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Frederik IX
Frederik IX in admiral's uniform
Formal portrait, c. 1947
King of Denmark
Reign20 April 1947 –
14 January 1972
PredecessorChristian X
SuccessorMargrethe II
Born(1899-03-11)11 March 1899
Sorgenfri Palace, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
Died14 January 1972(1972-01-14) (aged 72)
Municipal Hospital,[1] Copenhagen, Denmark[2]
Burial24 January 1972
Roskilde Cathedral, Roskilde, Denmark
Spouse
(m. 1935)
Issue
HouseGlücksburg
FatherChristian X of Denmark
MotherAlexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
ReligionChurch of Denmark
SignatureFrederik IX's signature

Frederik IX (Danish: Christian Frederik Franz Michael Carl Valdemar Georg; 11 March 1899 – 14 January 1972) was King of Denmark from 1947 to 1972.[3]

Born into the House of Glücksburg, Frederik was the elder son of King Christian X and Queen Alexandrine. He became crown prince when his father succeeded as king in 1912. As a young man, he was educated at the Royal Danish Naval Academy. In 1935, he married Princess Ingrid of Sweden. They had three daughters: Margrethe, Benedikte and Anne-Marie. During Nazi Germany's occupation of Denmark, Frederik acted as regent on behalf of his father from 1942 until 1943.[4][5]

Frederik became king on his father's death in early 1947. During Frederik's reign, Danish society changed rapidly, the welfare state was expanded and, as a consequence of the booming economy of the 1960s, women entered the labour market. The modernization brought new demands on the monarchy and Frederik's role as a constitutional monarch. Frederik died in 1972, and was succeeded by his eldest daughter, Margrethe II.[6]

Birth and family

Four generations — four kings: King Christian IX, Crown Prince Frederik (VIII), Prince Christian (X) and Prince Frederik (IX) in 1903

Prince Frederik was born on 11 March 1899 at his parents' country residence, the Sorgenfri Palace, located on the shores of the small river Mølleåen in Kongens Lyngby north of Copenhagen on the island of Zealand in Denmark, during the reign of his great-grandfather King Christian IX. His father was Prince Christian of Denmark (later King Christian X), the eldest son of Crown Prince Frederik and Princess Louise of Sweden (later King Frederik VIII and Queen Louise). His mother was Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, the eldest daughter of Frederick Francis III, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna of Russia.[citation needed]

He was baptised at Sorgenfri Palace on 9 April 1899 by the Chaplain-in-Ordinary Jakob Paulli. The young prince had 21 godparents: Christian IX of Denmark (his paternal great-grandfather); Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark (his paternal grandfather); the Dowager Grand Duchess Anastasia of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (his maternal grandmother); Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia (his maternal great-grandfather); Dowager Grand Duchess Marie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (his maternal step-great-grandmother); Prince Carl of Denmark (his paternal uncle); Princess Thyra of Denmark (his paternal aunt); Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (his maternal uncle); George I of Greece (his paternal great-uncle); Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (his paternal great-uncle by marriage); Ernest August, Duke of Cumberland (his paternal great-uncle by marriage); Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich of Russia (his maternal great-uncle); his first cousins once removed, Nicholas II of Russia, George, Duke of York, Prince George of Greece and Denmark and Georg Wilhelm, Hereditary Prince of Hanover; Crown Prince Constantine and Crown Princess Sophia of Greece (his first cousin once removed, and his wife); his paternal great-granduncles, Prince Johann of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and King Oscar II of Sweden and Norway; and Crown Prince Gustaf and Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden (his first cousin twice removed and his wife).[7]

Frederik's only sibling, Knud, was born one year after Frederik. The family lived in apartments in Christian VIII's Palace at Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen, in Sorgenfri Palace near the capital and in a summer residence, Marselisborg Palace in Aarhus in Jutland, which Frederik's parents had received as a wedding present from the people of Denmark in 1898. In 1914, the King also built the villa Klitgården in Skagen in Northern Jutland.[citation needed]

Early life

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Crown Prince Frederik, c. 1914

Christian IX died on 29 January 1906, and Frederik's grandfather Crown Prince Frederik succeeded him as King Frederik VIII. Frederik's father became crown prince, and Frederik moved up to second in line to the throne.[citation needed]

Just six years later, on 14 May 1912, King Frederik VIII died, and Frederik's father ascended the throne as King Christian X. Frederik himself became crown prince. On 1 December 1918, as the Danish–Icelandic Act of Union recognized Iceland as a fully sovereign state in personal union with Denmark through a common monarch, Frederik also became crown prince of Iceland (where his name was officially spelled Friðrik). However, as a national referendum established the Republic of Iceland on 17 June 1944, he never succeeded as king of Iceland.[citation needed]

Frederik was educated at the Royal Danish Naval Academy (breaking with Danish royal tradition by choosing a naval instead of an army career) and the University of Copenhagen. Before he became king, he had acquired the rank of rear admiral and he had had several senior commands on active service. He acquired several tattoos during his naval service.[citation needed]

In addition, with his great love of music, the king was an able piano player and conductor. ([8])

Marriage and issue

The newly engaged Princess Ingrid of Sweden and Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark, 1935

Further information: Wedding of Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark, and Princess Ingrid of Sweden

In the 1910s, Alexandrine considered the two youngest daughters of her cousin Tsar Nicholas II, Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia and Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia, as possible wives for Frederik, until the execution of the Romanov family in 1918. In 1922, Frederik was engaged to Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark, his second cousin. They never wed.[9][10]

Instead, on 15 March 1935, a few days after his 36th birthday, he was engaged to Princess Ingrid of Sweden (1910–2000), a daughter of Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf (later King Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden) and his first wife, Princess Margaret of Connaught. They were related in several ways. In descent from Oscar I of Sweden and Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden, they were double third cousins. In descent from Paul I of Russia, Frederik was a fourth cousin of Ingrid's mother. They married in Stockholm Cathedral on 24 May 1935. Their wedding was one of the greatest media events of the day in Sweden in 1935, and among the wedding guests were the King and Queen of Denmark, the King and Queen of Belgium and the Crown Prince and Crown Princess of Norway.[citation needed]

Upon their return to Denmark, the couple were given Frederik VIII's Palace at Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen as their primary residence and Gråsten Palace in Northern Schleswig as a summer residence.[citation needed]

Their daughters are:[citation needed]

Reign

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From 1942 until 1943, Frederik acted as regent on behalf of his father who was temporarily incapacitated after a fall from his horse in October 1942.

On 20 April 1947, Christian X died, and Frederik succeeded to the throne. He was proclaimed king from the balcony of Christiansborg Palace by Prime Minister Knud Kristensen.

Frederik IX's reign saw great change. During these years, Danish society shook off the restrictions of an agricultural society, developed a welfare state, and, as a consequence of the booming economy of the 1960s, women entered the labour market. In other words, Denmark became a modern country, which meant new demands on the monarchy.

In 1948, one year into the king's reign, the Faroe Islands obtained home rule and became a self-governing country within the Danish Realm.

Changes to the Act of Succession

King Frederik IX and Queen Ingrid, c. 1950s

As King Frederik IX and Queen Ingrid had no sons, it was expected that the king's younger brother, Prince Knud, would inherit the throne, in accordance with Denmark's succession law (Royal Ordinance of 1853).

However, in 1953, an Act of Succession was passed, changing the method of succession to male-preference primogeniture (which allows daughters to succeed if there are no sons). This meant that his daughters could succeed him if he had no sons. As a consequence, his eldest daughter, Margrethe, became heir presumptive. By order of 27 March 1953 the succession to the throne was limited to the issue of King Christian X.

Death and funeral

Mausoleum of Frederik IX, next to Roskilde Cathedral

Shortly after the King had delivered his New Year's Address to the Nation at the 1971/72 turn of the year, he became ill with flu-like symptoms. After a few days rest, he suffered cardiac arrest and was rushed to the Copenhagen Municipal Hospital on 3 January. After a brief period of apparent improvement, the King's condition took a negative turn on 11 January, and he died 3 days later, on 14 January, at 7:50 pm surrounded by his immediate family and closest friends, having been unconscious since the previous day.[11][12]

Following his death, the King's coffin was transported to his home at Amalienborg Palace, where it stood until 18 January, when it was moved to the chapel at Christiansborg Palace.[13] There the King was placed on castrum doloris, a ceremony largely unchanged since introduced at the burial of Frederik III in 1670, and the last remaining royal ceremony where the Danish Crown Regalia is used. The King then lay in state for six days until his funeral, during which period the public could pay their last respects.[14]

The funeral took place on 24 January 1972, and was split in two parts. First a brief ceremony was held in the chapel where the king had lain in state, where the Bishop of Copenhagen, Willy Westergaard Madsen, said a brief prayer, followed by a hymn, before the coffin was carried out of the chapel by members of the Royal Life Guards and placed on a gun carriage for the journey through Copenhagen to Copenhagen Central Station. The gun carriage was pulled by 48 seamen and was escorted by honor guards from the Danish Army, Air Force, and Navy, as well as honor guards from France, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States.[15]

At the Copenhagen Central Station, the coffin was placed in a special railway carriage for the rail journey to Roskilde. The funeral train was pulled by two DSB class E steam engines. Once in Roskilde, the coffin was pulled through the city by a group of seamen to Roskilde Cathedral where the final ceremony took place. Previous rulers had been interred in the cathedral, but it was the King's wish to be buried outside.[16]

Succession

He was succeeded by his eldest daughter, Queen Margrethe II.[17] She abdicated on 14 January 2024, the 52nd anniversary of his death and her accession.

Queen Ingrid survived her husband by 28 years. She died on 7 November 2000. Her remains were interred alongside him at the burial site outside Roskilde Cathedral.

Legacy

On 20 April 1982, a statue of King Frederik IX dressed in the uniform of an admiral was unveiled by the Copenhagen harbour on the 35th anniversary of his accession to the throne in 1947 and in the tenth year after his death.[18]

The Crown Prince Frederik Range in Greenland was named after him when it was first mapped by Sir Martin Lindsay in 1934 during the British Trans-Greenland Expedition.[19]


Folktale

In the southern city, Sønderborg, King Frederik IX has a dish named after the king himself. The dish is called "Kong Fiddes livret" (English: King Frederik's Favorite). The name Fidde is a common nickname for people named Frederik in the southern parts of Denmark. The dish is supposedly one that was regularly served to King Frederik IX's on his birthday at Gråsten Palace.[20] The dish consist of strips of flank steak, stirred in a creamy paprika and curry sauce, served with French fries, boiled potatoes, beetroot, boiled eggs and freshly sliced onions. [21]

Titles, styles and honours

Royal monogram

Titles and styles

Honours

Danish honours[23]
Foreign honours[24]
Honorary military appointments

Ancestors

References

Citations

  1. ^ "Margarita de Dinamarca cuenta el drama de ver enfermar y morir a su padre en 14 días". Archived from the original on 2 November 2021. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  2. ^ "Frederik of Denmark Dies; Margrethe to Be Queen". The New York Times. New York, N. Y. 15 January 1972. p. 1.
  3. ^ "Frederik 9". kongernessamling.dk. Archived from the original on 7 August 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  4. ^ "Queen Anne-Marie". The Greek Royal Family. Archived from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  5. ^ "H.K.H. Prinsesse Benedikte". kongehuset.dk. 28 November 2015. Archived from the original on 30 July 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  6. ^ "The Royal Lineage". kongehuset.dk. 7 April 2016. Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  7. ^ "Prinser og Prinsesser kommer også i kirkebogen". The Danish State Archives. Retrieved 10 August 2011.[permanent dead link]
  8. ^ "Frederik IX". 15 March 2016. Archived from the original on 3 June 2023. Retrieved 3 June 2023.
  9. ^ "DANISH HEIR ENGAGED.; Crown Prince Will Wed Princess Olga of Greece". The New York Times. Associated Press. 6 March 1922. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  10. ^ "CONSTANTINE'S NIECE NOT TO WED PRINCE; Engagement of Princess Olga and Heir to the Danish Throne Is Annuled (sic)". The New York Times. Associated Press. 28 September 1922. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  11. ^ Jon Bloch Skipper. Sømandskongen. Pp 300—309. Aschehoug (2005). ISBN 978-87-1111-789-7.
  12. ^ "Frederik of Denmark Dies. Margrethe to Be Queen". New York Times. 15 January 1972. Archived from the original on 28 March 2023. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  13. ^ "Royalty and Danish Commoners Honor King Frederik at Burial". New York Times. Associated Press. 25 January 1972. Archived from the original on 7 March 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  14. ^ Jon Bloch Skipper. Sømandskongen. Pp 315. Aschehoug (2005). ISBN 978-87-1111-789-7.
  15. ^ "Hans Majestæt, Kong Frederik den IX's bisættelse 1:2". DR. 24 January 1972. Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  16. ^ Roger Lundgren. Ingrid. Pp 147. People'sPress (2010). ISBN 978-87-7055-826-6.
  17. ^ "Margrethe Proclaimed Queen of Denmark in Brief Ceremony at Palace". New York Times. Reuters. 16 January 1972. Archived from the original on 28 March 2023. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  18. ^ "King Frederick IX (1899-1972)". The City of Copenhagen. Archived from the original on 17 September 2007. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  19. ^ "French Honour For British Explorer", The Times, 12 April 1935.
  20. ^ Rørby Madsen, Holger. "Kong Fiddes livret - opskrift på en kongelig gryderet". Madens Verden. Moderne Medier ApS. Retrieved 22 January 2024.
  21. ^ Restaurant Colosseum. "Menu". Restaurant Colosseum. Restaurant Colosseum. Retrieved 22 January 2024.
  22. ^ e.g. Franklin D. Roosevelt (1 May 1939). Gerhard Peters; John T. Woolley (eds.). "Address at the Dedication of the New Post Office in Rhinebeck, New York". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
  23. ^ Bille-Hansen, A. C.; Holck, Harald, eds. (1943) [1st pub.:1801]. Statshaandbog for Kongeriget Danmark for Aaret 1943 [State Manual of the Kingdom of Denmark for the Year 1943] (PDF). Kongelig Dansk Hof- og Statskalender (in Danish). Copenhagen: J.H. Schultz A.-S. Universitetsbogtrykkeri. pp. 17–18. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019 – via da:DIS Danmark.
  24. ^ Bille-Hansen, A. C.; Holck, Harald, eds. (1963) [1st pub.:1801]. Statshaandbog for Kongeriget Danmark for Aaret 1963 [State Manual of the Kingdom of Denmark for the Year 1963] (PDF). Kongelig Dansk Hof- og Statskalender (in Danish). Copenhagen: J.H. Schultz A.-S. Universitetsbogtrykkeri. p. 17. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 September 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019 – via da:DIS Danmark.
  25. ^ "bryllupsbillede". kongehuset.dk. Archived from the original on 3 June 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  26. ^ "Reply to a parliamentary question" (PDF). Parlament.gv.at (in German). p. 134. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 May 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  27. ^ "Suomen Valkoisen Ruusun Suurristi Ketjuineen". ritarikunnat.fi (in Finnish). Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  28. ^ Italy. Ministero dell'interno (1920). Calendario generale del regno d'Italia. p. 58. Archived from the original on 22 September 2023. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  29. ^ "Den kongelige norske Sanct Olavs Orden", Norges Statskalender (in Norwegian), 1922, pp. 1173–1174, archived from the original on 17 September 2021, retrieved 17 September 2021 – via hathitrust.org
  30. ^ Sveriges Statskalender (in Swedish), vol. 2, 1940, p. 7, archived from the original on 7 January 2018, retrieved 6 January 2018 – via runeberg.org
  31. ^ "Image: 505953022_2_Big.jpg, (449 × 600 px)". 3.bp.blogspot.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  32. ^ พระราชทานเครื่องราชอิสริยาภรณ์ (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai). 3 March 1917. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  33. ^ "No. 38339". The London Gazette. 29 June 1948. p. 3787.
  34. ^ "The Buffs (East Kent Regiment)" (PDF). Kent Fallen. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  35. ^ "The Queen's Regiment". Regiments.org. Archived from the original on 10 February 2006. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  36. ^ "Connection with The Princess of Wales Royal Regiment". The Danish Royal House. 22 April 2023. Archived from the original on 1 July 2023. Retrieved 30 June 2023.

Bibliography

  • Bramsen, Bo (1992). Huset Glücksborg. Europas svigerfader og hans efterslægt [The House of Glücksburg. The Father-in-law of Europe and his descendants] (in Danish) (2nd ed.). Copenhagen: Forlaget Forum. ISBN 87-553-1843-6.
  • Fabricius Møller, Jes (2013). Dynastiet Glücksborg, en Danmarkshistorie [The Glücksborg Dynasty, a history of Denmark] (in Danish). Copenhagen: Gad. ISBN 978-87-12-04841-1.
  • Lerche, Anna; Mandal, Marcus (2003). A royal family: the story of Christian IX and his European descendants. Copenhagen: Aschehoug. ISBN 978-87-15-10957-7.
  • Scocozza, Benito (1997). "Frederik 9.". Politikens bog om danske monarker [Politiken's book about Danish monarchs] (in Danish). Copenhagen: Politikens Forlag. pp. 200–203. ISBN 87-567-5772-7.
Frederik IXHouse of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-GlücksburgCadet branch of the House of OldenburgBorn: 11 March 1899 Died: 14 January 1972 Regnal titles Preceded byChristian X King of Denmark 1947–1972 Succeeded byMargrethe II