Secretary of State for Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Affairs
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government).svg
James Cleverly Official Cabinet Portrait, September 2022.jpg
Incumbent
James Cleverly
since 6 September 2022
Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office
StyleThe Right Honourable
(within the UK and Commonwealth)
Member of
Reports toPrime Minister
Residence
SeatWestminster
NominatorPrime Minister
AppointerThe King
(on the advice of the Prime Minister)
Term lengthAt His Majesty's pleasure
Formation27 March 1782; 240 years ago (1782-03-27)
First holderCharles James Fox
Websitewww.gov.uk

The secretary of state for foreign, Commonwealth and development affairs, known as the foreign secretary, is a minister of the Crown of the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office.[1] Seen as one of the most senior ministers in the government and a Great Office of State, the incumbent is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom.

The office holder works alongside the other Foreign Office ministers. The corresponding shadow minister is the Shadow Secretary of State for Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Affairs. The performance of the secretary of state is also scrutinised by the Foreign Affairs Select Committee.[2]

The current foreign secretary is James Cleverly MP, appointed in the September 2022 cabinet reshuffle.

Responsibilities

Corresponding to what is generally known as a foreign minister in many other countries, the foreign secretary's remit includes:

Residence

The official residence of the foreign secretary is 1 Carlton Gardens, in London.[6] The foreign secretary also has the use of Chevening House, a country house in Kent, South East England[7] and works out of the Foreign Office in Whitehall.[8]

History

History of English and British government departments with responsibility for foreign affairs and those with responsibility for the colonies, dominions and the Commonwealth
Northern Department
1660–1782
Secretaries — Undersecretaries
Southern Department
1660–1768
Secretaries — Undersecretaries
Colonial Office
1768–1782
SecretariesUndersecretaries
Southern Department
1768–1782
Secretaries — Undersecretaries
Foreign Office
1782–1968
SecretariesMinistersUndersecretaries
Home Office
1782–1794
SecretariesUndersecretaries
War Office
1794–1801
SecretariesUndersecretaries
War and Colonial Office
1801–1854
SecretariesUndersecretaries
Colonial Office
1854–1925
SecretariesUndersecretaries
India Office
1858–1937
SecretariesUndersecretaries
Colonial Office
1925–1966
SecretariesMinistersUndersecretaries
Dominions Office
1925–1947
SecretariesUndersecretaries
India Office and Burma Office
1937–1947
SecretariesUndersecretaries
Commonwealth Relations Office
1947–1966
SecretariesMinistersUndersecretaries
Commonwealth Office
1966–1968
SecretariesMinistersUndersecretaries
Foreign and Commonwealth Office
1968–2020
SecretariesMinistersUndersecretaries
Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office
Since 2020
SecretariesMinistersUndersecretaries

The title secretary of state in the government of England dates back to the early 17th century. The position of secretary of state for foreign affairs was created in the British governmental reorganisation of 1782, in which the Northern and Southern Departments became the Foreign Office and Home Office respectively.[9] The India Office which, like the Colonial Office and the Dominions Office, had been a constituent predecessor department of the Foreign Office, was closed down in 1947.[10]

Eventually, the position of secretary of state for foreign and Commonwealth affairs came into existence in 1968 with the merger of the functions of secretary of the state for foreign affairs and the secretary of state for Commonwealth affairs into a single department of state. Margaret Beckett, appointed in 2006 by Tony Blair, was the first woman to have held the post.[11]

The post of secretary of state for foreign, Commonwealth and development affairs was created in 2020 when position holder Dominic Raab absorbed the responsibilities of the secretary of state for international development.[12]

List of foreign secretaries

Secretaries of State for Foreign Affairs (1782–1968)

Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs[13]
Portrait Name[14] Term of office Party Ministry Monarch
(Reign)
Charles James Fox00.jpg
Charles James Fox[13]
MP for Westminster
27 March 1782 5 July 1782 Whig Rockingham II George III
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1801-1816).svg

(1760–1820)
[1782 1]
Thomas Robinson 2nd Baron.jpg
Thomas Robinson
2nd Baron Grantham
[13]
13 July 1782 2 April 1783 Whig Shelburne
(WhigTory)
Charles James Fox00.jpg
Charles James Fox[13]
MP for Westminster
2 April 1783 19 December 1783 Whig Fox–North
1stMarquessOfBuckingham.jpg
George Nugent-Temple-Grenville
3rd Earl Temple
[13]
19 December 1783 23 December 1783 Tory Pitt I
Francis Osborne cropped.jpg
His Grace
Francis Osborne
5th Duke of Leeds
[13]
23 December 1783 May 1791 Tory
1st Baron Grenville-cropped.jpg
William Grenville
1st Baron Grenville
[13]PC FRS
8 June 1791 20 February 1801 Tory
Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool by Sir Thomas Lawrence (cropped).jpg
Robert Jenkinson
2nd Earl of Liverpool
KG PC[13]
MP for Rye[1782 2]
20 February 1801 14 May 1804 Tory
Addington
1stEarlOfHarrowby.jpg
Dudley Ryder
2nd Baron Harrowby
[13]
14 May 1804 11 January 1805 Tory Pitt II
Henry Phipps, 1st Earl of Mulgrave by Sir William Beechey.jpg
Henry Phipps
3rd Baron Mulgrave
[13]
11 January 1805 7 February 1806 Tory
Charles James Fox00.jpg
Charles James Fox[13]
MP for Westminster
7 February 1806 13 September 1806 Whig All the Talents
(WhigTory)
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey after Sir Thomas Lawrence.jpg
Charles Grey
Viscount Howick
[13]
MP for Northumberland
24 September 1806 25 March 1807 Whig
George Canning by Richard Evans - detail.jpg

George Canning
[13]
25 March 1807 11 October 1809 Tory Portland II
Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl Bathurst by William Salter.jpg
Henry Bathurst
3rd Earl Bathurst
[13]
11 October 1809 6 December 1809 Tory Perceval
Richard Colley Wellesley, Marquess Wellesley by John Philip Davis (
Richard Wellesley
1st Marquess Wellesley
[13]
6 December 1809 4 March 1812 Independent
Lord Castlereagh Marquess of Londonderry.jpg
Robert Stewart
2nd Marquess of Londonderry
[13]
4 March 1812 12 August 1822 Tory Liverpool
George IV
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
George Canning by Richard Evans - detail.jpg
George Canning[13]
MP for 3 constituencies respectively
16 September 1822 30 April 1827 Tory
1stEarlOfDudley.jpg
John Ward
1st Earl of Dudley
[13]
30 April 1827 2 June 1828 Tory Canning
(CanningiteWhig)
Goderich
Wellington–Peel
Earl of Aberdeen.jpg
George Hamilton-Gordon
4th Earl of Aberdeen
[13]
2 June 1828 22 November 1830 Tory
William IV
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
Lord Palmerston 1855.jpg
Henry John Temple
3rd Viscount Palmerston
[13]
MP for 3 constituencies respectively
22 November 1830 14 November 1834 Whig Grey
Melbourne I
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington by John Jackson cropped.jpg
Arthur Wellesley
1st Duke of Wellington
[13]
14 November 1834 18 April 1835 Tory Wellington Caretaker
Conservative Peel I
Lord Palmerston 1855.jpg
Henry John Temple
3rd Viscount Palmerston
[13]
MP for Tiverton
18 April 1835 2 September 1841 Whig Melbourne II
Victoria
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg

(1837–1901)
Earl of Aberdeen.jpg
George Hamilton-Gordon
4th Earl of Aberdeen
[13]
2 September 1841 6 July 1846 Conservative Peel II
Lord Palmerston 1855.jpg
Henry John Temple
3rd Viscount Palmerston
[13]
MP for Tiverton
6 July 1846 26 December 1851 Whig Russell I
Second Earl Granville.jpg
Granville Leveson-Gower
2nd Earl Granville
[13]
26 December 1851 27 February 1852 Whig
JH Harris 3rd Earl of Malmesbury by JG Middleton crop.jpg
James Howard Harris
3rd Earl of Malmesbury
[13]
27 February 1852 28 December 1852 Conservative Who? Who?
Lord john russell.jpg
Lord John Russell[13]
MP for the City of London
28 December 1852 21 February 1853 Whig Aberdeen
(PeeliteWhig)
4thEarlOfClarendon.jpg
George Villiers
4th Earl of Clarendon
[13]
21 February 1853 26 February 1858 Whig
Palmerston I
JH Harris 3rd Earl of Malmesbury by JG Middleton crop.jpg
James Howard Harris
3rd Earl of Malmesbury
[13]
26 February 1858 18 June 1859 Conservative Derby–Disraeli II
Lord john russell.jpg
John Russell
1st Earl Russell
[13]
18 June 1859 3 November 1865 Liberal Palmerston II
4thEarlOfClarendon.jpg
George Villiers
4th Earl of Clarendon
3 November 1865 6 July 1866 Liberal Russell II
Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby 2.jpg
Edward Stanley
Lord Stanley
[13]
MP for King's Lynn
6 July 1866 9 December 1868 Conservative Derby–Disraeli III
4thEarlOfClarendon.jpg
George Villiers
4th Earl of Clarendon
[13]
9 December 1868 6 July 1870 Liberal Gladstone I
Second Earl Granville.jpg
Granville Leveson-Gower
2nd Earl Granville
[13]
6 July 1870 21 February 1874 Liberal
Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby 2.jpg
Edward Stanley
15th Earl of Derby
[13]
21 February 1874 2 April 1878 Conservative Disraeli II
Robert-Gascoyne-Cecil-3rd-Marquess-of-Salisbury (cropped).jpg
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
3rd Marquess of Salisbury
[13]
2 April 1878 28 April 1880 Conservative
Second Earl Granville.jpg
Granville Leveson-Gower
2nd Earl Granville
[13]
28 April 1880 24 June 1885 Liberal Gladstone II
Robert-Gascoyne-Cecil-3rd-Marquess-of-Salisbury (cropped).jpg
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
3rd Marquess of Salisbury
[13]
24 June 1885 6 February 1886 Conservative Salisbury I
Archibald-Philip-Primrose-5th-Earl-of-Rosebery (cropped).jpg
Archibald Primrose
5th Earl of Rosebery
[13]
6 February 1886 3 August 1886 Liberal Gladstone III
Stafford Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh.jpg
Stafford Northcote
1st Earl of Iddesleigh
[13]
3 August 1886 12 January 1887 Conservative Salisbury II
Robert-Gascoyne-Cecil-3rd-Marquess-of-Salisbury (cropped).jpg
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
3rd Marquess of Salisbury
[13]
14 January 1887 11 August 1892 Conservative
Archibald-Philip-Primrose-5th-Earl-of-Rosebery (cropped).jpg
Archibald Primrose
5th Earl of Rosebery
[13]
18 August 1892 11 March 1894 Liberal Gladstone IV
1st Earl of Kimberley 1897.jpg
John Wodehouse
1st Earl of Kimberley
[13]
11 March 1894 21 June 1895 Liberal Rosebery
Robert-Gascoyne-Cecil-3rd-Marquess-of-Salisbury (cropped).jpg
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
3rd Marquess of Salisbury
[13]
29 June 1895 12 November 1900 Conservative Salisbury
(III & IV)

(Con.Lib.U.)
Marquess of Lansdowne crop.jpg
Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice
5th Marquess of Lansdowne
[13]
12 November 1900 4 December 1905 Liberal Unionist
Edward VII
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg

(1901–1910)
Balfour
Picture of Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon.jpg
Edward Grey[13]
MP for Berwick-upon-Tweed
10 December 1905 10 December 1916 Liberal Campbell-Bannerman
Asquith
(I–III)
George V
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
Asquith Coalition
(Lib.Con.–et al.)
Arthur-James-Balfour-1st-Earl-of-Balfour.jpg
Arthur Balfour[13]
MP for the City of London
10 December 1916 23 October 1919 Conservative Lloyd George
(I & II)
Curzon GGBain.jpg
George Curzon
1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
[13]
23 October 1919 22 January 1924 Conservative
Law
Baldwin I
Ramsay-MacDonald.jpg
Ramsay MacDonald[13]
MP for Aberavon
22 January 1924 3 November 1924 Labour MacDonald I
Austen Chamberlain nobel.jpg
Austen Chamberlain[13]
MP for Birmingham West
6 November 1924 4 June 1929 Conservative Baldwin II
1910 Arthur Henderson.jpg
Arthur Henderson[13]
MP for Burnley
7 June 1929 24 August 1931 Labour MacDonald II
Rufus Isaacs.jpg
Rufus Isaacs
1st Marquess of Reading
[13]
25 August 1931 5 November 1931 Liberal National I
(N.Lab.Con.–et al.)
Viscount Simon.jpg
John Simon[13]
MP for Spen Valley
5 November 1931 7 June 1935 Liberal National National II
Sir Samuel Hoare GGBain.jpg
Samuel Hoare[13]
MP for Chelsea
7 June 1935 18 December 1935 Conservative National III
(Con.N.Lab.–et al.)
Anthony Eden (retouched).jpg
Anthony Eden[13]
MP for Warwick & Leamington
22 December 1935 20 February 1938 Conservative
Edward VIII
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg

(1936)
George VI
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
National IV
1st Earl of Halifax 1947.jpg
Edward Wood
3rd Viscount Halifax
[13]
21 February 1938 22 December 1940 Conservative
Chamberlain War
Churchill War
(All parties)
Anthony Eden (retouched).jpg
Anthony Eden[13]
MP for Warwick & Leamington
22 December 1940 26 July 1945 Conservative
Churchill Caretaker
(Con.Lib.N.)
Ernest Bevin cph.3b17494.jpg
Ernest Bevin[13]
27 July 1945 9 March 1951 Labour Attlee
(I & II)
Herbert Morrison 1947.jpg
Herbert Morrison[13]
MP for Lewisham South
9 March 1951 26 October 1951 Labour
Anthony Eden (retouched).jpg
Anthony Eden[13]
MP for Warwick & Leamington
28 October 1951 7 April 1955 Conservative Churchill III
Elizabeth II
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
Harold Macmillan in 1942.jpg
Harold Macmillan[13]
MP for Bromley
7 April 1955 20 December 1955 Conservative Eden
Selwyn Lloyd cropped.jpg
Selwyn Lloyd[13]
MP for Wirral
20 December 1955 27 July 1960 Conservative
Macmillan
(I & II)
Alec Douglas-Home (c1963).jpg
Alec Douglas-Home
14th Earl of Home
[13]
27 July 1960 18 October 1963 Conservative
Rab Butler.jpg
Richard Austen Butler[13]
MP for Saffron Walden
20 October 1963 16 October 1964 Conservative Douglas-Home
President John F. Kennedy with Member of Parliament of Great Britain, Patrick Gordon Walker.jpg
Patrick Gordon Walker[13]
Neither an MP nor a Lord[1782 5]
16 October 1964 22 January 1965 Labour Wilson
(I & II)
Michael Stewart (1966).jpg
Michael Stewart[13]
MP for Fulham
22 January 1965 11 August 1966 Labour
George Brown, 1967.jpg
George Brown[13]
MP for Belper
11 August 1966 16 March 1968 Labour
Michael Stewart (1966).jpg
Michael Stewart[13]
MP for Fulham
16 March 1968 17 October 1968 Labour
^† Died in office.
  1. ^ The Prince of Wales served as prince regent from 5 February 1811.
  2. ^ Elevated to the Peerage of the United Kingdom in November 1803.
  3. ^ Elected to a new constituency in the 1807 general election.
  4. ^ Elected to a new constituency in the 1950 general election.
  5. ^ Walker was the MP for Smethwick and Labour's shadow Foreign Secretary, prior to the 1964 general election. He lost his seat in the election but was appointed to the post anyway. He resigned after fighting and losing a 1965 by-election in Leyton.

Secretaries of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (1968–2020)

Post created through the merger of the Foreign Office and the Commonwealth Office.

Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
Portrait Name[15]
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Ministry Sovereign
(Reign)
Michael Stewart (1966).jpg
Michael Stewart[13]
MP for Fulham
(1906–1990)
17 October 1968 19 June 1970 Labour Wilson
(I & II)
Elizabeth II
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg

(1952–2022)
Alec Douglas-Home (c1963) (cropped).jpg
Alec Douglas-Home[13]
MP for Kinross and Western Perthshire
(1903–1995)
20 June 1970 4 March 1974 Conservative Heath
James Callaghan (1975).jpg
James Callaghan[13]
MP for Cardiff South East
(1912–2005)
5 March 1974 5 April 1976 Labour Wilson
(III & IV)
Charles-Anthony-Raven-Crosland (cropped).jpg
Anthony Crosland[13]
MP for Great Grimsby
(1918–1977)
8 April 1976 19 February 1977 Labour Callaghan
Official portrait of Lord Owen crop 2.jpg
David Owen[13]
MP for Plymouth Devonport
(born 1938)
22 February 1977 4 May 1979 Labour
Peter Carington 1984.jpg
Peter Carington
6th Baron Carrington
[13]
KCMGMCPCDL
(1919–2018)
4 May 1979 5 April 1982 Conservative Thatcher I
Francis Pym (cropped).jpg
Francis Pym[13]
MP for Cambridgeshire
(1922–2008)
6 April 1982 11 June 1983 Conservative
Geoffrey Howe (1985).jpg
Geoffrey Howe[13]
MP for East Surrey
(1926–2015)
11 June 1983 24 July 1989 Conservative Thatcher II
Thatcher III
Major PM full.jpg
John Major[13]
MP for Huntingdon
(born 1943)
24 July 1989 26 October 1989 Conservative
Lord Hurd (cropped).jpg
Douglas Hurd[13]
MP for Witney
(born 1930)
26 October 1989 5 July 1995 Conservative
Major I
Major II
Malcolm Rifkind 2011 (cropped).jpg
Malcolm Rifkind[13]
MP for Edinburgh Pentlands
(born 1946)
5 July 1995 2 May 1997 Conservative
Robin Cook-close crop.jpg
Robin Cook[13]
MP for Livingston
(1946–2005)
2 May 1997 8 June 2001 Labour Blair I
Jack Straw 2.jpg
Jack Straw[13]
MP for Blackburn
(born 1946)
8 June 2001 5 May 2006 Labour Blair II
Blair III
Official portrait of Rt Hon Margaret Beckett MP crop 2.jpg
Margaret Beckett[13]
MP for Derby South
(born 1943)
5 May 2006 27 June 2007 Labour
David Miliband 2.jpg
David Miliband[13]
MP for South Shields
(born 1965)
28 June 2007 11 May 2010 Labour Brown
William Hague Foreign Secretary (2010).jpg
William Hague[13]
MP for Richmond (Yorks)
(born 1961)
12 May 2010 14 July 2014 Conservative Cameron–Clegg
(Con.L.D.)
Official portrait of Mr Philip Hammond crop 2.jpg
Philip Hammond[13]
MP for Runnymede and Weybridge
(born 1955)
14 July 2014 13 July 2016 Conservative
Cameron II
Boris Johnson official portrait (cropped).jpg
Boris Johnson[13][16]
MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip
(born 1964)
13 July 2016 9 July 2018 Conservative May I
May II
Official portrait of Rt Hon Jeremy Hunt MP crop 2.jpg
Jeremy Hunt[17]
MP for South West Surrey
(born 1966)
9 July 2018 24 July 2019 Conservative
Official portrait of Rt Hon Dominic Raab MP crop 2.jpg
Dominic Raab[18]
MP for Esher and Walton
(born 1974)
24 July 2019 2 September 2020 Conservative Johnson I
Johnson II

Secretaries of State for Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Affairs (2020–present)

Post created through the merger of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and the Department for International Development.

Portrait Name[15]
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Ministry Sovereign
(Reign)
Official portrait of Rt Hon Dominic Raab MP crop 2.jpg
Dominic Raab
MP for Esher and Walton
(born 1974)
2 September 2020 15 September 2021 Conservative Johnson II Elizabeth II
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg

(1952–2022)
Liz Truss Official Photo (cropped).jpg
Liz Truss
MP for South West Norfolk
(born 1975)
15 September 2021 6 September 2022 Conservative
James Cleverly Official Cabinet Portrait (cropped).jpg
James Cleverly
MP for Braintree
(born 1969)
6 September 2022 Incumbent Conservative Truss
Charles III
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg

(2022–present)
Sunak

See also

References

  1. ^ "Secretary of State for Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Affairs". gov.uk. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  2. ^ "Afghanistan: The questions facing Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab". BBC News. 1 September 2021. Retrieved 4 September 2021. Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab will be grilled by the Foreign Affairs Committee over his handling of the UK's withdrawal from Afghanistan.
  3. ^ Archives, The National. "Senior Cabinet posts". www.nationalarchives.gov.uk.
  4. ^ a b "Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs". Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
  5. ^ "Ministerial responsibility". GCHQ. 23 March 2016. Archived from the original on 7 July 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2017. Day-to-day ministerial responsibility for GCHQ lies with the Foreign Secretary.
  6. ^ "Written Answers to Questions: Foreign and Commonwealth Office: 1 Carlton Gardens". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. 6 May 2009. col. 165W.
  7. ^ "Dominic Raab and Liz Truss agree to share 115-room mansion". BBC News. 13 October 2021.
  8. ^ Hughes, Laura (25 December 2021). "Britain's Foreign Office has badly lost its way, say critics". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 10 December 2022. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  9. ^ Sainty, J. C. (1973). "Introduction". Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 2 - Officials of the Secretaries of State 1660-1782. British History Online. University of London. pp. 1–21. At the Restoration [in 1660] the practice of appointing two Secretaries of State, which was well established before the Civil War, was resumed. Apart from the modifications which were made necessary by the occasional existence of a third secretaryship, the organisation of the secretariat underwent no fundamental change from that time until the reforms of 1782 which resulted in the emergence of the Home and Foreign departments. ... English domestic affairs remained the responsibility of both Secretaries throughout the period. In the field of foreign affairs there was a division into a Northern and a Southern Department, each of which was the responsibility of one Secretary. The distinction between the two departments emerged only gradually. It was not until after 1689 that their names passed into general currency. Nevertheless the division of foreign business itself can, in its broad outlines, be detected in the early years of the reign of Charles II.
  10. ^ "India Office". British Museum. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  11. ^ "Margaret Beckett". European Leadership Network. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  12. ^ "Merging success: Bringing together the FCO and DFID : Government Response to Committee's Second Report". UK Parliament. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg "Past Foreign Secretaries". gov.uk. Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
  14. ^ Including honorifics and constituencies for elected MPs.
  15. ^ a b Including honorifics and constituencies for elected MPs.
  16. ^ "Boris Johnson quits to add to pressure on May over Brexit". BBC News. 9 July 2018.
  17. ^ "Jeremy Hunt replaces Boris Johnson as foreign secretary". BBC News. 9 July 2018.
  18. ^ Andrew Sparrow (24 July 2019). "Raab appointed foreign secretary and first secretary of state". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 August 2019.

Further reading