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Supporters of Catalan independence in Barcelona in October 2019

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1][2][3] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy or to be recognised as a national minority.[4]

Criteria

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members.
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy).
  3. They are citizens/people of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks to unify into a different state – in cases where this does not involve the creation of a new state entity, this is considered to be irredentism. Analogous irredentist movements are included in the list of active irredentist movements.

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan districts claimed by Talysh-Mughan Autonomous Republic

Territory of the short-lived Talysh-Mughan Autonomous Republic

Lezgistan

Belgium

Communities:
  Flemish and French Community

Main article: Partition of Belgium

Autonomist movements

 Flanders

 Wallonia

Secessionist movements

Further information: Partition of Belgium

 Flanders or Flemish Community (the latter includes  Brussels-Capital Region)

Main articles: Flemish Movement and Greater Netherlands

 Wallonia or French Community of Belgium (the latter includes  Brussels-Capital Region)

Main articles: Walloon Movement and Rattachism

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Main article: Partition of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Secessionist movements

 Republika Srpska

Main article: Proposed secession of Republika Srpska

Autonomist movements

Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia

Main article: Croat entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bulgaria

Blagoevgrad Oblast (Pirin Macedonia)

Pirin Macedonia[22]

Croatia

The Istria County in Croatia.
Autonomist movements

Istria County[23]

Main article: Istrianism

Cyprus

The northern areas of the island of Cyprus administered by Turkish Cypriots

Main article: Cyprus dispute

See also: Turkish invasion of Cyprus

The northeastern 1/3 territory of island of Cyprus

Czechia

 Moravia

Denmark

Faroe Islands

For movements in Greenland, see List of active separatist movements in North America

 Faroe Islands

Main article: Faroese independence movement

Minor Movements

Bornholm

Finland

Åland

 Åland

France

See also: List of active separatist movements in North America § France, List of active separatist movements in South America § France, List of active separatist movements in Africa § France, and List of active separatist movements in Oceania § France

Secessionist movements
Location of the Basque Country

French Basque Country/ Pyrénées-Atlantiques

Main articles: Basque nationalism and Basque Country independence

Location of Brittany

Historic Brittany, comprising Brittany (administrative region) and Loire-Atlantique

Main articles: Breton nationalism and Reunification of Brittany

Location of Corsica

 Corsica

Main articles: Corsican nationalism and corsican autonomy

See also: Italian irredentism in Corsica

The Dutch-language Taalgebied (Sprachraum), including northern French Flanders

French Flanders

Main article: Flemish nationalism

Location of Provence

 Provence

Catalonia Northern Catalonia/Pyrénées-Orientales

Savoy

Etat Pied-Noir

  • Ethnic group: Pieds-Noirs
  • Political party: Etat Pied-Noir[53][54][55][56]
  • Status: Active (Established in 2016)
  • Proposed state: The federation of the two shores^
Autonomist movements
Location of Normandy

 Alsace

Main article: Alsace independence movement

Brittany

Main article: Reunification of Brittany

 Corsica

Main article: Corsican autonomy

Normandy

Savoy

 Occitania

Franche Comté

Further information (in French): Nationalisme franc-comtois [fr]

Georgia

Georgian administrative divisions are outlined in black. Occupied territories of Georgia are shown in pink.

Main article: Russo-Georgian War

Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia

Main article: Abkhaz–Georgian conflict

Territory of the former South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast

Main article: Ossetian–Georgian conflict

Javakheti

Germany

Bavaria

Main article: Bavarian nationalism

Saxony

Lusatia

Lusatia

East Frisia

Franconia

Greece

Chameria

Hungary

Romani people in Hungary

Italy

Further information: Italian unification

Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Lombardy
Sardinia
Sicily
South Tyrol

Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Main article: Friulian Front

Lombardy

Main article: Lombard nationalism

Northern Italy

Main article: Padanian nationalism

Southern Italy

Sicily

Main article: Sicilian nationalism

South Tyrol

Main article: South Tyrolean secessionist movement

Savoy

Tuscany

Veneto

Main article: Venetian nationalism

 Trieste

Aosta

 Sardinia

Romagna

Kosovo

North Kosovo

Further information: Community of Serb Municipalities and International recognition of Kosovo

North Kosovo/Ibar Kolašin

Lithuania

Samogitia

Malta

Gozo

Moldova

Transnistria
Breakaway state

Transnistria

Main article: Transnistria War

Gagauzia

Netherlands

Location of Friesland (left) and Groningen (right)

See also: List of active separatist movements in North America § Netherlands, and List of active separatist movements in South America § Netherlands

Frisia and Groningen

Poland

Silesia on map of Poland, Germany and Czech Republic
Map of Danzig in 1939

See also: Free City of Danzig Government in Exile

Silesia

Kashubia and Pomerania

Portugal

 Azores[158]

Romania

Transylvania and Banat[159]

Location of Transylvania (left) and Banat (right)

Székely Land

The historical Székely seats on the map of present-day Romania

Main article: Székely autonomy movement

Partium

Russia

Main article: Separatism in Russia

See also: List of active separatist movements in Asia § Russia, Free Nations of Post-Russia Forum, and World Congress of Finno-Ugric Peoples

NOTE: Only movements created prior to the Russian Invasion of Ukraine are represented here, due to the fact that most of the new movements function as online organizations and have little to no political or cultural influence.

 Chechnya

Circassia[178]

Ingushetia[179]

Kaliningrad Oblast[180]

Leningrad Oblast[182]

 Republic of Karelia[185]

Republic of Kalmykia[187][188][189]

Bashkortostan

Chuvashia

Idel-Ural

Mari El

Mordovia

Tatarstan[182]

Serbia

Republic of Vojvodina

Image Note: Republic of Vojvodina within federalized Serbia, proposed by the League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina in 1999 – the map also includes an autonomous Sandžak, Kosovo and the metropolitan area of Belgrade as a distinctive administrative unit as well

Autonomist movements

Vojvodina Vojvodina

Sandžak

Separatist movements

Preševo Valley

 Kosovo

Slovakia

Linguistic makeup of Slovakia, according to Census 2011
Autonomist movements

Southern Slovakia:

Spain

Further information: National and regional identity in Spain

See also: List of active separatist movements in Africa § Spain

Regions in Spain with autonomist or separatist movements
proposed extent of the Catalan country
Secessionist movements

Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country (autonomous community) and  Navarre

Main articles: Basque nationalism and Basque independence

 Catalonia[207]

Main articles: Catalan nationalism; Catalan independence; Catalan independence referendum, 2017; and Catalan declaration of independence

Galicia (Spain) Galicia[208]

Main articles: Galicianism, Galician nationalism, and Galician independence

Valencian Community Valencia

Main articles: Valencianism, Valencian nationalism, and Catalan nationalism

 Aragon[211]

 Balearic Islands[212]

 Andalusia[213]

Main article: Andalusian nationalism

 Asturias[214]

Autonomist movements

Cartagena

León

Province of Granada[216]

Sweden

Scania

Switzerland

Main article: Languages of Switzerland

Autonomist movements

Jura region

See also: Jura separatism

Ukraine

Russian-occupied territories of Ukraine

Main articles: Russo-Ukrainian War and 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

 Autonomous Republic of Crimea and  Sevastopol

Main article: Political status of Crimea

 Donetsk Oblast,  Luhansk Oblast

Russian-occupied Zaporizhzhia Oblast, Russian-occupied Kherson Oblast, Russian-occupied Kharkiv Oblast[223]

Main articles: Regionalism in Ukraine and Rusyns § Autonomist and separatist movement

Carpathian Ruthenia[225][226][227][228]

United Kingdom

Main articles: Separatism in the United Kingdom, Federalism in the United Kingdom, Countries of the United Kingdom, and Potential breakup of the United Kingdom

See also: Devolution in the United Kingdom and List of active separatist movements in Africa § United Kingdom

Countries of the United Kingdom
Map of current local administrative units in the United Kingdom
Cornwall
Northern England
North East England
Yorkshire
The Kingdom of the Isles about the year 1100
Isle of Man
Major movements

 England

Main article: English independence

See also: English nationalism and English independence

Northern Ireland

Main article: Ulster nationalism

See also: Irish nationalism, Irish republicanism, United Ireland, Ulster Independence Movement, The Troubles, and Dissident Irish Republican campaign

 Scotland

See also: Scottish nationalism, Scottish independence, Scottish independence referendum 2014, and Proposed second Scottish independence referendum

 Wales

See also: Welsh nationalism and Welsh independence

Minor movements

 Cornwall[254]

See also: Cornish nationalism and Cornish devolution

Northern England

See also: Devolution to the North of England and North–South divide in the United Kingdom

Midlands

London

Main article: London independence

Autonomist movements

Canvey Island

 England

See also: Devolved English parliament and English nationalism

 Scotland

See also: Devolution in Scotland and Scottish nationalism

 Wales

See also: Welsh nationalism

Cynon Valley[dubious ]

Gwynedd

 Cornwall (possibly including the Isles of Scilly)

See also: Cornish nationalism, Constitutional status of Cornwall, and Cornish Assembly

 Isle of Wight

 Shetland

 Yorkshire

North East England

 Wessex

 Orkney Islands

Separatist movements of dependent territories

 Gibraltar

 Isle of Man[293]

Main article: Manx nationalism

See also

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