before this law, previous decisions of the French highest Court ruled that there could be no couple without appearance of marriage, therefore excluding gay people from any vision of family).

2000s

2000

2001

Two men marrying in Amsterdam, after Queen Beatrix signed the law to make Netherlands the first country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage (2001).[68]
Two men marrying in Amsterdam, after Queen Beatrix signed the law to make Netherlands the first country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage (2001).[68]

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

First same-sex wedding in San Francisco, California.
First same-sex wedding in San Francisco, California.

2009

2010s

2010

President of Argentina, Cristina Fernández, signs the bill legalizing same-sex marriage.
President of Argentina, Cristina Fernández, signs the bill legalizing same-sex marriage.

2011

2012

2013

Minnesota State House, 2013
The National Assembly of France gives final approval to the same-sex marriage bill by a 331–225 vote.
The National Assembly of France gives final approval to the same-sex marriage bill by a 331–225 vote.

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

Alexandra Chávez and Michelle Avilés, first same-sex couple to get married in Ecuador
Alexandra Chávez and Michelle Avilés, first same-sex couple to get married in Ecuador

2020s

2020

2021

President Sebastian Piñera of Chile signs the same-sex marriage bill into law.
President Sebastian Piñera of Chile signs the same-sex marriage bill into law.

See also

References

  1. ^ Lahey, Kathleen A.; Alderson, Kevin (2004). Same-Sex Marriage. Insomniac Press. pp. 15–16. ISBN 9781897414989.
  2. ^ Herdt, Gilbert H. (28 January 1993). Ritualized Homosexuality in Melanesia. ISBN 9780520080966. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  3. ^ Cicero Philippic 18 February, 2.45 See old translation at: http://old.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0021&layout=&loc=18 Archived 14 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine February, 2.45
  4. ^ Martial 12.42, 1.35, 3.93, 12.95. Old Translations of passages at: http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/martial_epigrams_book12.htm http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/martial_epigrams_book01.htm http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/martial_epigrams_book03.htm
  5. ^ Martial, 465
  6. ^ Martial, 468.
  7. ^ Gay Rights Or Wrongs: A Christian's Guide to Homosexual Issues and Ministry, by Mike Mazzalonga, 1996, p.11
  8. ^ The Nature Of Homosexuality, Erik Holland, page 334, 2004
  9. ^ Bullough, p. 53
  10. ^ Hinsch, Bret. (1990). Passions of the Cut Sleeve. University of California Press. pp. 35–36.
  11. ^ Nero missed her so greatly after her death that on learning of a woman who resembled her he at first sent for her and kept her; but later he caused a boy of the freedmen, whom he used to call Sporus,..."he formally "married" Sporus, and assigned the boy a regular dowry according to contract;" q.v., Suetonius Nero 28; Dio Cassius Epitome 62.28 Old Translation of passage at: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/62*.html
  12. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LXXIX.30
  13. ^ Dio Cassius Epitome 80.5, 80.14, 80.15, 80.16; Herodian Roman History 5.6.1–5.6.2 Old Translation of passage at: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/80*.html http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/herodian_05_book5.htm
  14. ^ Greenberg, Steven (23 February 2004). Wrestling With God And Men: Homosexuality In The Jewish Tradition – Steven Greenberg – Google Boeken. ISBN 9780299190934. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  15. ^ Boswell, John (15 February 2009). Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western ... – John Boswell – Google Boeken. ISBN 9780226067148. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  16. ^ Callón, Carlos. "Callón gaña o Vicente Risco de Ciencias Sociais cun ensaio sobre a homosexualidade na Idade Media" (in Galician). Archived from the original on 5 March 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
  17. ^ Dumairy, A. (2005). Siwa Past and Present. Alexandria.
  18. ^ Steindorff, George (1904). Durch die Libysche Wuste Zur Amonoase. Leipsig: Velohgen and Klasing. p. 111.
  19. ^ Sources: Michael McConnell Files, "America’s First Gay Marriage" (binder #7), Tretter Collection in GLBT Studies, U of M Libraries.
    • University president Eric Kaler apologized to McConnell for the treatment inflicted by the Board of Regents in 1970.
      • 22 June 2012: Anon., "News", University News Service. "U of M President Eric Kaler has called McConnell's treatment reprehensible, regrets that it occurred and says that the university's actions at that time were not consistent with the practices enforced today at the university."
      • 17 February 2020: McConnell received a letter from Robert Burgett (Senior Vice President, University of Minnesota Foundation) announcing his enrollment as a member of the Heritage Society of the President's Club.
  20. ^ Sources: Michael McConnell Files, "Full Equality, a diary" (volumes 5a-e), Tretter Collection in GLBT Studies, U of M Libraries.
    • March 1967: On Baker's 25th Birthday, McConnell insisted that he would accept Baker's invitation to be lovers if, and only if, he could find a way for the relationship to be recognized as a "legal" marriage.
    • June 1970: University Librarian mailed an offer of employment to McConnell.
    • July 1970: James F. Hogg (Secretary, the Board of Regents) arranged for a letter to be delivered to McConnell:
      • The Board accepted the recommendation of its Executive Committee "That the appointment of Mr. J. M. McConnell to the position of the Head of the Cataloging Division of the St. Paul Campus Library at the rank of Instructor not be approved on the grounds that his personal conduct, as represented in the public and University news media, is not consistent with the best interest of the University."
    • 1971: A federal court of appeals allowed such discrimination to continue.
    • 1972: Hennepin County Library, then a diverse and growing system of 26 facilities, hired McConnell.
  21. ^ Sources: Michael McConnell Files, "Full Equality, a diary", (volumes 6a-b), Tretter Collection in GLBT Studies, U of M Libraries.
    • As a student body president (elected 1971, re-elected 1972), he was known by different names:
      • March 1942: Richard John Baker, Certificate of Birth
      • September 1969: Jack Baker, name adopted to lead activists demanding gay equality
      • August 1971: Pat Lyn McConnell, married name via Decree of Adoption
  22. ^ May: in Minneapolis, within the Fourth Judicial District, which includes all of Hennepin County.
  23. ^ Sources: Michael McConnell Files, "Full Equality, a diary", (volume 2ab), Tretter Collection in GLBT Studies, U of M Libraries.
    • May 1970: Letter addresed to Gerald R. Nelson from George M. Scot, County Attorney
      • page 6: "The consequences of an interpretation of our marriage statutes which would permit males to enter into the marriage contract could be to result in an undermining and destruction of the entire legal concept of our family structure in all areas of law."
  24. ^ "Minnesota Statutes Annotated", West Publishing Co.
    • Chapter 517.01: Marriage a civil contract. "Marriage, so far as its validity in law is concerned, is a civil contract, to which the consent of the parties, capable in law of contracting, is essential."
    • Chapter 517.03: Marriages prohibited. [The list does not include parties of the same gender.]
  25. ^ Sources: Michael McConnell Files, "America’s First Gay Marriage" (binder #7), Tretter Collection in GLBT Studies, U of M Libraries.
    • In Mankato: issued by the Clerk of District Court, Fifth Judicial District, which includes all of Blue Earth County.
    • 16 August 1971: "Daily Record", Mankato Free Press, p. ?
  26. ^ September: Fourth Judicial District, which includes all of Hennepin County.
  27. ^ Video by Logan Chelmo (6 June 2021). Available online courtesy U of M Libraries.
  28. ^ Sources: Michael McConnell Files, "America’s First Gay Marriage" (binder #4), Tretter Collection in GLBT Studies, U of M Libraries.
    • Fifth Judicial District, File #07-CV-16-4559;
      • 18 September 2018: CONCLUSIONS OF LAW by Assistant Chief Judge Gregory Anderson, at 4; available online from U of M Libraries.
      • . . . "The September 3, 1971 marriage of James Michael McConnell and Pat Lyn McConnell, a/k/a Richard John Baker, has never been dissolved or annulled by judicial decree and no grounds currently exist on which to invalidate the marriage."
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  30. ^ Sources: Michael McConnell Files, "America’s First Gay Marriage" (binder #7), Tretter Collection in GLBT Studies, U of M Libraries.
  31. ^ a b Title of decision, as posted by the court.
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  33. ^ William N. Eskridge Jr. and Christopher R. Riano, "Marriage Equality: From Outlaws to In-Laws", Yale University Press (2020), Chapter 24
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      • see generally Note, t. l. p, Jr (1978). "The Precedential Effect of Summary Affirmances and Dismissals for Want of a Substantial Federal Question by the Supreme Court after Hicks v. Miranda and Mandel v. Bradley". Virginia Law Review. 64 (1): 117–143. doi:10.2307/1072545. JSTOR 1072545.
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