The Lord Stewart of Fulham
Michael Stewart.jpg
Stewart in 1965
Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
Foreign Affairs (1965–1968)
In office
16 March 1968 – 19 June 1970
Prime MinisterHarold Wilson
Preceded byGeorge Brown
Succeeded bySir Alec Douglas-Home
In office
22 January 1965 – 11 August 1966
Prime MinisterHarold Wilson
Preceded byPatrick Gordon Walker
Succeeded byGeorge Brown
First Secretary of State
In office
11 August 1966 – 6 April 1968
Prime MinisterHarold Wilson
Preceded byGeorge Brown
Succeeded byBarbara Castle
Secretary of State for Economic Affairs
In office
11 August 1966 – 29 August 1967
Prime MinisterHarold Wilson
Preceded byGeorge Brown
Succeeded byPeter Shore
Secretary of State for Education and Science
In office
16 October 1964 – 22 January 1965
Prime MinisterHarold Wilson
Preceded byQuintin Hogg
Succeeded byAnthony Crosland
Member of Parliament
for Fulham
Fulham East (1945–1955)
In office
5 July 1945 – 7 April 1979
Preceded byWilliam Astor
Succeeded byMartin Stevens
Personal details
Born(1906-11-06)6 November 1906
Bromley, Kent, England
Died10 March 1990(1990-03-10) (aged 83)
Political partyLabour
Spouse(s)Mary Stewart
Alma materSt. John's College, Oxford
ProfessionMember of Parliament

Robert Michael Maitland Stewart[1], Baron Stewart of Fulham, CH, PC (6 November 1906 – 10 March 1990)[2] was a British Labour Party politician, life peer and Fabian Socialist who was a Member of Parliament for 34 years, and served twice as Foreign Secretary in the first cabinet of Harold Wilson.

Early life

The son of Robert Wallace Stewart, author and lecturer, and Eva Stewart née Blaxley, Stewart was born in Bromley and educated at Brownhill Road Elementary School, Catford, Christ's Hospital and St. John's College, Oxford, where he graduated with a first class BA in Philosophy, Politics and Economics in 1929.[3][4] Whilst at Oxford he was involved in student politics and was elected as President of the Oxford Union for Michaelmas Term 1929. He was also the president of St John's Labour Club that same year.

Stewart began his career as an official in the Royal Household during 1931. He worked for a short period with the Secretariat of the League of Nations, before becoming a schoolmaster, first at the Merchant Taylors' School in London, then at Coopers' Company's School, Mile End, and then at Frome, Somerset. During World War II, Stewart served in the Middle East, joining the Intelligence Corps in 1942, before transferring to the Army Educational Corps in 1943. He was promoted to captain in 1944.

On 26 July 1941 he married Mary Birkinshaw, later Baroness Stewart of Alvechurch; they had no children.[5] They were one of the few couples who both held titles in their own right.

Political career

Stewart had contested the Lewisham West constituency in 1931 and 1935, and Fulham East in 1936; after the war he became MP for Fulham East 1945–55, then for Fulham 1955–74, and Hammersmith, Fulham 1974–79. Soon after his initial election, he was made one of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury (more commonly known as a junior whip),[1] then a junior minister, as Under-Secretary of State for War (1947–51) and later as Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Supply (May–October 1951). Following Labour's defeat in the 1951 election, Stewart was a rising figure on the shadow front bench, serving as Shadow Minister of Education (1955–59) and then as Shadow Minister of Housing and Local Government (1959–64).

Stewart was Fabian Summer School director in 1952 and lecturer in 1954. He was Fabian New Year School lecturer in 1954–55 and publicist in 1956. He is listed as a member of the Fabian Society International Bureau Committee during 1957–58 and was mentioned in Fabian News November – December 1964 as a former member of the Fabian Executive Committee.

Government 1964–70

When Harold Wilson became Prime Minister in 1964, Stewart was appointed Secretary of State for Education and Science. He was promoted to Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in January 1965 after his predecessor Patrick Gordon Walker's bid to regain a House of Commons seat in the 1965 Leyton by-election failed.[6] He was described by the press as relatively unknown to the public but was extremely well known within Fabian socialist circles. He became Secretary of State for Economic Affairs in 1966. From 1966 to 1968, he was First Secretary of State. He returned to the Foreign Office from 1968 to 1970. As foreign secretary, he was instrumental in supplying arms to support the Nigerian military dictatorship's crushing of the secessionist Republic of Biafra in the Nigerian Civil War (when up to one million people died), later saying "It would have been quite easy for me to say: This is going to be difficult – let's cut off all connexion with the Nigerian Government. If I'd done that I should have known that I was encouraging in Africa the principle of tribal secession – with all the misery that could bring to Africa in the future."[7]

Post-Government

A committed pro-European, Stewart was leader of the Labour Delegation to the Council of Europe in June 1970, and joint president of the Labour Committee for Europe with George Brown and Roy Jenkins. He served as a member of the European Parliament from 1975 to 1976.

Stewart was a supporter of a United Ireland, supporting a peaceful resolution to the partition of Ireland.[8]

Stewart was made a member of the Privy Council in 1964. He was appointed a Companion of Honour (CH) in the 1969 New Year Honours.[9] He retired from the House of Commons in 1979. He was elevated to the House of Lords, being created a life peer with the title Baron Stewart of Fulham, of Fulham in Greater London, on 5 July 1979.[10]

He died in 1990, aged 83.

References

  1. ^ a b "East Fulham M.P. in Government Too – Junior Treasury Post For Captain Michael Stewart". Fulham Chronicle. No. 2993. 17 August 1945. p. 3. Retrieved 10 July 2019 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  2. ^ "Stewart of Fulham, Baron, (Robert Michael Maitland Stewart) (6 Nov. 1906–10 March 1990)". WHO'S WHO & WHO WAS WHO. 2007. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u169475. ISBN 978-0-19-954089-1. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  3. ^ Oxford University Calendar 1932, Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1932, p. 282.
  4. ^ Lane, A.T. (1995). Biographical dictionary of European labor leaders (Volume 2 ed.). Greenwood Press. p. 931. ISBN 0313299005.
  5. ^ Duncan Sutherland, 'Stewart , Mary Elizabeth Henderson, Baroness Stewart of Alvechurch (1903–1984)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, May 2005 accessed 1 April 2017
  6. ^ Thorpe, Andrew (1997). A History of the British Labour Party. London: Macmillan Education UK. pp. 158–159. doi:10.1007/978-1-349-25305-0. ISBN 978-0-333-56081-5.
  7. ^ "By Nigeria correspondent Barnaby Philips". BBC News. 13 January 2000. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2008.
  8. ^ "A United Ireland". RTÉ Archives.
  9. ^ "No. 44740". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 January 1969. p. 24.
  10. ^ "No. 47900". The London Gazette. 10 July 1979. p. 8714.

Bibliography

Media related to Michael Stewart at Wikimedia Commons

Parliament of the United Kingdom Preceded byWilliam Astor Member of Parliament for Fulham East 19451955 Constituency abolished New constituency Member of Parliament for Fulham 19551979 Succeeded byMartin Stevens Political offices Preceded byArthur Pearson Comptroller of the Household(government whip) 1945–1946 Succeeded byFrank Collindridge Preceded byQuintin Hogg Secretary of State for Education and Science 1964–1965 Succeeded byAnthony Crosland Preceded byPatrick Gordon Walker Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1965–1966 Succeeded byGeorge Brown Preceded byGeorge Brown First Secretary of State 1966–1968 Succeeded byBarbara Castle Secretary of State for Economic Affairs 1966–1967 Succeeded byPeter Shore Preceded byGeorge Brown Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1968 Succeeded byHimselfas Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs Preceded byHimselfas Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs 1968–1970 Succeeded bySir Alec Douglas-Home Preceded byGeorge Thomsonas Secretary of State for Commonwealth Affairs Party political offices Preceded byNew position Leader of the European Parliamentary Labour Party 1975–1976 Succeeded byJohn Prescott