Ultras of Levski Sofia
Ultras of Lazio

Ultras are a type of association football fans who are renowned for their fanatical support. The term originated in Italy, but is used worldwide to describe predominantly organised fans of association football teams. The behavioural tendency of ultras groups includes their use of flares (primarily in tifo choreography), vocal support in large groups and the displaying of banners at football stadiums, all of which are designed to create an atmosphere which encourages their own team and intimidates the opposing players and their supporters. The frequent use of elaborate displays in stadiums is also common.

Ultras groups have been responsible for many cases of football hooliganism and violence,[1] although differently from hooligan firms, ultras do not have the explicit objective of fighting other fans.[2] Ultras groups are also in some cases directly linked to ideologies like neo-Nazism or other forms of either far-right,[3][4][5] or far-left politics.[6][7] In some instances, this politicization goes to the point where support for their team is relegated to a secondary feature of the phenomenon.[8]

In recent decades, the culture has become a focal point for the movement against the commercialisation of sports and football in particular.[9] Ultras also have regional variants and analogues, such as the barra bravas in Hispanic America[10] and Torcidas Organizadas in Brazil.[11]


Barra bravas of Club Atlético Independiente in the 1960s

The origin of the ultras movement is disputed,[12] with many supporters groups from various countries making claims solely on the basis of their dates of foundation. The level of dispute and confusion is aided by a contemporary tendency (mainly in Europe) to categorise all groups of overtly fanatical supporters as ultras. Supporters groups of a nature comparable to the ultras have been present in Brazil since 1939, when the first torcida organizada was formed (although these groups began to focus on violence in the 1970s). Inspired by the torcidas and the colourful scenes of the 1950 World Cup, supporters of Hajduk Split formed Torcida Split on 28 October 1950.[13] The group is often cited as the oldest torcida style group in Europe. But the first supporters' groups in the world formed to produce violence were barras bravas, originated in Argentina in the 1950s.

One country closely associated with the ultras movement is Italy.[12][14] The first Italian ultras groups were formed in 1951, including the Fedelissimi Granata of Torino. The 1960s saw the continuing spread and development of the culture with the formation of the Fossa dei Leoni and Boys San groups, the former often regarded in Italy as the first full-fledged ultras group (associated with violence). The term "ultras" was used as a name for the first time in 1969, when supporters of Sampdoria formed the Ultras Tito Cucchiaroni and fans of Torino formed the Ultras Granata. The style of support that would become synonymous with Italian football developed most during the 1970s, as more groups formed, including the radical S.S. Lazio Ultras in 1974, with a strong predominance of fascist slogans and chants amongst other groups such as Hellas Verona supporters. The active support of the ultras became more apparent, in contrast with the "traditional" culture, choreographic displays, signature banners and symbols, giant flags, drums and fireworks became the norm as groups aimed to take their support to higher levels.[15] The decade also saw the violence and unrest of Italian society at the time overlap with the ultras movement, adding a dimension that has plagued it ever since.[16] The ultras movement spread across Europe, Australia, Asia and North Africa during the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, starting with the countries geographically closest to Italy.[17]



Green Brigade are an ultras group that follow Celtic F.C. and regularly make tifo displays and often voice support for a United Ireland. They are left-wing. On the other side of Glasgow are the Rangers F.C ultra group The Union Bears.[18] The Union Bears are known for their elaborate fan displays and their support for Northern Irish and Scottish unionism within the UK. Block Seven are a supporters group that support Hibernian FC, the Gorgie Ultras support rivals, Heart of Midlothian FC.


In England, there are ultras groups at Hartlepool United known as the NWC, Middlesbrough F.C (Red Faction), Crystal Palace F.C. (Holmesdale Fanatics), Ipswich Town F.C (Blue Action), Leicester City F.C (Union FS), Huddersfield Town F.C, and Stockport County (Hatters 83).[19][20][21] Several non-league football teams in England have ultras groups that are left-wing, such as the fans of Dulwich Hamlet F.C. who have a group called The Rabble.[22][23] A Vice article claims Casuals United are at war with anti-fascist football ultras.[24]

In late 2022, an Arsenal F.C. supporters group called "Ashburton Army" gained prominence, taking their name from Ashburton Grove, an historic road upon which the team's Emirates Stadium was built.[25][26][27]


Singing at sector B Central during the opening ceremonies of the Puskás Aréna on 15 November 2019

Several clubs in Hungary have large ultras groups, such as Ferencváros (Green Monsters), Újpest (Viola Fidelity), Diósgyőr (Ultras Diósgyőr), Honvéd (Ultras Kispest, Északi Kanyar), Fehérvár (Red Blue Devils), Tatabánya (Turul Ultrái), and Debrecen (Szívtiprók Ultras Debrecen). The national team of Hungary has an ultras group known as the Carpathian Brigade. The group was formed in 2009. Hungarian ultras occupy sector B Central at the Puskás Aréna.


Portuguese club old group No Name Boys, Lisbon, 2008
Stadium Club Name
Estádio do Dragão FC Porto Super Dragões
Colectivo Ultras 95
Estádio do Bessa Boavista FC Panteras Negras
Estádio da Luz SL Benfica No groups currently organized
Estádio José Alvalade Sporting CP Juventude Leonina 1976
Torcida Verde
Directivo Ultras XXI
Brigada Ultras Sporting
Estádio D. Afonso Henriques Vitória SC White Angels


FC Copenhagen (Sektion 12) and Brøndby IF (Sydsiden) have some of the most renowned ultras groups on the continent, and the derby between the two is also one of the fiercest in Europe.[28]

AaB's ultras group caused a 14-minute delay in the 2020 Danish Cup final for a failure to adhere to COVID-19 social distancing rules.[29] The group was ultimately ejected from the stadium and the game resumed, which was won by Sønderjyske.


AC Milan ultras in 2006

In Italy, most professional football clubs have an ultras group which attends every match and has dedicated seating areas in either the north or south end of the stadium behind the goals. Each ultras group will have one or more leaders who choreograph chants, and who hand out banners and flags to other people in the stand to wave throughout the match. Ultras have been credited with creating fantastic atmospheres inside the stadium; however they have also come under universal criticism because of ties to various gangs and the mafia, as well as causing violence which often takes place outside the stadium prior to a match. Over the years inappropriate chanting has resulted in the FIGC issuing partial or full stadium bans to clubs. The ultras will choreograph a wide range of chants throughout a match, but some of the most common chants that result in a ban are anti-Southern chants towards clubs which are located in the South of Italy, most notably towards Napoli, as well as racist chants towards opposition players. However, these issues only partially represent parts of the Ultras culture in Italy – Ultras in Italy are also known for fighting criminals and the Mafia, giving housing to immigrants or helping Italian citizens in need, as well as aiding with food and money during the Covid pandemic to their local hospitals.[30][31]


several groups exist in Ireland Dundalk Fc Shedside Army Shamrock Rovers SRFC ultras


The first Polish ultras groups were formed in 1980s by fans of Legia Warszawa and Arka Gdynia. Those early ultra groups identified as either fascist or national-socialist and opposed communist government of Wojciech Jaruzelski. The 1990s saw the continuing spread and development of the ultra culture with the formation of the Wisła Sharks and Cracovia Jude Gang groups, the former often regarded in Poland as the first full-fledged ultras group. With intimidating and non-stop chanting, they've made their presence felt in the stands.[32] Modern hooligans try to be inconspicuous when they enter the stadium; usually not wearing team colours, to avoid detection by the police and PZPN officials.[33] Some modern Polish ultra groups denounce their neo-Nazi origins, with fans of Legia Warszawa often taking part in pride parades and attending various pro-LGBT happenings.[34][35]


Spanish ultraism is generally agreed to have come from Italian and English ultraism and hooliganism at the 1982 World Cup held in Spain. Held only seven years after the death of Franco, the World Cup was an opportunity for Spain to join the world of modern international football. Spanish ultraism is particularly known for its dramatic and polarized distinction across two ideological cleavages: fascism and nationalism. The vast majority of ultra groups identify as either fascist or anti-fascist, and either independentist or nationalist.[36]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosniaks are known for their national ultras group BHFanaticos. Also, they have a few ultras that are connected to a football clubs Manijaci, Horde zla, Lešinari, Red Army, Škripari, Ultrasi and many more.


Gate-9 (Greek:Θύρα 9) is a Cypriot fans' group that supports the football team People's Athletic Club Omonia 1948 and all the sport departments of AC Omonia except football. Omonia supporters are traditionally left wing. A 2009 gallop poll estimated that three out of four Omonia fans vote for the Progressive Party of Working People, the communist party of Cyprus.[37] While the group retains its left wing beliefs, in recent years it has been openly critical of the party's involvement in the club's administrative decisions. The party has denied accusations that it influences club decisions.[38] Gate-9 members are associated with communist beliefs and have been noted for waving banners bearing Che Guevara's portrait, and other communist symbols.[39] The group is also involved in humanitarian work for refugees in Cyprus.[40] The group, besides Nicosia, has fan clubs in Limassol, Athens, Thessaloniki, Larnaka,[41] Paphos,[42] and London.[43]


Although small in size, Malta has some notable ultras groups. The main ultras groups in Malta are Birkirkara Ultras 1997, Ultras Beltin 99, and Paola Boys Hibs Ultras, as well as the Maltese national football team ultras group, the South End Core.


Stadium Club Name
Chernihiv Stadium Desna Chernihiv Ultras Desna


Romania's ultras only finds itself in the traditional teams like Steaua București, Dinamo București and Rapid București; but there are some small ultras groups which support their local club. The biggest ultras groups are: Peluza Şepcile Roşii, Peluza Nord Steaua, Peluza Sud Steaua, Peluza Cătălin Hîldan, and Peluza Nord Rapid. There are also some honourable mentions like Peluza Marină Farul, Peluza Sud Craiova, Peluza Şepcile Roşii and Peluza Nord Galați.


One of the biggest ultras in the world, and the biggest in Türkiye, is UltrAslan, who support the highly decorated club of Galatasaray. The name of the organisation is a portmanteau word combining the concepts of "ultras" and "aslan" (the lion), which is a symbol of Galatasaray.


The most famous ultras in Bulgaria are Sector G (CSKA Sofia), Sector B (Levski Sofia), Bultras (Botev Plovdiv), and Lauta Army (Lokomotiv Plovdiv).



Stadium Club Name
Douera Sportpark Stadium MC Alger Ultras the Twelfth Player 2011
Ultras Green Corsaires 2012
Ultra' Amore E Montalita 2019
Stade 20 Août 1955,
JSM Skikda Ultras Senza Confine 13
Ultras Ouled Russicada 2015
Mohamed Hamlaoui Stadium,
CS Constantine Ultras Loca Ragazzi 2010
Ultras Green Army 2012
April 13, 1958 Stadium,
MC Saida

Ultras Méga Boys 2007

20 August 1955 Stadium (Algiers),
CR Belouizdad

Ultras Fanatic Reds 09

Stade 8 Mai 1945,
ES Setif Ultras Inferno 10
Stade du 5 Juillet,
USM Alger Groupe Ouled El Bahdja
Alger Offender
Ahmed Zabana Stadium,
MC Oran Ultras Red Castle 2011
Ultras Leones Rey 2009
Maghrebi Unity Stadium MO Bejaia Ultras Granchio 09
Ultras Saldae Kings 2010
Ultras Free Men 15
May 19, 1956 Stadium USM Annaba Les indepandants de bone 12
1 November 1954 Stadium (Tizi Ouzou)
JS Kabylie Ultras Kabylie Boys 09
Ultras The Leader 2013
Ultras Samba Boys 2013
20 August 1955 Stadium (Algiers),
NA Hussein Dey

Ultra Dey Boys 09
Ultras Crazy Capital 14

Mohamed Boumezrag Stadium,
ASO Chlef

Ultras Polina 10

1 November 1954 Stadium (Batna),
CA Batna Ultras Aurès Boys 2009
Ultras Furia Roja 2013
Stade Imam Lyes,
O Medea Ultras Matador 26
February 24, 1956 Stadium,
Sidi Bel Abbès
USM Bel Abbès

Ultras Scorpion Trop Puissant
Ultras Verde Veteranos

1 November 1954 Stadium (Algiers) USM El Harrach

Grinta Curva(UGG & UYC)
Ultra' Combattiva

20 August 1955 Stadium,
Bordj Bou Arréridj
CA Bordj Bou Arréridj Ultras Commandos 2008
Ultras Monstros 18
El Alia Sports Complex US Biskra

Ultras Pandilla Ziban
Groupe Ouled el Ziban

Touhami Zoubir Khelifi Stadium AS Aïn M'lila

Red Scorpion

Stade Akid Lotfi WA Tlemcen

Ultras Kop 13

Stade 20 Août 1955 (Béchar) JS Saoura

Ultras Giallo Verde

Stade Messaoud Zougar MC El Eulma

Ultras Vikings 2009
Ultras Red Army 2013

Maghrebi Unity Stadium JSM Bejaia

Ultras Gouraya United
Ultras Marins

1 November 1954 Stadium (Batna),
MSP Batna

Ultras Pantera Nera 2009

Ismaïl Makhlouf Stadium RC Arbaâ

Ultras Blue Vichingo
Ultras Tauras Blue

Stade Tahar Zoughari RC Relizane

Ultras Verde Corazon

Stade Mokhtar Abdelatif Amal Bou Saâda

Ultras Ouled el Khadra

Habib Bouakeul Stadium ASM Oran

Ultras Verde Lupo

Stade Mohamed Reggaz WA Boufarik

Ultras Orange W'arriors 2015

Stade Ben Abdelmalek MO Constantine

Ultras Libertados
Ultras Ouled Ben Badis

Rouibah Hocine Stadium JS Djijel

Ultras Green Gunners
Ultras Free Fans
Ouled el Corniche

Brakni Brothers Stadium USM Blida

Ultras Green Killers 2014

Stade Souidani Boujemaa ES Guelma

Ultras Rebells Ragazzi

Omar Oucief Stadium CR Témouchent

Ultras Red Wolves

Ahmed Kaïd Stadium JSM Tiaret

Ultras Cavalier Blue
Ultras Blue Eagles

Stade Amar Benjamaa ES Collo

Ultras Los Marinos 23

Stade Mohamed Bensaïd ES Mostaganem

Ultras Verde Marinero 12

Stade de l'Unité Africaine GC Mascara

Ultras Green Storm 2008

Stade Zerdani Hassouna US Chaouia

Ultras Giallo Boys

Mohamed Benhaddad Stadium RC Kouba

Ultras Green Fans
Ultras Raed 2015


Stadium Club Name
Prince Moulay Abdellah Stadium Association Sportive des FAR Ultras Askary 2005
Black Army 2006
Stade Mohamed V Wydad Casablanca Ultras Winners 2005
Stade Mohamed V Raja CA Ultras Green Boys 2005
Ultras Eagles 2006
Ibn Batouta Stadium Ittihad Riadi Tanger Ultra Hercules 2007
Complexe sportif de Fès Maghreb de Fès Ultras Fatal Tigers 2006
Complexe sportif de Phosphate Olympique Club de Khouribga Ultras Green Ghost 2007
Stade Municipal (Kenitra) Kenitra athletic club Ultras Helala Boys 2007
Stade Adrar Hassania Agadir Ultras Imazighen 2006
Stade Saniat Rmel Moghreb Tetouan Ultras Los Matadores 2005
Ultras Siempre Paloma 2006
Stade Municipal de Berkane RS Berkane Ultras Orange Boys 07
Stade Mimoun Al Arsi Chabab Rif Al Hoceima Ultras Rif Boys 2010
Ultras Los Rifeños 2012
Stade El Massira Olympic Safi Ultras Shark 2006
Stade du 18 novembre Ittihad Khemisset Ultras Cavaliers Family 2009
Stade de Marrakech Kawkab Marrakech Ultras Crazy Boys 2006
Honneur Stadium MC Oujda Ultras Brigade Wajda 2007
Stade Boubker Ammar AS Salé Ultras Red Pirates 06
Ultras Pirates 07
Ultras Fanatics 09
Stade Municipal De Khénifra Chabab Atlas Khénifra Ultras Révoltés 2012
Stade D'honneur De Meknès COD Meknès Ultras Red Men 2008
Ultras Vulcano Rosso 2010
Stade El Abdi Difaâ Hassani El Jadidi Ultras Cap Soleil 2007
Stade Municipal (Oued Zem)) Rapide Oued Zem Ultras Martyrs 2007
The Curva Sud in a RCA vs OCS match in 2022

The history of Moroccan ultras can be traced back to the early 2000s, with the formation of the first ultras group, Ultras Tanger, in 2003. However, the first ultras group that still exists today is Ultras Green Boys, which was founded in 2005 to support Raja Casablanca. That same year, Ultras Winners was also founded to support Wydad Casablanca. The Moroccan ultras movement quickly gained momentum and popularity, with other notable groups such as Ultras Eagles (also supporting Raja Casablanca), being formed in 2006. Moroccan ultras groups are heavily influenced by European ultras movements, and are known for their passionate and dedicated support of their favorite football clubs. They are also known for their elaborate displays of choreographed support, including banners, flags, flares, and coordinated chants. Despite facing challenges, such as financial costs and loss of members, Moroccan ultras groups remain an important part of the country's football culture, known for their intense rivalries and unwavering support of their clubs.


The clubs in Egypt became a major political force during the uprising against Mubarak in 2011, but were known for long-standing animosity with the police.[44] When 38 members of the Ultras Devils were arrested in "Shebeen al-Kom" for "belonging to an illegal group" plus additional violent offences, it was seen as a crackdown on the organisations by authorities.[44]

In 2013, the Associated Press stated that the Egyptian Ultras network was one of the most organised movements in Egypt after the Muslim Brotherhood.[44]

Stadium Club Name
Cairo International Stadium Al Ahly SC Ultras Ahlawy
Ultras Devils
Cairo International Stadium Zamalek SC Ultras White Knights (UWK)
Port Said Stadium Al-Masry SC Ultras Green Eagles
Suez Stadium Suez Montakhab Ultras Suez Fedyan
Ghazl El Mahalla Stadium Ghazl El Mahalla SC Ultras Whales 2008
Ismailia Stadium Ismaily SC Ultras Yellow Dragons
Ultras Rebels
Alexandria Stadium Al Ittihad Alexandria Club Ultras Green Magic
El Mansoura Stadium El Mansoura SC Ultras Orange Dragons
Aswan Stadium Aswan SC Ultras Nile Crocodile
El Minya Stadium El Minya SC Ultras Red Camels
Tanta Stadium Tanta SC Ultras Sons of Sayed El Badawy
Damanhour Stadium Ala'ab Damanhour SC Ultras Blues
Zagazig University Stadium Sharkia SC Ultras Green Horses
Sons of Oraby
Shebin Stadium Gomhoriat Shebin SC Ultras Balck Horses


Stadium Club Name
Stade Olympique de Radès ES Tunis Curva Sud Tunis
Ultras Lemkachkhines 2002
Supras Sud 2004
Blood & Gold 2005
Zapatista Esperanza 2007
Fedayn Espérantistes 2009
matadors 2008
Stade Olympique de Radès Club Africain Curva Nord Tunis
African Winners
Leaders Clubistes 2003
North Vandals 2007
Dodgers Clubistes 2007
Stade Taïeb Mhiri CS Sfaxien Curva Nord Sfax
Black & White Fighters 2003
Raged Boys 2007
Ultras Sfaxiens 2007
Leoni Bianconeri 2007
Drughi Bianconeri 2013
Stade Olympique de Sousse ES Sahel Brigade Rouge 2001
Curva Nord Sousse
Ultras Fanatics 2003
Ultras Saheliano 2007
Stade 15 October CA Bizertin Ultras Big Boss 2010
Ultras Marines 2005
Stade Abdelaziz Chtioui AS Marsa Vikings Marsois 2011


Stadium Club Name
The Tripoli International Stadium Al-Ittihad Club (Tripoli) Ultras Teha Boys 2010
The Tripoli International Stadium Al Ahli SC (Tripoli) Ultras Flame Boys 2010
Martyrs of February Stadium Al-Ahly SC (Benghazi) Ultras Jazzara 2010
Martyrs of February Stadium Al-Nasr SC (Benghazi) Ultras Carboniera 2013
Al Bayda Stadium Al Akhdar SC Ultras Dour 2018
Misurata Stadium Asswehly SC Ultras Misrata Knights 2010
Misurata Stadium Alittihad Misurata SC Ultras Misurata Ghost 2017
Zuwara Stadium Aljazeera SC Ultras Yellow Army
Martyrs of February Stadium Al Ta'awon SC Ultras Sa7ara 2018
Derna Stadium Darnes SC Ultras Tribuna Ragazzi


Stadium Club Name
Al-Merrikh Stadium Al-Merrikh SC Ultras Jawareh 2008
Ultras Olympus Mons 13
Al-Hilal Stadium Al-Hilal SC Ultras Blue Lions 2008



The ultras scene was introduced to Lebanon in February 2018, with Nejmeh's "Ultras Supernova" and White ultras for racing Beirut 2019.[45][46][47] Their rivals Ansar quickly followed with their own ultras group, "I Tifosi", one month later.[46] Ahed formed their own ultras group, called "Ultras Yellow Inferno", the same year.[47] Prior to the Arab Club Champions Cup game between Nejmeh and Al-Ahly of Egypt, played on 13 August 2018, seven "Ultras Supernova" fans were arrested by the Egyptian national security because of the negative connotations the word "Ultras" has in Egypt.[48] The fans have been returned to Lebanon by request of the Lebanese Ambassador to Cairo.[49]


Stadium Club Name
Amman International Stadium Al-Faisaly SC Ultras Al Faisaly 2013
King Abdullah II Stadium Al-Wehdat SC Wehdaty Group 2012
Ultras Green Knights 2018

United Arab Emirates

Al-Wasl SC[citation needed]

Ultras Junoon is an Emirati group that was founded in 2010 by the fans of Al-Wasl Club. This club is considered to have the largest fan base in the Emirates, and Al-Wasl Club fans are considered the first club that came up with the idea of Ultras in the Gulf region. It is mentioned that Al Wasl fans were the main reason for increasing excitement in the region and increasing the viewership of the league in the Emirates, in particular. The Ultras Junoon have a great ability to preserve the history of this club, and they are close to making any decision in the interest of this club.

The (Death Note) Tifo Made by (Ultras Junoon)


East Bengal ultras
Blue Pilgrims, 3D tifo
The 3D Blue Tiger tifo displayed by Blue Pilgrims in June 2018

The ultras scene in India was introduced by East Bengal Ultras, the ultras group of East Bengal F.C., in 2013, and since then it grew slowly, as ultras groups of various clubs started to form and display of "Tifo's" and "Pyro" shows became very much a part of the ultras scene in Indian football.[50]

Blue Pilgrims is an organised group of football fans who support the India national football men's team, women's team, and all the other age – group national teams at every home and away game, formed by a group of football fans of several club fan bases of football clubs from India. Founded in 2017 before the commencement of the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup, which was held in India, the group based their name on the nickname of the national team, the "Blue Tigers". They consider travelling with the national teams, to wherever the teams play, as their pilgrimage. They often display flags, banners, and tifos in support of the national team.[51]

Stadium Club Name
Salt Lake Stadium, Kolkata East Bengal F.C. East Bengal Ultras
Salt Lake Stadium, Kolkata East Bengal F.C. East Bengal the Real Power
Salt Lake Stadium, Kolkata Mohun Bagan A.C. Mariners Dé Xtreme
Salt Lake Stadium, Kolkata Mohun Bagan A.C. Mariners' Base Camp[52]



Stadium Club Name
Melbourne Rectangular Stadium, Melbourne Melbourne Victory Original Style Melbourne
Melbourne Rectangular Stadium, Melbourne Melbourne City Yarra End Collective
Western Sydney Stadium, Parramatta Western Sydney Wanderers Red and Black Bloc
Sydney Football Stadium, Sydney Sydney FC The Cove 23
Hindmarsh Stadium, Adelaide Adelaide United Red Army

New Zealand

Stadium Club Name
Wellington Regional Stadium, Wellington Wellington Phoenix Yellow Fever

North America


Stadium Club Name
Stade Saputo CF Montréal Collectif Impact Montréal, Bolos Crew, Brigade, 132crew
BMO Field Toronto FC Block 114
Wanderers Grounds HFX Wanderers FC Block 108 Ultras
Tim Hortons Field Forge FC - Barton St. Battalion

United States

Mercedes-Benz Stadium Atlanta United Guerilla Company[53]
Audi Field D.C. United District Ultras[54]
PayPal Park San Jose Earthquakes San Jose Ultras[55]
Red Bull Arena New York Red Bulls Garden State Ultras[56]

Torcida 96[57]

Subaru Park Philadelphia Union Sons of Ben
CenturyLink Field Seattle Sounders FC Emerald City Supporters[58]
Dignity Health Sports Park Los Angeles Galaxy Ghosts Ultras Galaxy
Providence Park Portland Timbers Timbers Army
Banc of California Stadium Los Angeles Football Club The 3252
Children's Mercy Park Sporting Kansas City Fountain City Ultras
Yankee Stadium New York City Football Club The Third Rail
Keyworth Stadium Detroit City FC Northern Guard Supporters


Ultras groups are usually centred on a core group of founders or leaders (who tend to hold executive control),[59] with smaller subgroups organised by location, friendship or political stance. Ultras tend to use various styles and sizes of banners and flags bearing the name and symbols of their group.[59][60] Some ultras groups sell their own merchandise to raise funds for performing displays.[59][61] An ultras group can number from a handful of fans to hundreds or thousands, with larger groups often claiming entire sections of a stadium for themselves. Ultras groups often have a representative who liaises with the club owners on a regular basis, mostly regarding tickets, seat allocations and storage facilities.[59] Some clubs provide groups with cheaper tickets, storage rooms for flags and banners and early access to the stadium before matches to prepare displays. These types of favoured relationships are often criticised when ultras groups abuse their power.[5]


Polish football hooligans in violent clash

While ultras groups can become violent, the majority of matches attended by ultras conclude with no violent incidents. Unlike hooligan firms, whose main aim is to fight hooligans of other clubs, the main focus of ultras is generally to support their own team.[1] Some hooligans try to be inconspicuous when they travel; usually not wearing team colours, to avoid detection by the police. Within the ultra or hooligan culture however, those dressing to "blend in" would be referred to as casuals, which is viewed by some as a branch of hooliganism, yet still maintaining its own independence and culture. Ultras tend to be more conspicuous when they travel, proudly displaying their scarves and club colours while arriving en masse, which allows the police to keep a close eye on their movements.

See also


  1. ^ a b "Ultra vires". Spiked. 9 February 2007. Archived from the original on 24 February 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  2. ^ "What is a football ultra? Serie A hardcore fan culture explained".
  3. ^ Pantelick, Nicolas (2 February 2022). "Fanaticism and the "Ultras" Movement: How Far Will You Go to Support Your Team?". Harvard International Review.
  4. ^ Parkin, Simon (24 April 2018). "The rise of Russia's neo-Nazi football hooligans". The Guardian.
  5. ^ a b "The dark heart of Italian soccer". CBC Sports. 15 April 2005. Archived from the original on 24 February 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  6. ^ "Learning from adjacent fields: the relation between extremism and hooliganism" (PDF). home-affairs.ec.europa.eu. 25–26 October 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 July 2023. Retrieved 4 August 2023.
  7. ^ Jones, Tobias (26 March 2020). "1312 by James Montague review – inside the world of football's ultras". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 4 July 2023.
  8. ^ "Fan tragedy sends the fight against Ultras back to square one". The Guardian. 12 November 2007. Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  9. ^ "Are German fans really turning against the beautiful game?". The Guardian. 7 April 2008. Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  10. ^ "World Cup 2022: Argentina's 'barras bravas' bring the noise – DW – 12/11/2022". dw.com. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  11. ^ "Torcidas Organizadas: Torcidas Organizadas no Brasil e no Mundo". Brasil Escola (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  12. ^ a b "We Don't Fight, We Paint Flags Instead". In Bed With Maradona. 2 November 2010. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
  13. ^ "Povijest". Torcida.hr (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
  14. ^ "Ultra sensitive". When Saturday Comes. April 2007. Archived from the original on 24 January 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  15. ^ "Ultras rule?". Football Italia. 28 October 2009. Archived from the original on 23 November 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  16. ^ Alberto Testa, Gary Armstrong (2010). Football, Fascism and Fandom. A&C Black. ISBN 978-1-4081-2371-3.
  17. ^ "Passion, politics and violence: A socio-historical analysis of Spanish ultras". March 2005. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  18. ^ "Rangers ultras Union Bears' eerie message after Ibrox fans storm own POTY Awards in Glasgow".
  19. ^ Bakowski, Gregg (23 October 2016). "Ultra culture could help Premier League terraces take positive steps". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  20. ^ "Palace 'ultras' causing anxiety". ESPN. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  21. ^ Barker, Matthew. "When Saturday Comes – Crystal Palace ultras under pressure from club and fans". When Saturday Comes. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  22. ^ "Eastbourne Town's 'ultras' are game for a laugh and making football welcome to all". iNews. 16 November 2017. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  23. ^ "London's Left-Wing Utopian Non-League Ultras Are Reclaiming Football". Vice. 5 January 2015. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  24. ^ "The English Far-Right's War on Anti-Fascist Football Ultras". Vice. 13 February 2015. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  25. ^ "Who are Ashburton Army? The Arsenal ultras group AFTV could only dream of". Thick Accent. 30 December 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2023.
  26. ^ "The Clock End's boys in black: a look into Arsenal's 'ultras'". Pain in the Arsenal. 6 October 2022. Retrieved 28 December 2022.
  27. ^ "Arsenal fan 'ultras' filmed ahead of West Ham game, fans are divided over the footage". SPORTbible. Retrieved 28 December 2022.
  28. ^ "The Copenhagen sektion 12 is Denmarks biggest ultra group they maintain over 10000 people just on the sekttion 12Derby". Outside Write. 31 March 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  29. ^ "Danish Cup Final Delayed". bbc.com. 1 July 2020.
  30. ^ Jones, Tobias (15 September 2019). "At home with Italy's ultras: 'It isn't about watching football, but watching each other'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  31. ^ Monella, Lillo Montalto (9 November 2019). "Racism in football: Are Italy's Ultras the problem or the solution?". euronews. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  32. ^ [https://bibliotekanauki.pl/articles/1836603.pdf Subcultrue of stadium hooligans – Pathology or crime?]
  33. ^ Jurczewski, Mariusz (October 2013). "Prawno-kryminalistyczna problematyka przestępczości stadionowej". Wydział Prawa, Uniwersytet w Białymstoku.
  34. ^ "Homoseksualni kibice? CWKS Legia Sekcja LGBT na Facebooku". Polska Times. 9 January 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2023.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  35. ^ "Geje i lesbijki na trybunach Legii Warszawa". Polskie Radio. 10 January 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2023.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  36. ^ Westby, David (2017). "Ultras in Spain: A Study on the Relationship Between Macro-level Cleavages and Micro-level Actors". doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.28548.94088. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  37. ^ "Η ΚΑΘΗΜΕΡΙΝΗ, kathimerini.com.cy". www.kathimerini.com.cy. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  38. ^ "Η θύρα 9 μεγάλωσε και δεν ελέγχεται".
  39. ^ "Omonoia: Feisty team blends sports and left politics". 3 October 2011.
  40. ^ "Αθλητικά νέα - Αθλητικές ειδήσεις για όλα τα sport | Thema Sports". Archived from the original on 15 September 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  41. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2014.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  42. ^ http://sport-fm.com.cy/podosfairo/omonoia/item/1676-omonoia-«ομάδα-όλης-της-κύπρου»/1676-omonoia-«ομάδα-όλης-της-κύπρου».html[dead link]
  43. ^ "Ομόνοια: Χαμός στο Συ.Φι. Λεμεσού με Καϊάφα και παίκτες! (pics) | Α' Κατηγορία | Κύπρος | Ποδόσφαιρο | BALLA". Archived from the original on 22 March 2014.
  44. ^ a b c el Deeb, Sarah (14 March 2013). "Egypt: 38 soccer fans charged with violence". USA Today. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  45. ^ "المدرجات لا تعترف إلا بالشجعان". lebanonfg.com. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  46. ^ a b COPA90. "Ultras Supernova: Lebanon's First Ultras Group". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  47. ^ a b "مباريات قويّة في الجولة العاشرة". الأخبار (in Arabic). Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  48. ^ "قضية مشجعي "النجمة" الموقوفين في مصر... ماذا جرى معهم؟". LBCI Lebanon (in Arabic). Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  49. ^ "Lebanese Nejmeh fans to be deported days after arrest at Borg al-Arab Stadium | MadaMasr". madamasr.com. Archived from the original on 25 February 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  50. ^ "A Fans Revolution : East Bengal Ultras – GoalBold". 3 July 2018. Archived from the original on 3 July 2018. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  51. ^ "Indian national football teams to have dedicated fan base named 'Blue Pilgrims". www.sportskeeda.com. 3 October 2017. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  52. ^ "Mariners' Base Camp – The Ultras of The National Club of India Mohun Bagan". Archived from the original on 5 December 2020. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  53. ^ "Guerilla Company – Home".
  54. ^ "District Ultras – Home".
  55. ^ "San Jose Ultras – Home". sanjoseultras.com.
  56. ^ "Garden State Ultras – Home". Facebook.
  57. ^ "Torcida 96 – Home". Facebook.
  58. ^ "Emerald City Supporters – Home". Facebook.
  59. ^ a b c d "Ultras pull the strings as Italy descends into chaos". The Guardian. 4 February 2007. Archived from the original on 2 October 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
  60. ^ "Gruppi". asromaultras.org (in Italian). Archived from the original on 12 February 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
  61. ^ "AS Roma Ultras". asromaultras.org (in Italian). Archived from the original on 13 February 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011.

Further reading