Flag of Lebanon.
Map of Phoenicia.
Map of Phoenicia.
Map of Phoenicia and its Mediterranean trade routes.
Map of Phoenicia and its Mediterranean trade routes.

Lebanese nationalism, a nationalistic ideology, considers the Lebanese people as a distinct nation independent from the Arab world. The ideology considers the Lebanese people to be direct descendants of the Phoenicians.[citation needed]

This ideology is rooted in the 19th-century sectarian war between the Maronites and Druze that occurred in Mount Lebanon.[citation needed] It took its formalized form during the inter-war period and the French Mandate of Syria, when it served primarily as a tool in opposing Arab nationalism and in justifying the existence of the nascent country of Lebanon.

During the 20th century, especially during the Lebanese Civil War, Lebanese nationalism was associated with the Kataeb Party, Lebanese Forces, National Liberal Party and secularist movements like Guardians of the Cedars, National Bloc and the Lebanese Renewal Party, spearheaded by the renowned late Lebanese poet and philosopher Said Akl.

Lebanese nationalism goes even further and incorporates irredentist views going beyond the Lebanese borders and seeks to unify all the lands of ancient Phoenicia around present-day Lebanon.[1] That comes from the fact that present-day Lebanon, the Mediterranean coast of Syria, and northern Israel is the area that roughly correspond to ancient Phoenicia and so most Lebanese people identify with the ancient Phoenician population of that region.[2] Therefore, the proposed Greater Lebanese country includes Lebanon, Mediterranean coast of Syria, and northern Israel.

The cultural and linguistic heritage of the Lebanese people is a blend of both indigenous elements and the foreign cultures that have come to rule the land and its people over the course of thousands of years. In a 2013 interview, the lead investigator, Pierre Zalloua, pointed out that genetic variation preceded religious variation and divisions: "Lebanon already had well-differentiated communities with their own genetic peculiarities, but not significant differences, and religions came as layers of paint on top. There is no distinct pattern that shows that one community carries significantly more Phoenician than another."[3]

Future Movement , Hezbollah and the Free Patriotic Movement also follow Lebanese nationalism ideology.

See also

Notable Lebanese nationalists


  1. ^ Reviving Phoenicia: The Search for Identity in Lebanon By Asher Kaufman
  2. ^ Kamal S. Salibi, "The Lebanese Identity" Journal of Contemporary History 6.1, Nationalism and Separatism (1971:76-86).
  3. ^ Maroon, Habib (31 March 2013). "A geneticist with a unifying message". Nature. Retrieved 3 October 2013.