This circa 1760 painting of a femminiello in Naples is one of the earliest examples of gender-nonconformity in art.[1]
This circa 1760 painting of a femminiello in Naples is one of the earliest examples of gender-nonconformity in art.[1]

Femminielli or femmenielli (singular femminiello, compare Standard Italian femmina, 'a female', -ello, masculine diminutive suffix) is a term used to refer to a population of people who embody a third gender role in traditional Neapolitan culture, and to a lesser extent, in the rest of Southern Italy.[2][3] It may be hard to define this term within modern Western notions of "gay men" versus "trans women" since both these categories overlap to a degree in the case of femminielli (see Third gender).[3] This term is not derogatory and does not carry a stigma; instead femminielli are traditionally believed to bring luck.[2][3] Ironically, Achille della Ragione suggests that recent surveys have shown that Neapolitans have a generally negative view of what he calls "the politically correct model of homosexuality of a hypocritical do-gooder society" (implying the mainstream Western gay culture), yet he contrasts femminielli as enjoying a favorable attitude from a part of Neapolitan society.[4]

Gender analysis

It is reductive to insert the Neapolitan femminiello within the macro-category of transgender usually adopted in Anglo-Saxon and North American contexts. "The alternative identity of femminielli is possible from a transformed, disguised, and transfigured body, a complex phenomenon that could be considered 'endemic', and is peculiarly linked to the territory and the population of the city".[5] The femminiello, instead, could be considered as a peculiar gender expression, despite a widespread sexual binarism. The cultural roots that this phenomenon is embedded in confer to the femminiello a cultural and even socially legitimized status. For the historical and symbolic coordinates of Naples, the identity construct of the femminiello is not superimposable to more common European and euro-centric transgender clusters.[6]

In late 2000s many sex scandals have rocked Italy involving high-profile politicians (e.g., former President of Lazio, Piero Marrazzo) and transgender sex workers often of Latin American descent, who are usually referred to as transessuali (shortened to trans) in Italian media. In 2009 the term femminiello gained some notoriety in Italian media after a Naples native femminiello Camorra mobster Ketty Gabriele was arrested. Gabriele had engaged in prostitution prior to becoming a capo. Gabriele has been referred to both as a femminiello[2] and transessuale or trans[7][8] in Italian media.

However, others maintain that i femminielli are decidedly male despite their female gender role, saying that "they are male; they know it and everyone else knows it."[3] Achille della Ragione has written of social aspects of femminielli. "[The femminiello] is usually the youngest male child, 'mother's little darling,' ... he is useful, he does chores, runs errands and watches the kids."[3]

Zito and Eugenio propose in their study that the femminielli "seem to confirm, in the field of gender identity, the postmodern idea of continuous modulation between the masculine and the feminine against their dichotomy."[5]

A certain incompatibility between the notions of femminiello and (often foreign-born) transgender people can be observed, e.g., a news headline reading Rivolta ai quartieri Spagnoli: i femminielli cacciano le trans ("Revolt in the Quartieri Spagnoli: femminielli drive out the transsexuals.")[3]


See also: Galli, eunuch priests of the goddess Cybele

Hermaphroditus, the son of Hermes and Aphrodite
Hermaphroditus, the son of Hermes and Aphrodite

The constant references in many sources to the ancient rituals behind the presence of the femminiello in Naples require little comment. The links to ancient Greek mythology are numerous: for example, Hermaphroditus, who possessed the beauty of the mother, Aphrodite, and the strength of the father, Hermes; or Tiresias, the blind prophet of Thebes, famous for being transformed into a woman for seven years. Both of these personages and, indeed, others in many cultures in the world are presumed to possess something that others do not: the wise equilibrium that comes from knowing both worlds, masculine and feminine.[3][9]


A ceremony called the matrimonio dei femminielli takes place in Torre Annunziata on Easter Monday, a parade of femminielli dressed in wedding gowns and accompanied by a "husband" travel through the streets in horse-drawn carriages.[10]


The femminiello in Campania enjoy a relatively privileged position thanks to their participation in some traditional events, such as Candelora al Santuario di Montevergine (Candlemas at the Sanctuary of Montevergine) in Avellino[11] or the Tammurriata, a traditional dance performed at the feast of Madonna dell'Arco in Sant'Anastasia.[12]

Generally femminielli are considered good luck. For this reason, it is popular in the neighborhoods for a femminiello to hold a newborn baby, or participate in games such as bingo.[9] Above all the Tombola or Tombolata dei femminielli,[13] a popular game performed every year on the 2nd of February, as the conclusive part of the Candlemas at the Sanctuary of Montevergine.


In a stage production called La Gatta Cenerentola (The Cat Cinderella), by Roberto De Simone, femmenielli play the roles of several important characters. Among the major scenes in this respect are the rosario dei femmenielli and il suicidio del femminiella.[14]

See also


  1. ^ Lang, Nico (11 Jul 2016). "This 18th-Century Italian Painting Proves Gender Nonconformity Is Far From a Modern Invention". Slate. The Slate Group LLC.
  2. ^ a b c Fulvio, Bufi (2009). "Presa Ketty, boss "femminiello" Comandava i pusher di Gomorra". Corriere della Sera (February 13, 2009): 19. Archived from the original on September 14, 2015. Femminiello è una figura omosessuale (..) è una persona dall' aspetto effeminato o spesso un travestito. È rispettato e generalmente il femminiello viene considerato una persona che porta fortuna.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Jeff Matthews. "The Femminiello in Neapolitan Culture". Archived from the original on 2011-05-15.
  4. ^ Achille della Ragione. "I femminielli". Archived from the original on 2011-05-10. Il napoletano, come dimostrano recenti statistiche, non vede di buon occhio l'omosessuale più o meno dichiarato, quello politically correct, che oggi, altrove, va tanto di moda ed è apparentemente accettato da una società ipocritamente buonista. Ma da noi il femminiello può vivere quasi sempre, soprattutto nei quartieri popolari, in una atmosfera accogliente, segnata dal consenso e dal buonumore.
  5. ^ a b Zito, Eugenio. "Disciplinary crossings and methodological contaminations in gender research: a psycho-anthropological survey on Neapolitan femminielli." International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, vol. 7, no. 2, 2013, p. 204+. Academic OneFile, Accessed 23 Oct. 2018.
  6. ^ Hochdorn, Alexander, Paolo F. Cottone and Dania Vallini (2011). Gender and discursive positioning: Doing transgender in highly normative contexts. 69th Conference of the International Council of Psychologists. 29 July - 2 August 2011, Washington DC (USA) Archived 2012-03-04 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Corriere della Sera". Retrieved 7 May 2018.[permanent dead link]
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-04-22. Retrieved 2011-12-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ a b "I femminielli (Achille della Ragione)". Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  10. ^ Lo Strillone: Pasquetta con i femminielli nel quadrilatero Carceri Archived 2012-10-31 at the Wayback Machine, 9 April 2012
  11. ^ Il Santuario di Montevergine e la Candelora Archived 2012-01-27 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ "Traditional Dances - The Tummurriata". Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  13. ^ "Tombolata dei Femminielli: divertimento e tradizione ad Avellino". Archived from the original on 31 May 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  14. ^ "The Songs of LA GATTA CENERENTOLA - Roberto de Simone - Universitas adversitatis - Organiser Ed Emery". Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2018.