United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland
Royal Arms
Royal coat of arms (common version on the left; Scottish version on the right)[a]

There have been 13 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707. England and Scotland had been in personal union since 24 March 1603. On 1 January 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland merged, creating first the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and later the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland upon the secession of southern Ireland in the 1920s.

Union and succession

Queen Anne became monarch of the Kingdom of Great Britain after the political union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707. She had ruled England, Scotland, and the Kingdom of Ireland since 8 March 1702. She continued as queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death. Her total reign lasted 12 years and 147 days. Although Anne's great grandfather, James VI and I (r. 1603–1625), the monarch of the Union of the Crowns, proclaimed himself "King of Great Britain", and used it on coinage, stamps and elsewhere, the Parliament of England had refused to use that style in statutory law or address.[2][3]

Anne's only children died young, so during her reign, Parliament settled the rules of succession in the Act of Settlement 1701, by defining Sophia of Hanover (granddaughter of James VI and I) and her non-Catholic descendants as the future royal heirs. The Crown passed from Queen Anne to Sophia's son, King George I, as Sophia had already died. Queen Anne and King George I were second cousins, as both were great-grandchildren of James VI and I. For a family tree that shows George I's relationship to Anne, see George I of Great Britain § Family tree.

List

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriage(s) Death Claim
House of Stuart
Anne[4]
1 May 1707[b][c]

1 August 1714[b]
(7 years, 93 days)
(Queen of England and Scotland from 8 March 1702)[d]
(12 years, 147 days)
6 February 1665[b]
St James's Palace
Daughter of James VII and II
and Anne Hyde
George of Denmark
St James's Palace
28 July 1683[b]
5 children
until 28 October 1708
1 August 1714[b]
Kensington Palace
Aged 49
Daughter of James VII and II
Bill of Rights 1689
House of Hanover
George I[5]
George Louis
1 August 1714[b][e]

11 June 1727[b]
(12 years, 315 days)
28 May 1660[b]
Leineschloss
Son of Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover,
and Sophia of the Palatinate
Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
Celle Castle
21 November 1682[b]
2 children
div. 28 December 1694
11 June 1727[b]
Osnabrück Castle
Aged 67
Great-grandson of James VI and I
Act of Settlement 1701
George II[6]
George Augustus
11 June 1727[f][g]

25 October 1760
(33 years, 126 days)
30 October 1683[b]
Herrenhausen Palace
Son of George I
and Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
Herrenhausen Gardens
22 August 1705[b]
8 children
until 20 November 1737
25 October 1760
Kensington Palace
Aged 76
Son of George I
George III[7]
George William Frederick
25 October 1760[h]

29 January 1820
(59 years, 97 days)
Until 1801:

1801–1816:

From 1816:
24 May 1738[b]
Norfolk House
Son of Frederick, Prince of Wales,
and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
St James's Palace
8 September 1761
15 children
until 17 November 1818
29 January 1820
Windsor Castle
Aged 81
Grandson of George II
George IV[8]
George Augustus Frederick
29 January 1820[i]

26 June 1830
(10 years, 149 days)
12 August 1762
St James's Palace
Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
St James's Palace
8 April 1795
1 daughter
until 7 August 1821
26 June 1830
Windsor Castle
Aged 67
Son of George III
William IV[9]
William Henry
26 June 1830[j]

20 June 1837
(6 years, 360 days)
21 August 1765
Buckingham Palace
Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Kew Palace
13 July 1818
2 daughters
20 June 1837
Windsor Castle
Aged 71
Son of George III


Victoria[10]
Alexandrina Victoria
20 June 1837[k]

22 January 1901
(63 years, 217 days)
24 May 1819
Kensington Palace
Daughter of Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn,
and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
St James's Palace
10 February 1840
9 children
until 14 December 1861
22 January 1901
Osborne House
Aged 81
Niece of William IV
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Edward VII[11]
Albert Edward
22 January 1901[l]

6 May 1910
(9 years, 105 days)
9 November 1841
Buckingham Palace
Son of Victoria
and Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Alexandra of Denmark
St George's Chapel
10 March 1863
6 children
6 May 1910
Buckingham Palace
Aged 68
Son of Victoria
House of Windsor[m]
George V[13]
George Frederick Ernest Albert
6 May 1910[n]

20 January 1936
(25 years, 260 days)
3 June 1865
Marlborough House
Son of Edward VII
and Alexandra of Denmark
Mary of Teck
St James's Palace
6 July 1893
6 children
20 January 1936
Sandringham House
Aged 70
Son of Edward VII
Edward VIII[14]
Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David
20 January 1936[o]

11 December 1936
(abdicated)
(327 days)
23 June 1894
White Lodge
Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Wallis Simpson
Château de Candé
3 June 1937
28 May 1972
4 route du Champ d'Entraînement
Aged 77
Son of George V
George VI[15]
Albert Frederick Arthur George
11 December 1936[p]

6 February 1952
(15 years, 58 days)
14 December 1895
York Cottage
Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Westminster Abbey
26 April 1923
2 daughters
6 February 1952
Sandringham House
Aged 56
Son of George V


Elizabeth II[16]
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary
6 February 1952[q]

8 September 2022[17]
(70 years, 215 days)
21 April 1926
17 Bruton Street, Mayfair
Daughter of George VI
and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Philip of Greece and Denmark
Westminster Abbey
20 November 1947
4 children
until 9 April 2021
8 September 2022
Balmoral Castle
Aged 96
Daughter of George VI
Charles III[18]
Charles Philip Arthur George
8 September 2022[17][r]

present
(1 year, 279 days)
14 November 1948
Buckingham Palace
Son of Elizabeth II
and Philip of Greece and Denmark
(1) Diana Spencer
St Paul's Cathedral
29 July 1981
2 sons
div. 28 August 1996
(2) Camilla Parker Bowles
Windsor Guildhall
9 April 2005
Living
Age 75
Son of Elizabeth II

Timeline

Charles IIIElizabeth IIGeorge VIEdward VIIIGeorge VEdward VIIQueen VictoriaWilliam IVGeorge IVGeorge IIIGeorge II of Great BritainGeorge I of Great BritainAnne, Queen of Great BritainHouse of WindsorHouse of Saxe-Coburg and GothaHouse of HanoverHouse of Stuart

See also

Notes

  1. ^ There are two versions of the current Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. The common version is on the left, while the Scottish version is on the right. In the shield of the common version, England is represented in the first and fourth quarters, Scotland is represented in the second quarter, and Northern Ireland is represented in the third quarter. In the shield of the Scottish version, the Royal Arms of England and the Royal Arms of Scotland are exchanged.[1]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Old Style date
  3. ^ Anne was crowned on 23 April 1702.
  4. ^ see List of English monarchs
  5. ^ George I was crowned on 20 October 1714.
  6. ^ Date of start of reign given in Old Style calendar; date of death in New Style. (Duration of reign takes this into account.)
  7. ^ George II was crowned on 11 October 1727 O.S.
  8. ^ George III was crowned on 22 September 1761 N.S.
  9. ^ George IV was crowned on 19 July 1821.
  10. ^ William IV was crowned on 8 September 1831.
  11. ^ Victoria was crowned on 28 June 1838.
  12. ^ Edward VII was crowned on 9 August 1902.
  13. ^ George V changed the name of the British royal house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to Windsor on 17 July 1917.[12] This change was made in response to anti-German sentiment in the British Empire during World War I. Descendants of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and Queen Elizabeth II belong to the House of Windsor by Royal Command (9 April 1952 Declaration by Queen Elizabeth II to her Privy Council) although under the usual rules of genealogy they are, by paternal descent, also members of the Glücksburg branch of the House of Oldenburg (the ruling House of Denmark and of the former Kingdom of Greece). Accordingly, King Charles III is the first monarch of the House of Windsor who is a patrilineal descendant of the Glücksburg dynasty, instead of descending from Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in the male line as was the case with the previous monarchs of the House of Windsor.
  14. ^ George V was crowned on 22 June 1911.
  15. ^ Edward VIII was not crowned.
  16. ^ George VI was crowned on 12 May 1937.
  17. ^ Elizabeth II was crowned on 2 June 1953.
  18. ^ Charles III was crowned on 6 May 2023

References

  1. ^ "Coats of arms". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  2. ^ Croft, Pauline (2003), King James, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 52–54, 61, ISBN 978-0-3336-1395-5
  3. ^ Willson, David Harris (1963) [1956], King James VI & I, London: Jonathan Cape, pp. 249–253, ISBN 978-0-2246-0572-4
  4. ^ Oram, Kirsty (30 December 2015). "Anne (r. 1702–1714)". The Royal Family. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  5. ^ Oram, Kirsty (30 December 2015). "George I (r. 1714–1727)". The Royal Family. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  6. ^ Oram, Kirsty (31 December 2015). "George II (r. 1727–1760)". The Royal Family. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  7. ^ Oram, Kirsty (31 December 2015). "George III (r. 1760–1820)". The Royal Family. Archived from the original on 20 May 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  8. ^ Oram, Kirsty (31 December 2015). "King George IV (r. 1820–1830)". The Royal Family. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  9. ^ Berry, Ciara (15 January 2016). "William IV (r. 1830–1837)". The Royal Family. Archived from the original on 21 September 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  10. ^ Oram, Kirsty (31 December 2015). "Victoria (r. 1837–1901)". The Royal Family. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  11. ^ Berry, Ciara (11 January 2016). "Edward VII (r. 1901–1910)". The Royal Family. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  12. ^ "No. 30186". The London Gazette. 17 July 1917. p. 7119.
  13. ^ Berry, Ciara (12 January 2016). "George V (r. 1910–1936)". The Royal Family. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  14. ^ "Edward VIII (Jan–Dec 1936)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  15. ^ Berry, Ciara (12 January 2016). "George VI (r. 1936–1952)". The Royal Family. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  16. ^ "Queen Elizabeth II's Life and Reign". royal.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2024.
  17. ^ a b "Queen Elizabeth II has died, Buckingham Palace announces". BBC News. 8 September 2022. Archived from the original on 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  18. ^ "The King". The Royal Family. 8 September 2022. Archived from the original on 11 September 2022. Retrieved 9 September 2022.