Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
|Motto||Latin: Ad Scientiarum Haustum et Seminarium Doctrinarum|
Motto in English
|For the inculcation of the sciences and the dissemination of knowledge|
|Established||5 June 1224|
|Rector||Prof. Matteo Lorito|
|Sports teams||CUS Napoli|
|Affiliations||Campus Europae, UNIMED, PEGASUS|
The University of Naples Federico II (Italian: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II) is a public university in Naples, Italy. Established in 1224, it is the oldest public or state university in the world. Noted for being the world's oldest public or state-funded university chartered by the head of a state and one of the world's ten oldest universities in continuous operation, it is also believed to be the oldest secular or non-sectarian state university in the world.
It was Europe's first university dedicated to training secular administrative staff, and is one of the world's oldest academic institutions in continuous operation. Federico II is the third University in Italy by number of students enrolled, but despite its size it is still one of the best universities in Europe and the world, being particularly notable for research; in 2015 it was ranked among the top 100 universities in the world by citations per paper. U.S. News & World Report placed it among the top 100 best global universities in many subjects like Physics, Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems, Agricultural Sciences, Plant and Animal Science, Polymer Science, Mechanical Engineering, and Civil Engineering.
The university is named after its founder Frederick II. In October 2016, the university hosted the first ever Apple IOS Developer Academy and in 2018 the Cisco Digital Transformation Lab.
The university of Naples Federico II was founded by emperor of the Holy Roman Empire Frederick II on 5 June 1224. It is the world's oldest state-supported institution of higher education and research. One of the most famous students was Roman Catholic theologian and philosopher Thomas Aquinas.
Frederick II had specific objectives when he founded the university in Naples: first, to train administrative and skilled bureaucratic professionals for the curia regis (the kingdom's ministries and governing apparatus), as well as preparing lawyers and judges who would help the sovereign to draft laws and administer justice. Second, he wanted to facilitate the cultural development of promising young students and scholars, avoiding any unnecessary and expensive trips abroad: by creating a State University, Emperor Frederick avoided having young students during his reign complete their training at the University of Bologna, which was in a city that was hostile to the imperial power.
The University of Naples was arguably the first to be formed from scratch by a higher authority, not based upon an already-existing private school. Although its claim to be the first state-sponsored university can be challenged by Palencia (which was founded by the Castilian monarch c.1212), Naples certainly was the first chartered one.
The artificiality of its creation posed great difficulties in attracting students; Thomas Aquinas was one of the few who came in these early years. Those years were further complicated by the long existence, in nearby Salerno, of Europe's most prestigious medical faculty, the Schola Medica Salernitana. The fledgling faculty of medicine at Naples had little hope of competing with it, and in 1231 the right of examination was surrendered to Salerno. The establishment of new faculties of theology and law under papal sponsorship in Rome in 1245 further drained Naples of students, as Rome was a more attractive location. In an effort to revitalize the dwindling university, in 1253, all the remaining schools of the university of Naples moved to Salerno, in the hope of creating a single viable university for the south. But that experiment failed and the university (minus medicine) moved back to Naples in 1258 (in some readings, Naples was "refounded" in 1258 by Manfred Hohenstaufen, as by this time there were hardly any students left). The Angevin reforms after 1266 and the subsequent decline of Salerno gave the University of Naples a new lease on life and put it on a stable, sustainable track.
Initially the studies were directed towards law (fundamental for the formation of jurists), the liberal arts, medicine and theology: the latter, compared to other subjects, was taught in religious institutions, in particular in the convent of San Domenico Maggiore, where Thomas Aquinas taught from 1271 to 1274.
During the Angevin period (1265-1443) the structure and organization of the University remained substantially unchanged.
At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the prestige of the University of Naples increased, particularly in the scientific field: in the field of genetics it was a pioneer, with the establishment of the first chair in Italy. New building and organizational difficulties afflicted the university both during the Fascist period and during the World War II: the headquarters was set on fire by the Germans on 12 September 1943; laboratories and science labs were requisitioned by the allies.
After the war, following the modern evolution of the university model in general, the University of Naples became the second most important university in Italy in terms of number of students, second only to the Sapienza University of Rome.
On 7 September 1987, it assumed its current name as University of Naples Federico II in anticipation of the establishment, in 1991, through its spin-off, of the Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli.
The University of Naples Federico II possesses a vast architectural heritage, the result of acquisitions made over the centuries. Where not specified, the municipality to which it belongs is that of Naples.
The headquarters of the University of Naples Federico II is located along Corso Umberto I, at the corner with Via Mezzocannone, at number 40. The building is in neo-baroque style and was erected during the Risanamento, between 1897 and 1908, based on a project by the architects Pierpaolo Quaglia and Guglielmo Melisurgo. The headquarters, as it is commonly and widely known in the university environment, stands close to the original university complex (which since 1777 had found its place in the Casa del Salvatore, no longer owned by the Jesuits). However, the new building was not isolated from the complex behind it as the architects took care to connect it with the pre-existing offices behind it through the so-called Scalone della Minerva, which originates in the courtyard of the University building and ends in the Jesuit courtyard, overcoming a height difference of more than 7 m. The site houses the offices of the central management of the university (Rectorate, Academic Senate, Treasury, etc.) and the Department of Law. It is also the secondary seat of the Department of Humanities.
The university has 13 faculties:
Among those who have attended the University of Naples Federico II are Italian presidents Enrico De Nicola, Giovanni Leone and Giorgio Napolitano; mayors of Naples Luigi de Magistris and Gaetano Manfredi; CEO Fabrizio Freda; and philosophers Benedetto Croce and Nicola Abbagnano.
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