Secretary of State
for the Home Department
Royal Arms of the United Kingdom (Crown & Garter).svg
Suella Braverman portrait as Home Secretary, 2022.jpg
Incumbent
Suella Braverman

since 25 October 2022
Home Office
StyleHome Secretary
(informal)
The Right Honourable
(within the UK and Commonwealth)
TypeMinister of the Crown
StatusSecretary of state
Member of
Reports toPrime minister
SeatWestminster
NominatorPrime minister
AppointerThe King
(on the advice of the prime minister)
Term lengthAt His Majesty's pleasure
Formation7 March 1782; 240 years ago (1782-03-07)
First holderEarl of Shelburne
Websitewww.gov.uk

The secretary of state for the Home Department, otherwise known as the home secretary, is a senior minister of the Crown in the Government of the United Kingdom. The home secretary leads the Home Office, and is responsible for all national security, policing and immigration policies of the United Kingdom.[1] As a Great Office of State, the home secretary is one of the most senior and influential ministers in the government. The incumbent is a statutory member of the British Cabinet and National Security Council. The post holder is sixth in the ministerial ranking.[2]

The position, which may be known as interior minister in other nations, was created in 1782,[3] though its responsibilities have changed many times.[4] Past office holders have included the prime ministers Lord North, Robert Peel, the Duke of Wellington, Lord Palmerston, Winston Churchill, James Callaghan and Theresa May. In 2007, Jacqui Smith became the first female home secretary.[5] The incumbent home secretary is Suella Braverman.

The office holder works alongside the other Home Office ministers and the permanent under-secretary of state of the Home Office. The corresponding shadow minister is the shadow home secretary, and the performance of the home secretary is also scrutinized by the Home Affairs Select Committee[6] and the Justice and Home Affairs Committee.[7]

Responsibilities

Corresponding to what is generally known as an interior minister in many other countries, the home secretary's remit includes:

Formerly, the home secretary was the minister responsible for prisons and probation in England and Wales; however in 2007 those responsibilities were transferred to the Ministry of Justice under the lord chancellor.

History

The title Secretary of State in the government of England dates back to the early 17th century.[8] The position of Secretary of State for the Home Department was created in the British governmental reorganisation of 1782, in which the responsibilities of the Northern and Southern Departments were reformed into the Foreign Office and Home Office.[8]

In 2007, the new Ministry of Justice took on the criminal justice functions of the Home Office and its agencies.[9]

List of home secretaries

Secretary of State for the Home Department[1]
Including constituencies for elected MPs.
Term of office Party Ministry Monarch
(Reign)
William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne by JL Mosnier crop.jpg
William Petty
2nd Earl of Shelburne
[10]
27 March 1782 10 July 1782 Whig Rockingham II George III
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1801-1816).svg

(1760–1820)
[note 1]
Viscount Sydney by Gilbert Stuart.jpg
Thomas Townsend[10]
MP for Whitchurch
10 July 1782 2 April 1783 Whig Shelburne
(WhigTory)
Nathaniel Dance Lord North cropped cropped.jpg
Frederick North
Lord North
[10]
MP for Banbury
2 April 1783 19 December 1783 Tory Fox–North
1stMarquessOfBuckingham.jpg
George Nugent-Temple-Grenville
3rd Earl Temple
[11]
19 December 1783 23 December 1783 Tory Pitt I
Viscount Sydney by Gilbert Stuart.jpg
Thomas Townsend
1st Baron Sydney
[10]
23 December 1783 5 June 1789 Whig
1st Baron Grenville-cropped.jpg
William Grenville
1st Baron Grenville
[10]
MP for Buckinghamshire[note 2]
(1759–1834)
5 June 1789 8 June 1791 Tory
Henry Raeburn (1756-1823) - The 1st Viscount Melville - N03880 - National Gallery.jpg
Henry Dundas[10]
MP for Edinburgh
8 June 1791 11 July 1794 Tory
3rd Duke of Portland 1804 cropped.jpg
William Cavendish-Bentinck
3rd Duke of Portland
[10]
11 July 1794 30 July 1801 Tory
Addington
2ndEarlOfChichester.jpg
Thomas Pelham
4th Baron Pelham of Stanmer
[10]
30 July 1801 17 August 1803 Whig
George Romney (1734-1802) - The Right Honourable Charles Philip Yorke (1764–1834) - 207768 - National Trust.jpg
Charles Philip Yorke[10]
MP for Cambridgeshire
17 August 1803 12 May 1804 Tory
Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool by Sir Thomas Lawrence (cropped).jpg
Robert Jenkinson
2nd Baron Hawkesbury
[10]
12 May 1804 5 February 1806 Tory Pitt II
George Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer.jpg
George Spencer
2nd Earl Spencer
[10]
5 February 1806 25 March 1807 Whig All the Talents
(WhigTory)
Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool by Sir Thomas Lawrence (cropped).jpg
Robert Jenkinson
2nd Earl of Liverpool
[10]
25 March 1807 1 November 1809 Tory Portland II
No image.svg
Richard Ryder[10]
MP for Tiverton
1 November 1809 8 June 1812 Tory Perceval
Henry Addington by Beechey.jpg
Henry Addington
1st Viscount Sidmouth
[10]
11 June 1812 17 January 1822 Tory Liverpool
George IV
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg

(1820–1830)
Robert Peel by RR Scanlan detail.jpg
Robert Peel[10]
MP for Oxford University
17 January 1822 10 April 1827 Tory
No image.svg
William Sturges Bourne[10]
MP for Ashburton
30 April 1827 16 July 1827 Tory Canning
(CanningiteWhig)
Lord Henry Petty.jpg
Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice
3rd Marquess of Lansdowne
[10]
16 July 1827 22 January 1828 Whig
Goderich
Robert Peel by RR Scanlan detail.jpg
Robert Peel[10]
MP for 3 constituencies respectively
(1788–1850)
26 January 1828 22 November 1830 Tory Wellington–Peel
William IV
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg

(1830–1837)
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, painted by John Partridge.jpg
William Lamb
2nd Viscount Melbourne
[10]
22 November 1830 16 July 1834 Whig Grey
Bessborough4.JPG
John Ponsonby
1st Baron Duncannon
[10]
19 July 1834 15 November 1834 Whig Melbourne I
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington by John Jackson cropped.jpg
Arthur Wellesley
1st Duke of Wellington
[10]
15 November 1834 15 December 1834 Tory Wellington Caretaker
HenryGoulburn.jpg
Henry Goulburn[10]
MP for Cambridge University
15 December 1834 18 April 1835 Conservative Peel I
Lord john russell.jpg
Lord John Russell[11]
MP for Stroud
18 April 1835 30 August 1839 Whig Melbourne II
Victoria
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg

(1837–1901)
Constantine Henry Phipps, 1st Marquess of Normanby by John Jackson.jpg
Constantine Phipps
1st Marquess of Normanby
[11]
30 August 1839 30 August 1841 Whig
Sir James Graham 2nd Bart First Lord Admiralty.jpg
James Graham[11]
MP for Dorchester
6 September 1841 30 June 1846 Conservative Peel II
Sir George Grey, 2nd Bt.jpg
George Grey[11]
8 July 1846 23 February 1852 Whig Russell I
Spencer Horatio Walpole.JPG
Spencer Horatio Walpole[11]
MP for Midhurst
27 February 1852 19 December 1852 Conservative Who? Who?
Lord Palmerston 1855.jpg
Henry John Temple
3rd Viscount Palmerston
[11]
MP for Tiverton
28 December 1852 6 February 1855 Whig Aberdeen
(PeeliteWhig)
Sir George Grey, 2nd Bt.jpg
George Grey[11]
MP for Morpeth
8 February 1855 26 February 1858 Whig Palmerston I
Spencer Horatio Walpole.JPG
Spencer Horatio Walpole[11]
MP for Cambridge University
26 February 1858 3 March 1859 Conservative Derby–Disraeli II
Thomas Henry Sutton Sotheron Estcourt Grant.jpg
Thomas Henry Sutton Sotheron-Estcourt[11]
MP for North Wiltshire
3 March 1859 18 June 1859 Conservative
Sir George Cornewall Lewis, 2nd Bt.jpg
George Cornewall Lewis[11]
MP for Radnor
18 June 1859 25 July 1861 Liberal Palmerston II
Sir George Grey, 2nd Bt.jpg
George Grey[11]
MP for Morpeth
25 July 1861 28 June 1866 Liberal
Russell II
Spencer Horatio Walpole.JPG
Spencer Horatio Walpole[11]
MP for Cambridge University
6 July 1866 17 May 1867 Conservative Derby–Disraeli III
1st Earl of Cranbrook.jpg
Gathorne Gathorne-Hardy[11]
MP for Oxford University
17 May 1867 3 December 1868 Conservative
Henry Bruce, 1st Baron Aberdare NPG.jpg
Henry Bruce[11]
(1815–1895)
9 December 1868 9 August 1873 Liberal Gladstone I
Robert Lowe, 1st Viscount Sherbrooke by George Frederic Watts.jpg
Robert Lowe[11]
MP for London University
9 August 1873 20 February 1874 Liberal
Portrait of Richard Assheton Cross, 1st Viscount Cross.jpg
R. A. Cross[11]
MP for South West Lancashire
21 February 1874 23 April 1880 Conservative Disraeli II
Sir William Harcourt.jpg
William Harcourt[11]
MP for Derby
28 April 1880 23 June 1885 Liberal Gladstone II
Portrait of Richard Assheton Cross, 1st Viscount Cross.jpg
R. A. Cross[11]
MP for Newton
24 June 1885 1 February 1886 Conservative Salisbury I
Hugh Childers, Lock & Whitfield woodburytype, 1876-83 crop.jpg
Hugh Childers[11]
MP for Edinburgh South
6 February 1886 25 July 1886 Liberal Gladstone III
Henrymatthews.jpg
Henry Matthews[11]
MP for Birmingham East
3 August 1886 15 August 1892 Conservative Salisbury II
Portrait of Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith.jpg
H. H. Asquith[11]
MP for East Fife
18 August 1892 25 June 1895 Liberal Gladstone IV
Rosebery
Matthew White Ridley sketch.jpg
Matthew White Ridley[11]
MP for Blackpool
29 June 1895 12 November 1900 Conservative Salisbury
(III & IV)

(Con.Lib.U.)
Charles Thomson Ritchie headshot.jpg
Charles Ritchie[11]
MP for Croydon
12 November 1900 11 August 1902 Conservative
Edward VII
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg

(1901–1910)
Balfour
Aretas Akers-Douglas, 1st Viscount Chilston.png
Aretas Akers-Douglas[11]
MP for St Augustine's
11 August 1902 5 December 1905 Conservative
Viscount Gladstone.jpg
Herbert Gladstone[11]
MP for Leeds West
11 December 1905 19 February 1910 Liberal Campbell-Bannerman
Asquith
(I–III)
Winston Churchill 1874 - 1965 Q42037.jpg
Winston Churchill[11]
MP for Dundee
19 February 1910 24 October 1911 Liberal
George V
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg

(1910–1936)
Reginald McKenna photo.jpg
Reginald McKenna[11]
MP for North Monmouthshire
24 October 1911 27 May 1915 Liberal
Viscount Simon.jpg
John Simon[11]
MP for Walthamstow
27 May 1915 12 January 1916 Liberal Asquith Coalition
(Lib.Con.–et al.)
Herbert Samuel.jpg
Herbert Samuel[11]
MP for Cleveland
12 January 1916 7 December 1916 Liberal
George Cave, 1st Viscount Cave in 1915.jpg
George Cave
1st Viscount Cave
[11]
MP for Kingston[note 5]
(1856–1928)
11 December 1916 14 January 1919 Conservative Lloyd George
(I & II)
Edward Shortt.jpg
Edward Shortt[11]
MP for Newcastle upon Tyne West
14 January 1919 23 October 1922 Liberal
William Bridgeman, 1st Viscount Bridgeman.png
William Bridgeman[11]
MP for Oswestry
25 October 1922 22 January 1924 Conservative Law
Baldwin I
1910 Arthur Henderson.jpg
Arthur Henderson[11]
MP for Burnley[note 6]
(1863–1935)
23 January 1924 4 November 1924 Labour MacDonald I
1st Viscount Brentford 1923.jpg
William Joynson-Hicks[11]
MP for Twickenham
7 November 1924 5 June 1929 Conservative Baldwin II
J.R. Clynes LCCN2014717260 (cropped).jpg
John Robert Clynes[11]
MP for Manchester Platting
8 June 1929 26 August 1931 Labour MacDonald II
Herbert Samuel.jpg
Herbert Samuel[11]
MP for Darwen
26 August 1931 1 October 1932 Liberal National I
(N.Lab.Con.–et al.)
National II
Sir John Gilmour.jpg
John Gilmour[11]
MP for Glasgow Pollok
1 October 1932 7 June 1935 Unionist
Viscount Simon.jpg
John Simon[11]
MP for Spen Valley
7 June 1935 28 May 1937 Liberal National National III
(Con.N.Lab.–et al.)
Edward VIII
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg

(1936)
George VI
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg

(1936–1952)
Sir Samuel Hoare GGBain.jpg
Samuel Hoare[11]
MP for Chelsea
28 May 1937 3 September 1939 Conservative National IV
John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley 1947.jpg
John Anderson[11]
MP for Combined Scottish Universities
4 September 1939 4 October 1940 Independent
(National)
Chamberlain War
Churchill War
(All parties)
Herbert Morrison 1947.jpg
Herbert Morrison[11]
MP for Hackney South
4 October 1940 23 May 1945 Labour
Donald Somervell[11]
MP for Crewe
25 May 1945 26 July 1945 Conservative Churchill Caretaker
(Con.Lib.N.)
James Chuter Ede (minister van Binnenlandse Zaken (Home Secretary)), Bestanddeelnr 900-7223.jpg
James Chuter Ede[11]
MP for South Shields
3 August 1945 26 October 1951 Labour Attlee
(I & II)
David Maxwell Fyfe, Nuremberg, 1946 (Art. IWM ART LD 5863).jpg
David Maxwell Fyfe[11]
MP for Liverpool West Derby
27 October 1951 19 October 1954 Conservative Churchill III
Elizabeth II
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg

(1952–2022)
Gwilym Lloyd George 1922.jpg
Gwilym Lloyd George[11]
MP for Newcastle upon Tyne North
19 October 1954 14 January 1957 National Liberal
&
Conservative
Eden
Richard-Austen-Rab-Butler-1st-Baron-Butler-of-Saffron-Walden.jpg
Rab Butler[11]
MP for Saffron Walden
14 January 1957 13 July 1962 Conservative Macmillan
(I & II)
Henry Brooke[11]
MP for Hampstead
14 July 1962 16 October 1964 Conservative
Douglas-Home
No image.svg
Frank Soskice[11]
MP for Newport
18 October 1964 23 December 1965 Labour Wilson
(I & II)
Roy Jenkins 1977b.jpg
Roy Jenkins[11]
MP for Birmingham Stechford
23 December 1965 30 November 1967 Labour
Persconferentie na afloop Overleg van de 9 , Den Haag Callaghan (oa met Enge, Bestanddeelnr 928-9157 (crop).jpg
James Callaghan[11]
MP for Cardiff South East
30 November 1967 19 June 1970 Labour
Reginald Maudling[11]
MP for Barnet
20 June 1970 18 July 1972 Conservative Heath
Robert Carr[11]
MP for Carshalton
18 July 1972 4 March 1974 Conservative
Roy Jenkins 1977b.jpg
Roy Jenkins[11]
MP for Birmingham Stechford
5 March 1974 10 September 1976 Labour Wilson
(III & IV)
Callaghan
Merlyn Rees appearing on "After Dark", 16 July 1988.jpg
Merlyn Rees[11]
MP for Leeds South
10 September 1976 4 May 1979 Labour
William Whitelaw[11]
MP for Penrith and The Border
4 May 1979 11 June 1983 Conservative Thatcher I
Leon Brittan (1996) 02.jpg
Leon Brittan[11]
MP for Richmond (Yorks)
11 June 1983 2 September 1985 Conservative Thatcher II
Lord Hurd (cropped).jpg
Douglas Hurd[11]
MP for Witney
2 September 1985 26 October 1989 Conservative
Thatcher III
David Waddington[11]
MP for Ribble Valley
26 October 1989 28 November 1990 Conservative
Official portrait of Lord Baker of Dorking 2020 crop 2.jpg
Kenneth Baker[11]
MP for Mole Valley
28 November 1990 10 April 1992 Conservative Major I
Official portrait of Mr Kenneth Clarke crop 2.jpg
Kenneth Clarke[11]
MP for Rushcliffe
10 April 1992 27 May 1993 Conservative Major II
Official portrait of Lord Howard of Lympne crop 2.jpg
Michael Howard[11]
MP for Folkestone and Hythe
27 May 1993 2 May 1997 Conservative
Jack Straw 2.jpg
Jack Straw[11]
MP for Blackburn
2 May 1997 8 June 2001 Labour Blair I
Official Portrait of Lord Blunkett crop 1.jpg
David Blunkett[11]
MP for Sheffield Brightside
8 June 2001 15 December 2004 Labour Blair II
Charles Clarke (cropped).jpg
Charles Clarke[11]
MP for Norwich South
15 December 2004 5 May 2006 Labour
Blair III
Official portrait of Lord Reid of Cardowan, 2020.jpg
John Reid[12]
MP for Airdrie and Shotts
5 May 2006 27 June 2007 Labour
Jacqui Smith, September 2009 cropped.jpg
Jacqui Smith[13]
MP for Redditch
28 June 2007 5 June 2009 Labour Brown
Alan Johnson MP.jpg
Alan Johnson[14]
MP for Hull West and Hessle
5 June 2009 11 May 2010 Labour
Theresa May 2015 (cropped).jpg
Theresa May[15]
MP for Maidenhead
12 May 2010 13 July 2016 Conservative Cameron–Clegg
(Con.L.D.)
May's tenure as Home Secretary Cameron II
Official portrait of Amber Rudd crop 2.jpg
Amber Rudd[16]
MP for Hastings and Rye
13 July 2016 29 April 2018 Conservative May I
May II
Official portrait of Rt Hon Sajid Javid MP crop 2.jpg
Sajid Javid[17]
MP for Bromsgrove
30 April 2018 24 July 2019 Conservative
Official portrait of Rt Hon Priti Patel MP crop 2.jpg
Priti Patel[18]
MP for Witham
24 July 2019 6 September 2022 Conservative Johnson I
Johnson II
Official portrait of Suella Braverman MP crop 2.jpg
Suella Braverman[19]
MP for Fareham
6 September 2022 19 October 2022 Conservative Truss
Charles III
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg

(2022–present)
Official portrait of Rt Hon Grant Shapps MP crop 2.jpg
Grant Shapps[20]
MP for Welwyn Hatfield
19 October 2022 25 October 2022 Conservative
Official portrait of Suella Braverman MP crop 2.jpg
Suella Braverman[21]
MP for Fareham
25 October 2022 Incumbent Conservative Sunak

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Prince of Wales served as Prince Regent from 5 February 1811.
  2. ^ Elevated to the Peerage of Great Britain in 1790
  3. ^ Elected to a new constituency in the 1847 general election.
  4. ^ Lost seat in the 1868 general election and elected to a new constituency in the Renfrewshire by-election.
  5. ^ Ennobled on the day of the 1918 election, which he did not contest. His rank did not entitle him to a seat in the House of Lords.
  6. ^ Elected on 28 February 1924 in the Burnley by-election.

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b c "Secretary of State for the Home Department". gov.uk. Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  2. ^ "Her Majesty's Government: The Cabinet". parliament.uk. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  3. ^ "The Cabinet Papers: Senior Cabinet posts". The National Archives. Retrieved 3 July 2021. The post of Home Secretary was created in 1782 with the formation of the Home Office
  4. ^ "Records created or inherited by the Home Office, Ministry of Home Security, and related bodies". The National Archives. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  5. ^ "First female boss for Home Office". BBC News. 28 June 2007. Retrieved 25 June 2021. Jacqui Smith has become Britain's first female home secretary
  6. ^ "The work of the Home Secretary". Parliament.UK. Archived from the original on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 21 February 2022. The Committee holds regular evidence sessions with the Home Secretary, the Permanent Secretary and other officials to ask questions about the policies and priorities of the department.
  7. ^ "Home Secretary Priti Patel to appear before Lords Committee". Parliament.UK. 26 October 2021. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 21 February 2022. The Justice and Home Affairs Committee will be questioning the Home Secretary, the Rt Hon Priti Patel MP.
  8. ^ a b Sainty, J. C. (1973). "Introduction". Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 2 - Officials of the Secretaries of State 1660-1782. British History Online. University of London. pp. 1–21. At the Restoration [in 1660] the practice of appointing two Secretaries of State, which was well established before the Civil War, was resumed. Apart from the modifications which were made necessary by the occasional existence of a third secretaryship, the organisation of the secretariat underwent no fundamental change from that time until the reforms of 1782 which resulted in the emergence of the Home and Foreign departments. ... English domestic affairs remained the responsibility of both Secretaries throughout the period. In the field of foreign affairs there was a division into a Northern and a Southern Department, each of which was the responsibility of one Secretary. The distinction between the two departments emerged only gradually. It was not until after 1689 that their names passed into general currency. Nevertheless the division of foreign business itself can, in its broad outlines, be detected in the early years of the reign of Charles II.
  9. ^ House of Commons Constitutional Affairs Committee (17 July 2007). "The creation of the Ministry of Justice" (PDF). parliament.uk. p. 3. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Gibson 2008.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm "Home Secretary". Hansard. Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  12. ^ "Clarke is fired in Cabinet purge". BBC News. 5 May 2006. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  13. ^ "First female boss for Home Office". BBC News. 28 June 2007. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  14. ^ "Hutton quits in cabinet reshuffle". BBC News. 5 June 2009. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  15. ^ "Cameron coalition: Theresa May made home secretary". BBC News. 12 May 2010. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  16. ^ "Theresa May shakes up government with new-look cabinet". BBC News. 14 July 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  17. ^ "Sajid Javid announced as new Home Secretary after Amber Rudd's resignation". Sky News. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  18. ^ "Priti Patel appointed UK interior minister: statement". Reuters. 24 July 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  19. ^ "Suella Braverman MP on Twitter: My letter to the Prime Minister". Twitter. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
  20. ^ "Grants Shapps replaces Suella Braverman as home secretary". BBC News. 19 October 2022. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
  21. ^ "Braverman returns to home secretary role". BBC News. 25 October 2022. Retrieved 25 October 2022.

Sources