The Earl of Kimberley
1st Earl of Kimberley 1868.jpg
Carte de visite showing the Earl of Kimberley, ca. 1868.
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
In office
10 March 1894 – 21 June 1895
MonarchQueen Victoria
Prime MinisterThe Earl of Rosebery
Preceded byThe Earl of Rosebery
Succeeded byThe Marquess of Salisbury
Leader of the House of Lords
Lord President of the Council
In office
18 August 1892 – 5 March 1894
MonarchQueen Victoria
Prime MinisterWilliam Ewart Gladstone
Preceded byThe Marquess of Salisbury
(Leader of Lords)
The Earl of Cranbrook
(President of Council)
Succeeded byThe Earl of Rosebery
Secretary of State for India
In office
18 August 1892 – 10 March 1894
MonarchVictoria
Prime MinisterWilliam Ewart Gladstone
Preceded byThe Viscount Cross
Succeeded byHenry Fowler
In office
6 February 1886 – 20 July 1886
MonarchVictoria
Prime MinisterWilliam Ewart Gladstone
Preceded byLord Randolph Churchill
Succeeded byThe Viscount Cross
In office
16 December 1882 – 9 June 1885
MonarchVictoria
Prime MinisterWilliam Ewart Gladstone
Preceded byMarquess of Hartington
Succeeded byLord Randolph Churchill
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
In office
25 July 1882 – 28 December 1882
MonarchQueen Victoria
Prime MinisterWilliam Ewart Gladstone
Preceded byJohn Bright
Succeeded byJohn George Dodson
Secretary of State for the Colonies
In office
21 April 1880 – 16 December 1882
MonarchVictoria
Prime MinisterWilliam Ewart Gladstone
Preceded bySir Michael Hicks Beach, Bt.
Succeeded byThe Earl of Derby
In office
6 July 1870 – 17 February 1874
MonarchVictoria
Prime MinisterWilliam Ewart Gladstone
Preceded byThe Earl Granville
Succeeded byThe Earl of Carnarvon
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal
In office
9 December 1868 – 6 July 1870
MonarchQueen Victoria
Prime MinisterWilliam Ewart Gladstone
Preceded byThe Earl of Malmesbury
Succeeded byThe Viscount Halifax
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
In office
1 November 1864 – 13 July 1866
MonarchQueen Victoria
Prime MinisterThe Earl Russell
Preceded byThe Earl of Carlisle
Succeeded byThe Marquess of Abercorn
Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for India
In office
25 April 1864 – 16 November 1864
MonarchQueen Victoria
Prime MinisterThe Viscount Palmerston
Preceded byHon. Thomas Baring
Succeeded byLord Dufferin and Clandeboye
Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
In office
19 June 1859 – 15 August 1861
MonarchQueen Victoria
Prime MinisterThe Earl of Aberdeen
The Viscount Palmerston
Preceded byWilliam Vesey-FitzGerald
Succeeded byAusten Henry Layard
In office
28 December 1852 – 5 July 1856
MonarchQueen Victoria
Prime MinisterThe Earl of Aberdeen
The Viscount Palmerston
Preceded byLord Stanley
Succeeded byThe Earl of Shelburne
Member of the House of Lords
Lord Temporal
In office
8 January 1847 – 8 April 1902
Hereditary Peerage
Preceded byThe 2nd Lord Wodehouse
Succeeded byThe 2nd Earl of Kimberley
Personal details
Born(1826-01-07)7 January 1826
Wymondham
Died8 April 1902(1902-04-08) (aged 76)
London
NationalityBritish
Political partyLiberal Party
Spouse(s)Lady Florence FitzGibbon
(d. 1895)
Children3
Alma materChrist Church, Oxford

John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley KG KP PC DL (7 January 1826 – 8 April 1902), known as The Lord Wodehouse from 1846 to 1866, was a British Liberal politician. He held office in every Liberal administration from 1852 to 1895, notably as Secretary of State for the Colonies and as Foreign Secretary.

Early life and education

Kimberley was born in 1826 in Wymondham, Norfolk, the eldest son of the Hon. Henry Wodehouse (1799–1834) and grandson of John Wodehouse, 2nd Baron Wodehouse.[1] His mother was Anne Gurdon (d. 1880), daughter of Theophilus Thornhagh Gurdon. In 1846 he succeeded his grandfather as third Baron Wodehouse. He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, where he took a first-class degree in classics in 1847.[1][2]

Early career (1852–1874)

He was by inheritance a Liberal in politics, and in 1852–1856 and 1859–1861 he was Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in Lord Aberdeen's and Lord Palmerston's ministries. In the interval (1856–1858) he had been envoy-extraordinary to Russia; and in 1863 he was sent on a special mission to Copenhagen in the hope of finding a solution to the Schleswig-Holstein question. However, the mission was a failure.[1]

In 1864 Kimberley became Under-Secretary of State for India, but towards the end of the year was made Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. In that capacity, he had to grapple with the first manifestations of Fenianism, and in recognition of his services, he was created Earl of Kimberley in 1866. In July 1866 he vacated his office with the fall of Lord Russell's ministry, but in 1868 he became Lord Privy Seal in Gladstone's cabinet, and in July 1870 was transferred from that post to be Secretary of State for the Colonies. It was the moment of the great diamond discoveries in southern Africa, and the town of Kimberley in the Cape Colony was named after him.[1] Lord Kimberley has been credited with the change in British policy towards the independent Malay states that led to the signing of the Pangkor Treaty of 1874, after which British political agents known as Residents were placed in the Malay states as advisors to the rulers.[3]

Later career (1875–1902)

Lord Kimberley, ca. 1897.
Lord Kimberley, ca. 1897.

After an interval in opposition from 1874 to 1880, Lord Kimberley returned to the Colonial Office in Gladstone's next ministry. He was in that office when responsible government was granted to Cape Colony, British Columbia was added to the Dominion of Canada and during the First Boer War. At the end of 1882 he exchanged this office first for that of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and then for the secretaryship of state for India, a post he retained during the remainder of Gladstone's tenure of power (1882–1885, 1886, 1892–1894), though in 1892–1894 he combined with it that of the lord presidency of the council.[1]

In Lord Rosebery's cabinet (1894–1895) he was Foreign Secretary. During this time he signed the landmark Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation. Sir Edward Grey who served as Parliamentary Under-Secretary under Kimberley at the Foreign Office portrays him unfavourably as prolix and prone to irrelevant digressions in conversation although concise, definite and clear on paper.[4] However, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, "As leader of the Liberal party in the House of Lords he acted with undeviating dignity, and in opposition, he was a courteous antagonist and a critic of weight and experience".[5]

Other public positions

On 5 April 1850, he joined the Canterbury Association, formed to establish a colony (in the later Canterbury region) on the South Island of New Zealand.[citation needed]

Lord Kimberley took interest in education, and after being for many years a member of the senate of the University of London, he became its chancellor in 1899.[1]

Family

Lord Kimberley married Lady Florence FitzGibbon (d. 1895), daughter of Richard FitzGibbon, 3rd Earl of Clare, on 16 August 1847.[2] They had three children:

He died at 35 Lowndes Square in London (now the High Commission of Pakistan) on 8 April 1902,[2] aged 76, and was succeeded in his titles by his eldest son, John.[1] His more distant relations include the writer P. G. Wodehouse.[citation needed]

Ancestry

Memorials

The following places were named after the 1st Earl of Kimberley:

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Chisholm 1911, pp. 798–799.
  2. ^ a b c Bain 2007, p. 92.
  3. ^ Swettenham, Frank (1941). Footprints in Malaya. London, New York, Melbourne: Hutchinson & Co. p. 32.
  4. ^ Viscount Grey, Twenty Five Years, 1892–1916 (London, 1925) p.18.
  5. ^ Chisholm 1911, p. 799.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Cokayne (1892) p. 337
  7. ^ a b c d e Cokayne (1892), p. 336
  8. ^ a b Burke and Burke (1847), p. 514
  9. ^ Cokayne (1892), p. 337 ; of Witton Park and Witchingham, Norfolk.
  10. ^ Wroth (1895), p. 137 ; founder of the Norrisian Professorship at Cambridge.
  11. ^ Burke and Burke (1847), p. 515 ; later Brampton Gurdon Dillingham ; Sheriff of Norfolk in 1789, died in 1820.
  12. ^ Burke and Burke (1847), p. 515 ; his first wife.
  13. ^ a b "Biography of William Mellish (1708-1791)", nottingham.ac.uk - The University of Nottingham. (Accessed 4 September 2014).
  14. ^ Hunter (1895), p. 978
  15. ^ Crisp (1911), p. 116 ; daughter of John Gore of Bushill, Middlesex.
  16. ^ Cokayne (1892), p. 336 ; daughter of Sir Edmund Bacon, 6th Bart.
  17. ^ Cokayne, (1892), p. 336 ; daughter of Col. John West.
  18. ^ Wroth (1895), p. 137.
  19. ^ Wroth (1895), p. 137 ; only gives surname.
  20. ^ Burke (1858), p. 182 ; daughter of Thomas Carthew, JP, of Benacre Hall and Woodbridge Abbey.
  21. ^ Collins (1779), p. 49 ; daughter of "Brigadier-General Price".
  22. ^ Wright (1836), p. 252 ; daughter of Major-General John Price (died 1747 at Breda) and his wife, a daughter of Matthew Martin of Wivenhoe.
  23. ^ Burke and Burke (1847), p. 515 ; died 1783.
  24. ^ Burke and Burke (1847), p. 515 ; daughter of Theophilus Dillingham of Shelton, Buckinghamshire.
  25. ^ Burke and Burke (1847), p. 515 ; of Ditchingham.
  26. ^ Crisp (1911), p. 116 ; daughter of Sir Edmund Bacon of Gillingham, Norfolk, Baronet.
  27. ^ Foster (1895), p. 978 ; of Doncaster and Blythe ; son of Samuel Mellish of Doncaster, JP and DL for Yorkshire.
  28. ^ Foster (1895), p. 978 ; daughter of Sir William Gore, Alderman of London and Lord Mayor.
  29. ^ Familiae Minorum Gentium, p. 978 ; son of Sir William Gore.
  30. ^ R.R. Sedgwick, "Gore, John (c.1689-1763), of Bush Hill, Mdx.", The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1715–1754, ed. R. Sedgwick, 1970 ; daughter of Sir Jeremy Sambrooke of North Mimms, Hertfordshire.
  31. ^ Bain 2007, pp. 92–93.
  32. ^ Bloomfield, Frena (1984). Hong Kong's Street Names and Their Origins. Vol. 1. Urban Council, Hong Kong. ASIN B000HZIVAE. OCLC 320407030. Archived from the original on 7 November 2014.
  33. ^ Manning, Geoffrey. "South Australian Names - K" (PDF). Manning Index of South Australian History. State Library of South Australia. Retrieved 26 December 2018.

References

Attribution:

Political offices Preceded byLord Stanley Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1852–1856 Succeeded byThe Earl of Shelburne Preceded byWilliam Vesey-FitzGerald Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1859–1861 Succeeded byAusten Henry Layard Preceded byHon. Thomas Baring Under-Secretary of State for India 1864 Succeeded byThe Lord Dufferin and Claneboye Preceded byThe Earl of Carlisle Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1864–1866 Succeeded byThe Marquess of Abercorn Preceded byThe Earl of Malmesbury Lord Privy Seal 1868–1870 Succeeded byThe Viscount Halifax Preceded byThe Earl Granville Colonial Secretary 1870–1874 Succeeded byThe Earl of Carnarvon Preceded bySir Michael Hicks-Beach, Bt Colonial Secretary 1880–1882 Succeeded byThe Earl of Derby Preceded byJohn Bright Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster 1882 Succeeded byJohn George Dodson Preceded byMarquess of Hartington Secretary of State for India 1882–1885 Succeeded byLord Randolph Churchill Preceded byLord Randolph Churchill Secretary of State for India 1886 Succeeded byThe Viscount Cross Preceded byThe Viscount Cross Secretary of State for India 1892–1894 Succeeded byHenry Fowler Preceded byThe Viscount Cranbrook Lord President of the Council 1892–1894 Succeeded byThe Earl of Rosebery Preceded byThe Earl of Rosebery Foreign Secretary 1894–1895 Succeeded byThe Marquess of Salisbury Party political offices Preceded byThe Earl Granville Leader of the Liberals in the House of Lords 1891–1894 Succeeded byThe Earl of Rosebery Preceded byThe Earl of Rosebery Leader of the Liberals in the House of Lords 1897–1902 Succeeded byThe Earl Spencer Preceded byThe Earl of Rosebery Leader of the British Liberal Party 1897–1902with William Vernon Harcourt 1897–1898 Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman 1899–1902 Succeeded bySir Henry Campbell-BannermanThe Earl Spencer Academic offices Preceded byThe Lord Herschell Chancellor of the University of London 1899–1902 Succeeded byThe Earl of Rosebery Peerage of the United Kingdom New creation Earl of Kimberley 1866–1902 Succeeded byJohn Wodehouse Peerage of Great Britain Preceded byJohn Wodehouse Baron Wodehouse 1846–1902 Succeeded byJohn Wodehouse