House of Oldenburg
Arms of the County of Oldenburg.svg
Country
Founded1101; 921 years ago (1101)
FounderElimar I, Count of Oldenburg
Current headChristoph, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein[1][2]
Final ruler
Russia:
Nicholas II (1894–1917)
Sweden:
Charles XIII (1809–18)
Greece:
Constantine II (1964–1973)
Oldenburg:
Friedrich August II (1900–18)
Saxe-Lauenburg:
Christian IX (1863–64)
Schleswig and Holstein:
Christian IX (1863–64)
Titles
Connected families
Deposition
Russia:
February Revolution, 1917
Greece:
1974 Greek republic referendum, 1974
Oldenburg:
German Revolution, 1918
Saxe-Lauenburg:
Second Schleswig War, 1864
Schleswig and Holstein:
Second Schleswig War, 1864
Cadet branches

The House of Oldenburg is a German dynasty[3] with links to Denmark since the 15th century. It has branches that rule or have ruled in Denmark, Iceland, Greece, Norway, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Schleswig, Holstein, and Oldenburg. The current Queen of Denmark, King of Norway and King of the United Kingdom, as well as the former King of Greece, are all patrilineal members of the Glücksburg branch of this house.

The dynasty rose to prominence when Count Christian I of Oldenburg was elected as King of Denmark in 1448, of Norway in 1450 and of Sweden in 1457. The house has occupied the Danish throne ever since.

History

2 rigsdaler – death of Frederik VII and accession of Christian IX marking the transfer of the throne to the Glucksburg branch of the House of Oldenburg[4]
2 rigsdaler – death of Frederik VII and accession of Christian IX marking the transfer of the throne to the Glucksburg branch of the House of Oldenburg[4]

Marriages of medieval counts of Oldenburg paved the way for their heirs to become kings of various Scandinavian kingdoms. Through marriage with a descendant of King Valdemar I of Sweden and of King Eric IV of Denmark, a claim to Sweden and Denmark was staked as early as 1350.

At that time, its competitors were the successors of Margaret I of Denmark. In the 15th century, the Oldenburg heir of that claim married Hedwig of Schauenburg, a descendant of Euphemia of Sweden and Norway and also a descendant of Eric V of Denmark and Abel of Denmark. Since descendants better situated in genealogical charts died out, their son Christian (the abovementioned) became the king of all three kingdoms of the whole Kalmar Union. The House of Mecklenburg was its chief competitor regarding the Northern thrones, and other aspirants included the Duke of Lauenburg. Different Oldenburgine branches have reigned in several countries. The House of Oldenburg was briefly poised to claim the British thrones through the marriage of Queen Anne and Prince George of Denmark and Norway; however, due to the early deaths of all their children, the crown passed to the House of Hanover.

Main line

Branches

Family tree of the House of Oldenburg (Counts of Oldenburg)

House of Oldenburg
Arms of the County of Oldenburg.svg

House of Oldenburg
Elimar I
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1091-1108
c. 1040-1112
Elimar II
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1108-1142
Christian I
the Quarrelsome

Count of Oldenburg
r. 1143-1167
?-1167
Maurice
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1169-1211
c. 1145-c. 1211
Christian II
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1209-1233
?-1233
Otto I
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1209-1251
c. 1175-1251
John I
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1233-1270
c. 1204-c. 1270
Christian III
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1270-1285
?-1285
John II
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1285-1301
?-c. 1314/6
Christian IV
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1301-1323
John III
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1305-1345
Conrad I
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1324-1347
?-1347
John IV
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1345-1356
Conrad II
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1368-1401
?-1401
Christian V
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1368-1398
c. 1342-c. 1399
Maurice II
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1401-1420
Dietrich
Fortunatus

Count of Oldenburg
r. 1403-1440
1398-1440
Christian VI
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1403-1421
Christian I
King of Denmark
r. 1448-1481
King of Norway
r. 1450-1481
King of Sweden
r. 1457-1464
1426-1481
Gerhard VI
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1450-1482
1430-1500
Kings of Denmark
Adolph
Count of Oldenburg-
Delmenhorst

r. 1482-1500
before 1463-1500
John V
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1500-1526
1460-1526
John VI
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1526-1529
1501-1548
George
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1526-1529
Christopher
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1526-1566
c. 1504-1566
Anthony I
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1526-1573
1505-1573
John VII
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1573-1603
1540-1603
Anthony II
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1573-1619
Anthony
Günther

Count of Oldenburg
r. 1603-1667
1583-1667

Family tree of the House of Oldenburg (Kings of Denmark)

House of Oldenburg

King of the Kalmar Union (1457-1464, 1497-1501, 1520-1521)

King of Denmark-Norway (1524-1533, 1537-1814)

King of Denmark (1448-1533, 1534-present)

King of the Hellenes (1863-1924, 1935-1973)

King of Norway (1450-1481, 1483-1523, 1524-1533, 1537-1814, 1905-present)

Arms of the County of Oldenburg.svg

House of Oldenburg
Elimar I
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1091-1108
c. 1040-1112
Elimar II
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1108-1142
Christian I
the Quarrelsome

Count of Oldenburg
r. 1143-1167
?-1167
Maurice
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1169-1211
c. 1145-c. 1211
Christian II
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1209-1233
?-1233
John I
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1233-1270
c. 1204-c. 1270
Christian III
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1270-1285
?-1285
John II
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1285-1301
?-c. 1314/6
Conrad I
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1324-1347
?-1347
Christian V
Count of Oldenburg
r. 1368-1398
c. 1342-c. 1399
Dietrich
Fortunatus

Count of Oldenburg
r. 1403-1440
1398-1440
Christian I
King of Denmark
r. 1448-1481
King of Norway
r. 1450-1481
King of Sweden
r. 1457-1464
1426-1481
John
King of Denmark
r. 1481-1513
King of Norway
r. 1483-1513
King of Sweden
r. 1497-1501
1455-1513
Frederick I
King of Denmark
r. 1523-1533
King of Norway
r. 1524-1533
1471-1533
House of Schleswig-
Holstein-Haderslev
Christian II
King of Denmark
and Norway

r. 1513-1523
King of Sweden
r. 1520-1521
1481-1559
Christian III
King of Denmark
r. 1534-1559
King of Norway
r. 1537-1559
1503-1559
John
the Elder

Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Haderslev

r. 1544-1580
1521-1580
Adolf
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Gottorp

r. 1544-1586
1526-1586
House of Schleswig-
Holstein-Gottorp
House of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg
Frederick II
King of Denmark
and Norway

r. 1559-1588
1534-1588
John
the Younger

Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg

r. 1564-1622
1545-1622
House of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Norburg
House of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Plön
Christian IV
King of Denmark
and Norway

r. 1588-1648
1577-1648
Alexander
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg

r. 1622-1627
1573-1627
John Adolph
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Norburg

r. 1622-1624
1576-1624
Frederick
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Norburg

r. 1624-1658
1581-1658
Joachim Ernest I
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Plön

r. 1622-1671
1595-1671
House of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Augustenburg
House of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Beck
House of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Plön-Rethwisch
Frederick III
King of Denmark
and Norway

r. 1648-1670
1609-1670
John Christian
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg

r. 1627-1627
1607-1653
Ernest Günther I
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg
-Augustenburg

r. 1627-1689
1609-1689
August Philip
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Beck

r. 1646-1675
1612-1675
John Bogislaw
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Norburg

r. 1658-1669
1629-1669
Joachim Ernest II
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Plön-Rethwisch

r. 1671-1700
1637-1700
John Adolphus
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Plön

r. 1671-1704
1634-1704
Augustus
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Plön-Norburg

r. 1679-1699
1635-1699
House of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Franzhagen
Christian V
King of Denmark
and Norway

r. 1670-1699
1646-1699
Christian Adolf I
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg

r. 1653-1668
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Franzhagen

r. 1676-1702
1641-1702
Frederick
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg
-Augustenburg

r. 1689-1692
1652-1692
Ernest August
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg
-Augustenburg

r. 1692-1731
1660-1731
Frederick William
1668-1714
August
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Beck

r. 1675-1689
1652-1689
Frederick Louis
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Beck

r. 1719-1728
1653-1728
John Ernest
Ferdinand

Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Plön-Rethwisch

r. 1700-1729
1684-1729
Adolphus Augustus
1680-1704
Joachim Frederick
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Plön

r. 1706-1722
1668-1722
Christian Charles
1674-1706
Frederick IV
King of Denmark
and Norway

r. 1699-1730
1671-1730
Christian Leopold
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Franzhagen

r. 1702-1707
1678-1707
Louis Charles
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Franzhagen

r. 1707
1684-1707
Christian August I
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg
-Augustenburg

r. 1731-1754
1696-1754
Frederick William I
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Beck

r. 1689-1719
1682-1719
Frederick William II
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Beck

r. 1728-1749
1687-1749
Charles Louis
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Beck

r. 1757-1774
1690-1774
Peter August
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Beck

r. 1774-1775
1697-1775
Leopold Augustus
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Plön

r. 1704-1706
1702-1706
Frederick Charles
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Plön

r. 1722-1761
1706-1761
Christian VI
King of Denmark
and Norway

r. 1730-1746
1699-1746
Christian Adolf II
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Franzhagen

r. 1707-1709
1707-1709
Frederick Christian I
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg
-Augustenburg

r. 1754-1794
1721-1794
Frederick William III
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Beck

r. 1749-1757
1723-1757
Charles Anthony
August

1727-1759
Frederick V
King of Denmark
and Norway

r. 1746-1766
1723-1766
Frederick Christian II
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg
-Augustenburg

r. 1794-1814
1765-1814
Frederick Charles
Louis

Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Beck

r. 1775-1816
1757-1816
House of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Glücksburg
Christian VII
King of Denmark
and Norway

r. 1766-1808
1749-1808
Frederick
Regent of Denmark-
Norway

1772-1784
1753-1805
Christian August II
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg
-Augustenburg

r. 1814-1869
1798-1869
Frederick William
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Beck

r. 1816-1825
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Glücksburg

r. 1825-1831
1785-1831
Frederick VI
King of Denmark
r. 1808-1839
King of Norway
r. 1808-1814
1768-1839
Christian VIII
King of Denmark
r. 1839-1848
King of Norway
r. 1814
1786-1848
Charles
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Glücksburg

r. 1831-1878
1813-1878
Frederick
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Glücksburg

r. 1878-1885
1814-1885
Christian IX
King of Denmark
r. 1863-1906
1818-1906
Frederick VII
King of Denmark
r. 1848-1863
1808-1863
Frederick Ferdinand
Duke of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-
Glücksburg

r. 1885-1931
1855-1934
Frederick VIII
King of Denmark
r. 1906-1912
1843-1912
George I
King of the Hellenes
r. 1863-1913
1845-1913
Christian X
King of Denmark
r. 1912-1947
King of Iceland
r. 1918-1944
1870-1947
Haakon VII
King of Norway
r. 1905-1957
1872-1957
Constantine I
King of the Hellenes
r. 1913-1917,
1920-1922

1868-1923
Frederick IX
King of Denmark
r. 1947-1972
1899-1972
Olav V
King of Norway
r. 1957-1991
1903-1991
George II
King of the Hellenes
r. 1922-1924,
1935-1947

1890-1947
Alexander
King of the Hellenes
r. 1917-1920
1893-1920
Paul
King of the Hellenes
r. 1947-1964
1901-1964
Margrethe II
Queen of Denmark
r. 1972-present
1940-present
Harald V
King of Norway
r. 1991-present
1937-present
Constantine II
King of the Hellenes
r. 1964-1973
1940-present

Line of succession

By agnatic primogeniture:

Gallery

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Although Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, his children and his sons' children are patrilineally descended from this branch, his male-line descendants bearing the style of "Royal Majesty" or "Royal Highness" are de jure members of the House of Windsor, by declaration of the British monarch. (see Royal Styles and Titles – 1960 Letters Patent). In July 1947, prior to his engagement to Princess Elizabeth, Philip relinquished his Greek and Danish royal titles and styles and became a naturalised British subject, adopting his maternal grandparents' surname of Mountbatten.

References

  1. ^ Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Fürstliche Häuser, Band XVII, "Oldenburg". C.A. Starke Verlag, 2004, pp. 44–50 (in German). ISBN 9783798008335.
  2. ^ Burke's Royal Families of the World, p. 60. ISBN 0-85011-023-8.
  3. ^ Wilson, Peter Hamish (2011). The Thirty Years War: Europe's Tragedy. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-06231-3.
  4. ^ Year: 1863; Quantity released: 101,000 coin; Weight: 28.893 gram; Composition: Silver 87.5%; Diameter: 39.5 mm – https://en.numista.com/catalogue/pieces23580.html
  5. ^ Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Fürstliche Häuser, Band XVI, "Haus Holstein". C.A. Starke Verlag, 2001, pp. 44-50 (in German). ISBN 3-7980-0824-8.
House of Oldenburg Preceded byHouse of Romanov Imperial house of Russia 1762–1917 VacantFebruary Revolution Preceded byHouse of Wittelsbach Royal house of Greece 1863–1973 Monarchy abolished Preceded byHouse of Palatinate-Neumarkt Royal house of Denmark 1448–present Present house(branch: Glücksburg) Preceded byHouse of Bernadotte Royal house of Norway 1905–present VacantTitle last held byHouse of Bonde Royal house of Norway 1450–1818 Succeeded byHouse of Bernadotte Royal house of Sweden 1457–1464 VacantTitle next held byHouse of Bonde Royal house of Sweden 1497–1501 Vacant Vacant Royal house of Sweden 1520–1521 VacantTitle next held byHouse of Vasa Preceded byHouse of Schaumburg Comital House of Holstein 1460–1474 County raised to duchy Ducal house of Schleswig 1474–1864 Second Schleswig War County raised to duchy Ducal House of Holstein 1474–1864 VacantTitle last held byHouse of Hanover Ducal House of Saxe-Lauenburg 1814–1864 VacantTitle next held byHouse of Hohenzollern