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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the continental landmass of Eurasia, and is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and Asia to the east. Europe is commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed of the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian Sea, the Greater Caucasus, the Black Sea, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although much of this border is over land, Europe is generally accorded the status of a full continent because of its great physical size and the weight of history and tradition.

Europe covers about 10,180,000 km2 (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area), making it the second smallest continent (using the seven-continent model). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states, of which Russia is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million (about 11% of the world population), as of 2018. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.

The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of written records. During the Neolithic era and the time of the Indo-European migrations, Europe saw human inflows from east and southeast and subsequent important cultural and material exchange. The period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of ancient Greece. Later, the Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin. The fall of the Roman Empire in AD 476 traditionally marks the start of the Middle Ages. Beginning in the 14th century a Renaissance of knowledge challenged traditional doctrines in science and theology. Simultaneously, the Protestant Reformation set up Protestant churches primarily in Germany, Scandinavia and England. After 1800, the Industrial Revolution brought prosperity to Britain and Western Europe. The main European powers set up colonies in most of the Americas and Africa, and parts of Asia. In the 20th century, World War I and World War II resulted in massive numbers of deaths. The Cold War dominated European geo-politics from 1947 to 1989. After the fall of the Iron Curtain, the European countries grew together.

The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, film, different types of music, economic, literature, and philosophy that originated from the continent of Europe. European culture is largely rooted in what is often referred to as its "common cultural heritage".

The economy of Europe comprises more than 744 million people in 50 countries. The formation of the European Union (EU) and in 1999, the introduction of a unified currency, the Euro, brings participating European countries closer through the convenience of a shared currency and has led to a stronger European cash flow. The difference in wealth across Europe can be seen roughly in former Cold War divide, with some countries breaching the divide (Greece, Estonia, Portugal, Slovenia and the Czech Republic). Whilst most European states have a GDP per capita higher than the world's average and are very highly developed (Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, Andorra, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Ireland, Germany), some European economies, despite their position over the world's average in the Human Development Index, are poorer.

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The contemporary geographical region of Macedonia is not officially defined by any international organisation or state. In some contexts it appears to span five (six counting Kosovo, disputed with Serbia) current sovereign countries: Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, North Macedonia, Kosovo, and Serbia. For more details see the boundaries and definitions section in Macedonia (region)
The contemporary geographical region of Macedonia is not officially defined by any international organisation or state. In some contexts it appears to span five (six counting Kosovo, disputed with Serbia) current sovereign countries: Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, North Macedonia, Kosovo, and Serbia. For more details see the boundaries and definitions section in Macedonia (region)

The name Macedonia is used in a number of competing or overlapping meanings to describe geographical, political and historical areas, languages and peoples in a part of south-eastern Europe. It has been a major source of political controversy since the early 20th century. The situation is complicated because different ethnic groups use different terminology for the same entity, or the same terminology for different entities, with different political connotations.

Historically, the region has presented markedly shifting borders across the Balkan peninsula. Geographically, no single definition of its borders or the names of its subdivisions is accepted by all scholars and ethnic groups. Demographically, it is mainly inhabited by four ethnic groups, three of which self-identify as Macedonians: two, a Bulgarian and a Greek one at a regional level, while a third ethnic Macedonian one at a national level. Linguistically, the names and affiliations of languages and dialects spoken in the region are a source of controversy. Politically, the rights to the extent of the use of the name Macedonia and its derivatives has led to a diplomatic dispute between Greece and North Macedonia. After using provisional reference of the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (FYROM), Greece and the then-Republic of Macedonia reached an agreement that the latter would change its name to North Macedonia. It came into effect on 12 February 2019. (Full article...)
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A white sign on a post with the German inscription "Halt! Hier Grenze" (Stop! Here border) and below, in smaller letters, "Bundesgrenzschutz" (Federal Border Guard). In the background a wire fence with an open gate, behind that are trees and a watchtower on the skyline.

The Inner German border (German: Innerdeutsche Grenze pronounced [ˈɪnɐdɔʏtʃə ˈgʁɛntsə] or Deutsch-deutsche Grenze pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃˌdɔʏtʃə ˈgʁɛntsə]; initially also Zonengrenze pronounced [ˈtsɔnənˌgʁɛntsə]) was the border between the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Not including the similar and physically separate Berlin Wall, the border was 1,393 kilometres (866 miles) long and ran from the Baltic Sea to Czechoslovakia.

It was formally established on 1 July 1945 as the boundary between the Western and Soviet occupation zones of former Nazi Germany. On the eastern side, it was made one of the world's most heavily fortified frontiers, defined by a continuous line of high metal fences and walls, barbed wire, alarms, anti-vehicle ditches, watchtowers, automatic booby traps, and minefields. It was patrolled by fifty thousand armed East German guards who faced tens of thousands of West German, British, and U.S. guards and soldiers. In the frontier areas on either side of the border were stationed more than a million North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and Warsaw Pact troops. (Full article...)
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Robert Sheehan
Robert Sheehan (b. 1988) is an Irish actor who began his career in 2003. Since then he has been nominated for several awards for the TV series Misfits and Love/Hate.

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20 March 2022 – Russo-Ukrainian War
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
The city council of Mariupol claims that Russian forces have forcefully deported "several thousand" people to camps and remote cities in Russia. (Reuters) (CNN)
19 March 2022 – Russo-Ukrainian War
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
Russia uses the Kh-47M2 Kinzhal hypersonic missile for the first time in Ukraine to destroy a weapons storage in the Ivano-Frankivsk region. (Reuters)
19 March 2022 – Nuclear program of Iran
Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs Simon Coveney says that an agreement to restore the 2015 Iran nuclear deal could be reached within 48 hours. (Mehr News)
18 March 2022 – Russo-Ukrainian War
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

Updated: 7:33, 20 March 2022

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A 1611 woodcut of Josquin des Prez, possibly copied from a now-lost oil painting executed during his lifetime. There have been doubts concerning whether this depiction is an accurate likeness, see § Portraits
A 1611 woodcut of Josquin des Prez, possibly copied from a now-lost oil painting executed during his lifetime. There have been doubts concerning whether this depiction is an accurate likeness, see § Portraits

Josquin Lebloitte dit des Prez (c. 1450–1455 – 27 August 1521) was a composer of High Renaissance music, variously described as 'French' or 'Franco-Flemish'. A central figure of the Franco-Flemish School, Josquin is considered among the greatest composers of the Renaissance and had a profound influence on the music of 16th-century Europe. Building on the work of his predecessors Guillaume Du Fay and Johannes Ockeghem, he developed a complex style of expressive—and often imitativepolyphony which informs much of his work. In addition, he increased emphasis on the relationship between text and music, and departed from the early Renaissance emphasis on lengthy melismatic lines, preferring to use shorter, repeated motifs between voices. A singer himself, Josquin's compositions are chiefly vocal, including masses, motets and a variety of secular chansons.

Much of Josquin's biography is riddled with uncertainty, and has been continuously revised by modern scholarship. His early years are mostly unknown, though he may have been an altar boy, associated with Cambrai Cathedral or studied with Ockeghem. By 1477 he was in the choir of René of Anjou and then probably served under Louis XI of France. By now a wealthy man, throughout the 1480s Josquin traveled Italy with the Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, was possibly employed by the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus, and wrote both the well-known motet Ave Maria ... Virgo serena and the popular chansons Adieu mes amours and Que vous ma dame. He served Pope Innocent VIII and Pope Alexander VI in Rome, Louis XII in France, Ercole I d'Este in Ferrara, and many of his works were published by Ottaviano Petrucci in the early 16th century, including the Missa Hercules Dux Ferrariae. During his final years in Condé, Josquin produced some of his most admired works, including the masses Missa de Beata Virgine and Missa Pange lingua; the motets Benedicta es, Inviolata, Pater noster–Ave Maria and Praeter rerum seriem; and the chansons Mille Regretz, Nimphes, nappés and Plus nulz regretz. (Full article...)
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Typical Christmas table in Serbia. Grilled pork, Olivier salad (also called Russian salade), dzadziki salade, red wine and Bajadera sweets.
Serbian cuisine (Serbian: српска кухиња / srpska kuhinja) is the traditional cuisine of the Balkan country Serbia, sharing characteristics with the rest of the Balkan nations (especially former Yugoslavia).The national dishes include pljeskavica (a ground beef/pork patty), ćevapi (grilled minced meat), and Karađorđeva šnicla (Karageorge's schniztel). The national drink is the plum brandy šljivovica or Homemade rakija .

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Composite image showing multiple stages of a Monarch Airbus A320 aircraft taking off from the Gibraltar Airport (GIB/LXGB).
A time-lapse photomontage showing multiple stages of a Monarch Airlines Airbus A320 aircraft taking off (moving right-to-left) from Gibraltar Airport, located at the northern end of Gibraltar in disputed territory. Also visible in the center is Winston Churchill Avenue, the only street joining Gibraltar to Spain. As can be seen, the road intersects the airport runway, so consequently it has to be closed every time a plane lands or departs.

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