The list below includes all entities falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe, geographical or political. Fifty generally recognised sovereign states, Kosovo with limited, but substantial, international recognition, and four largely unrecognised de facto states with limited to no recognition have territory in Europe and/or membership in international European organisations. There are eight entities that are not integral parts of a European state or have special political arrangements.

Boundary of Europe


Further information: Boundaries between the continents of Earth § Asia and Europe

Under the commonly used geographic definition, the boundary between the continents of Asia and Europe stretches along the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, and the Caspian Sea in the east, the Greater Caucasus range,[1] and the Black Sea with its outlets, the Bosporus and the Dardanelles, in the south.[2][3] Based on such a commonly used division of the continents, the transcontinental countries of Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkey have territory in both Asia and Europe.

The island of Cyprus in Western Asia is close to Anatolia (or Asia Minor) but is often considered to be a part of Europe and is a member of the European Union. Like Cyprus, Armenia is also entirely in Western Asia but is a member of several European organisations.[4]

Although the Mediterranean Sea provides a clearer divide between Africa and Europe, some traditionally European islands such as Malta, Pantelleria, the Pelagie Islands, and Sicily are actually located on the African Plate.[5] The island of Iceland is part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, straddling the Eurasian Plate and the North American Plate.[6]

Some territories which are geographically outside of Europe have strong connections with European states. Greenland, for example, has socio-political connections with Europe and is part of the Kingdom of Denmark but is located closer to the continent of North America and is usually grouped with that continent.[7]

Other territories are part of European countries but are geographically located on other continents, such as the French overseas regions,[8] the Spanish autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla on the coast of Africa,[9] and the Dutch BES islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba in the Caribbean.[10]


Further information: Council of Europe

The political boundaries of Europe vary with the definition of Europe that is used by different political organizations. For instance, the Council of Europe and the European Court of Human Rights include 46 countries in their definition of Europe. The European Higher Education Area includes 48 countries, and the European Cultural Convention and the European Olympic Committees include 50 countries in their definitions.

Sovereign states

Further information: Sovereign state

Political map of Europe and the surrounding region

A sovereign state is a political association with effective sovereignty over a population for whom it makes decisions in the national interest.[11] According to the Montevideo Convention, a state must have a permanent population, a defined territory, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states.[12]

UN member states and UNGA non-member observer state

There are 50 sovereign states with territory located within the common definition of Europe and/or membership in international European organisations that are almost universally recognized internationally. All are either member states of the United Nations or non-member observer states at the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA),[13] and all except Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Vatican City are members of the Council of Europe.[14] 44 countries have their capital city located within Europe, and (as of 2022) 27 of those countries are member states of the European Union, which means that they are highly integrated with one another and share their sovereignty through EU institutions.

Each entry in the list below has a map of its location in Europe. Territory in Europe is shown in dark-green; territory not geographically in Europe is shown in a lighter shade of green. The lightest shade of green represents other states in the EU and is shown on the maps of all territories within the EU.

* = Member of the EU[15]
Flag Map English short, formal names, and ISO
Domestic short and formal name(s)
Population 2021
Flag of Albania
Map showing Albania in Europe

Republic of Albania

Albanian: Shqipëri / Shqipëria – Republika e Shqipërisë Tirana

Albanian: Tiranë
2,854,710 28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi) Albanian lek
Flag of Andorra
Map showing Andorra in Europe

Principality of Andorra

Catalan: Andorra – Principat d'Andorra Andorra la Vella

Catalan: Andorra la Vella
79,034 468 km2 (181 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Armenia
Map showing Armenia in Europe

Republic of Armenia

Armenian: Հայաստան – Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն (Hayastan – Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun) Yerevan

Armenian: Երևան (Yerevan)
2,790,974 29,743 km2 (11,484 sq mi) Armenian dram
Flag of Austria
Map showing Austria in Europe

Republic of Austria

German: Österreich – Republik Österreich Vienna

German: Wien
8,922,082 83,871 km2 (32,383 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Azerbaijan
Map showing Azerbaijan in Europe

Republic of Azerbaijan

Azerbaijani: Azǝrbaycan – Azǝrbaycan Respublikası Baku

Azerbaijani: Bakı
10,312,992 86,600 km2 (33,436 sq mi) Azerbaijani manat
Flag of Belarus
Map showing Belarus in Europe

Republic of Belarus

Belarusian: Беларусь – Рэспубліка Беларусь (Bielaruś – Respublika Bielaruś)

Russian: Беларусь – Республика Беларусь (Belarus' — Respublika Belarus')

Belarusian: Мінск (Minsk)

Russian: Минск (Minsk)
9,578,167 207,600 km2 (80,155 sq mi) Belarusian rouble
Flag of Belgium
Map showing Belgium in Europe

Kingdom of Belgium

Dutch: België – Koninkrijk België

French: Belgique – Royaume de Belgique

German: Belgien – Königreich Belgien

Dutch: Brussel

French: Bruxelles

German: Brüssel
11,611,419 30,528 km2 (11,787 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Map showing Bosnia and Herzegovina in Europe
Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnian: Bosna i Hercegovina

Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina

Serbian: Босна и Херцеговина

Bosnian: Sarajevo

Croatian: Sarajevo

Serbian: Сарајево
3,270,943 51,197 km2 (19,767 sq mi) Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark
Flag of Bulgaria
Map showing Bulgaria in Europe

Republic of Bulgaria

Bulgarian: България – Република България (Bulgaria – Republika Bulgaria) Sofia

Bulgarian: София (Sofia)
6,885,868 110,879 km2 (42,811 sq mi) Bulgarian lev
Flag of Croatia
Map showing Croatia in Europe

Republic of Croatia

Croatian: Hrvatska – Republika Hrvatska Zagreb

Croatian: Zagreb
4,060,135 56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Cyprus
Map showing Cyprus in Europe

Republic of Cyprus

Greek: Κύπρος – Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία (Kýpros – Kypriakí Dimokratía)

Turkish: Kıbrıs – Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti

Greek: Λευκωσία (Lefkosía)

Turkish: Lefkoşa
1,244,188 9,251 km2 (3,572 sq mi) Euro
Flag of the Czech Republic
Map showing the Czech Republic in Europe

Czech Republic

Czech: Česko – Česká republika Prague

Czech: Praha
10,510,751 78,867 km2 (30,451 sq mi) Czech koruna
Flag of Denmark
Map showing Denmark in Europe

Kingdom of Denmark

Danish: Danmark – Kongeriget Danmark Copenhagen

Danish: København
5,854,240 42,933 km2 (16,577 sq mi) Danish krone
Flag of Estonia
Map showing Estonia in Europe

Republic of Estonia

Estonian: Eesti – Eesti Vabariik Tallinn

Estonian: Tallinn
1,328,701 45,228 km2 (17,463 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Finland
Map showing Finland in Europe

Republic of Finland

Finnish: Suomi – Suomen tasavalta

Swedish: Finland – Republiken Finland

Finnish: Helsinki

Swedish: Helsingfors
5,535,992 338,145 km2 (130,559 sq mi) Euro
Flag of France
Map showing France in Europe

French Republic

French: France – République française Paris

French: Paris
64,531,444 643,427 km2 (248,429 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Georgia
Map showing Georgia in Europe

Georgian: საქართველო (Sakartvelo) Tbilisi / T'bilisi

Georgian: თბილისი (T'bilisi)
3,757,980 69,700 km2 (26,911 sq mi) Georgian lari
Flag of Germany
Map showing Germany in Europe

Federal Republic of Germany

German: Deutschland – Bundesrepublik Deutschland Berlin

German: Berlin
83,408,554 357,022 km2 (137,847 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Greece
Map showing Greece in Europe

Hellenic Republic

Greek: Ελλάδα – Ελληνική Δημοκρατία (Elláda – Ellinikí Dimokratía) Athens

Greek: Αθήνα (Athína)
10,445,365 131,957 km2 (50,949 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Hungary
Map showing Hungary in Europe

Hungarian: Magyarország Budapest

Hungarian: Budapest
9,709,786 93,028 km2 (35,918 sq mi) Hungarian forint
Flag of Iceland
Map showing Iceland in Europe

Icelandic: Ísland – Lýðveldið Ísland Reykjavík

Icelandic: Reykjavík
370,335 103,000 km2 (39,769 sq mi) Icelandic króna
Flag of Ireland
Map showing Ireland in Europe

English: Ireland

Irish: Éire

Irish: Baile Átha Cliath
4,986,526 70,273 km2 (27,133 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Italy
Map showing Italy in Europe

Italian Republic

Italian: Italia – Repubblica Italiana Rome

Italian: Roma
59,240,329 301,340 km2 (116,348 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Kazakhstan
Map showing Kazakhstan in Europe

Republic of Kazakhstan

Kazakh: Қазақстан – Қазақстан Республикасы (Qazaqstan – Qazaqstan Respūblīkasy)

Russian: Казахстан – Республика Казахстан (Kazakhstan – Respublika Kazakhstan)

Kazakh: Астана (Astana)

Russian: Астана (Astana)
19,196,465 2,724,900 km2 (1,052,090 sq mi) Kazakhstani tenge
Flag of Latvia
Map showing Latvia in Europe

Republic of Latvia

Latvian: Latvija – Latvijas Republika Riga

Latvian: Rīga
1,873,919 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Liechtenstein
Map showing Liechtenstein in Europe

Principality of Liechtenstein

German: Liechtenstein – Fürstentum Liechtenstein Vaduz

German: Vaduz
39,039 160 km2 (62 sq mi) Liechtenstein franc
Flag of Lithuania
Map showing Lithuania in Europe

Republic of Lithuania

Lithuanian: Lietuva – Lietuvos Respublika Vilnius

Lithuanian: Vilnius
2,786,651 65,300 km2 (25,212 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Luxembourg
Map showing Luxembourg in Europe

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

German: Luxemburg – Großherzogtum Luxemburg

French: Luxembourg – Grand-Duché de Luxembourg

Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg - Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg

German: Luxemburg

French: Luxembourg

Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg
639,321 2,586 km2 (998 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Malta
Map showing Malta in Europe

Republic of Malta

English: Malta – Republic of Malta

Maltese: Malta – Repubblika ta' Malta

Maltese: Valletta
526,748 316 km2 (122 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Moldova
Map showing Moldova in Europe

Republic of Moldova

Romanian: Moldova – Republica Moldova Chișinău

Romanian: Chișinău
3,061,506 33,851 km2 (13,070 sq mi) Moldovan leu
Flag of Monaco
Map showing Monaco in Europe

Principality of Monaco

French: Monaco – Principauté de Monaco Monaco

French: Monaco
36,686 2 km2 (0.8 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Montenegro
Map showing Montenegro in Europe

Montenegrin: Црна Гора (Crna Gora) Podgorica

Montenegrin: Подгорица (Podgorica)
627,859 13,812 km2 (5,333 sq mi) Euro
Flag of the Netherlands
Map showing the Netherlands in Europe

Kingdom of the Netherlands

Dutch: Nederland – Koninkrijk der Nederlanden Amsterdam (capital)

Dutch: Amsterdam

The Hague (seat of government)

Dutch: 's-Gravenhage / Den Haag
17,501,696 41,543 km2 (16,040 sq mi) Euro
Flag of North Macedonia
Map showing North Macedonia in Europe
North Macedonia[b]

Republic of North Macedonia

Macedonian: Северна Македонија – Република Северна Македонија (Severna Makedonija – Republika Severna Makedonija) Skopje

Macedonian: Скопје (Skopje)
2,103,330 25,713 km2 (9,928 sq mi) Macedonian denar
Flag of Norway
Map showing Norway in Europe

Kingdom of Norway

Bokmål: Norge – Kongeriket Norge

Nynorsk: Noreg – Kongeriket Noreg

Norwegian: Oslo
5,403,021 323,802 km2 (125,021 sq mi) Norwegian krone
Flag of Poland
Map showing Poland in Europe

Republic of Poland

Polish: Polska – Rzeczpospolita Polska Warsaw

Polish: Warszawa
38,307,726 312,685 km2 (120,728 sq mi) Polish złoty
Flag of Portugal
Map showing Portugal in Europe

Portuguese Republic

Portuguese: Portugal – República Portuguesa Lisbon

Portuguese: Lisboa
10,290,103 92,090 km2 (35,556 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Romania
Map showing Romania in Europe

Romanian: România Bucharest

Romanian: București
19,328,560 238,391 km2 (92,043 sq mi) Romanian leu
Flag of Russia
Map showing Russia in Europe

Russian Federation

Russian: Россия – Российская Федерация (Rossija – Rossijskaja Federacija) Moscow

Russian: Москва (Moskva)
145,102,755 17,098,242 km2 (6,601,668 sq mi) Russian rouble
Flag of San Marino
Map showing San Marino in Europe
San Marino

Republic of San Marino

Italian: San Marino – Repubblica di San Marino San Marino

Italian: San Marino
33,745 61 km2 (24 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Serbia
Map showing Serbia in Europe

Republic of Serbia

Serbian: Србија – Република Србија (Srbija – Republika Srbija) Belgrade

Serbian: Београд (Beograd)
7,296,769 88,361 km2 (34,116 sq mi) Serbian dinar
Flag of Slovakia
Map showing Slovakia in Europe

Slovak Republic

Slovak: Slovensko – Slovenská republika Bratislava

Slovak: Bratislava
5,447,622 49,035 km2 (18,933 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Slovenia
Map showing Slovenia in Europe

Republic of Slovenia

Slovene: Slovenija – Republika Slovenija Ljubljana

Slovene: Ljubljana
2,119,410 20,273 km2 (7,827 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Spain
Map showing Spain in Europe

Kingdom of Spain

Spanish: España – Reino de España Madrid

Spanish: Madrid
47,486,935 505,370 km2 (195,124 sq mi) Euro
Flag of Sweden
Map showing Sweden in Europe

Kingdom of Sweden

Swedish: Sverige – Konungariket Sverige Stockholm

Swedish: Stockholm
10,467,097 450,295 km2 (173,860 sq mi) Swedish krona
Flag of Switzerland
Map showing Switzerland in Europe

Swiss Confederation

German: Schweiz – Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft

French: Suisse – Confédération suisse

Italian: Svizzera – Confederazione Svizzera

Romansh: Svizra – Confederaziun svizra
Bern / Berne

German: Bern

French: Berne

Italian and Romansh: Berna
8,691,406 41,277 km2 (15,937 sq mi) Swiss franc
Flag of Turkey
Map showing Turkey in Europe

Republic of Turkey

Turkish: Türkiye – Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Ankara

Turkish: Ankara
84,775,404 783,562 km2 (302,535 sq mi) Turkish lira
Flag of Ukraine
Map showing Ukraine in Europe

Ukrainian: Украïна (Ukraïna)

Ukrainian: Київ (Kyiv)
43,531,422 603,550 km2 (233,032 sq mi) Ukrainian hryvnia
Flag of the United Kingdom
Map showing the UK in Europe
United Kingdom[k]

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

English: United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland London 67,281,039 243,610 km2 (94,058 sq mi) Sterling
Flag of the Vatican City
Map showing Vatican City in Europe
Vatican City

Vatican City State

Italian: Città del Vaticano – Stato della Città del Vaticano

Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae[26]
Vatican City

Italian: Città del Vaticano
511 0.44 km2 (0.17 sq mi) Euro

De facto states

The following five entities in Europe have partial diplomatic recognition by one or more UN member states (and therefore are defined as states by the constitutive theory of statehood) or have no diplomatic recognition by any UN member state but are defined as states by the declarative theory of statehood. None are members of the UN, Council of Europe or EU.

Flag Map English common and formal names Status Domestic common and formal names Capital Population[a] Area[a]
Flag of Abkhazia
Map showing Abkhazia in Europe

Republic of Abkhazia
Claimed as an autonomous republic of Georgia. Recognised by five UN member states.[27] Abkhaz: Аҧсны - Аԥсны Аҳәынҭқарра (Apsny - Apsny Ahwyntqarra)

Russian: Абхазия - Республика Абхазия (Abhaziya - Respublika Abkhaziya)

Abkhaz: Аҟəа (Akwa)

Russian: Суху́м(и) (Sukhum(i))
250,000[28] 8,660 km2 (3,344 sq mi)[29]
Flag of Kosovo
Map showing Kosovo in Serbia

Republic of Kosovo[16]
Claimed by Serbia. Has been recognized as sovereign by 102 UN member states.[30] Albanian: Kosova / Kosovë – Republika e Kosovës

Serbian: Косово – Република Косово (Kosovo – Republika Kosovo)

Albanian: Prishtina, Prishtinë

Serbian: Приштина (Priština)
1,836,529[31] 10,887 km2 (4,203 sq mi)[24]
Flag of Northern Cyprus
Map showing Northern Cyprus in Europe
Northern Cyprus[d]

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Claimed as part of the Republic of Cyprus. Recognised by Turkey.[32] Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs – Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti North Nicosia

Turkish: Lefkoşa
294,906[33] 3,355 km2 (1,295 sq mi)[24]
Flag of South Ossetia
Map showing South Ossetia in Europe
South Ossetia[c]

Republic of South Ossetia
Claimed as part of Georgia. Recognised by five UN member states.[27] Ossetian: Хуссар Ирыстон – Республикӕ Хуссар Ирыстон (Khussar Iryston – Respublikæ Khussar Iryston)

Russian: Южная Осетия – Республика Южная Осетия (Yuzhnaya Osetiya – Respublika Yuzhnaya Osetiya)

Ossetian: Цхинвал or Чъреба (Chreba)

Russian: Цхинва́л(и) (Tskhinvál(i))
56,000[34] 3,900 km2 (1,506 sq mi)[35]
Flag of Transnistria
Map showing Transnistria in Moldova
Transnistria / Trans-Dniester

Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
Claimed as a territorial unit of Moldova. De facto independent state,[36] recognised by 3 non-UN states. Romanian: Transnistria – Republica Moldovenească Nistreană

Russian: Приднестровье – Приднестровская Молдавская Республика (Pridnestrov'ye – Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika)

Ukrainian: Придністров'я – Придністровська Молдавська Республіка (Prydnistrovia – Pridnistrovska Moldavska Respublika)

Romanian: Tiraspol

Russian: Тираcполь (Tiraspol')

Ukrainian: Тирасполь (Tyraspol)
347,251[37] 3,500 km2 (1,351 sq mi)[38]

Non-sovereign territories

Dependent territories

The following six European entities are dependent territories.[39]

* = Part of the EU, although there may be special arrangements
Flag Map English common and formal names[16][19] Legal status Domestic common and formal names Capital[20] Population[31] Area[24]
Flag of the United Kingdom, as used in Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Map showing Akrotiri and Dhekelia in Europe
Akrotiri and Dhekelia[d]

Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia
British Overseas Territory English: Akrotiri and Dhekelia – Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Episkopi Cantonment 15,700 254 km2 (98 sq mi)
Flag of the Faroe Islands
Map showing the Faroe Islands in Europe
Faroe Islands / Faeroe Islands Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark Faroese: Føroyar

Danish: Færøerne

Faroese: Tórshavn

Danish: Thorshavn
54,000 1,393 km2 (538 sq mi)
Flag of Gibraltar
Map showing Gibraltar in Europe
Gibraltar[40] British Overseas Territory English: Gibraltar Gibraltar 29,185 6.5 km2 (2.5 sq mi)
Flag of Guernsey
Map showing Guernsey in relation to the United Kingdom

Bailiwick of Guernsey
Crown Dependency in right of Guernsey[41][42][43] English: Guernsey – Bailiwick of Guernsey

French: Guernesey – Bailliage de Guernesey

Guernésiais: Guernési – Bailliage de Guernési
Saint Peter Port

French: Saint Pierre Port

Guernésiais: Saint Pierre Port
65,849 78 km2 (30 sq mi)
Flag of the Isle of Man
Map showing the Isle of Man in Europe
Isle of Man[k] Crown Dependency in right of Man[43][44][45] English: Isle of Man

Manx: Mannin – Ellan Vannin

Manx: Doolish
86,866 572 km2 (221 sq mi)
Flag of Jersey
Map showing Jersey in Europe

Bailiwick of Jersey
Crown Dependency in right of Jersey[41][42][43] English: Jersey – Bailiwick of Jersey

French: Jersey – Bailliage de Jersey

Jèrriais: Jèrri – Bailliage de Jèrri
Saint Helier

French: Saint-Hélier

Jèrriais: Saint Hélyi
96,513 118 km2 (46 sq mi)

Areas of special sovereignty

The following places are considered integral parts of their sovereign state, but have a political arrangement that was decided through an international agreement.

* = A part of the EU, although there may be some special arrangements.
Flag Map English common and formal names Legal status Domestic common and formal names Capital Population Area
Flag of Åland
Map showing Åland in Europe

Åland Islands[19]
Self-governing area of Finland, significant autonomy as the result of the Åland crisis[47] Swedish: Åland – Landskapet Åland Mariehamn[19]

Swedish: Mariehamn
27,500[48] 6,787 km2 (2,620 sq mi)[48]
Flag of the United Kingdom, as Northern Ireland hasn't had an official flag, since 1972
Map showing Northern Ireland in the United Kingdom and Europe
Northern Ireland Part of the United Kingdom, devolved government determined by the Good Friday Agreement[49] English: Northern Ireland

Irish: Tuaisceart Éireann

Scots: Norlin Airlann
Belfast[50] 1,810,863[51] 14,130 km2 (5,456 sq mi)[50]
Flag of Norway, as used in Svalbard
Map showing Svalbard in Europe
Svalbard[16] Special territory of Norway, determined by the Svalbard Treaty[52] Norwegian: Svalbard Longyearbyen[19][20]

Norwegian: Longyearbyen
2,019[31] 62,045 km2 (23,956 sq mi)[24]

See also


  1. ^ a b c Area and population numbers include integral areas located outside of Europe. The area and population of states with separatist regions includes that of the separatist regions.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g EU candidate country.
  3. ^ a b c d e Part of the South Caucasus, at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. Physiographically, Armenia falls entirely in Western Asia, while Georgia and Azerbaijan are mostly in Asia with small portions north of the Caucasus Mountains divide in Europe.
  4. ^ a b c The island of Cyprus is located on the Cyprian arc on the edge of the Anatolian Plate and is physiographically associated with Asia, but it is part of European organisations such as the EU.
  5. ^ A simpler official short name has been encouraged by the Czech government, "Czechia". By 2017, this variant remains uncommon. Nevertheless, this term has been adopted by several companies and organisations, including Google Maps, instead of the term "Czech Republic". See Name of the Czech Republic.
  6. ^ a b Denmark and the Netherlands are constituent countries of the Kingdom of Denmark and the Kingdom of the Netherlands respectively. Both are members of the EU; however, the other constituent countries of their kingdoms are not. In international organisations, the terms Denmark and the Netherlands are often used as short names for their respective kingdoms as a whole.
  7. ^ The terms Republic of Ireland and Poblacht na hÉireann are official descriptions but are not official names.
  8. ^ a b Kazakhstan and Turkey both have territory in both Europe (dark green) and Asia (light green).
  9. ^ The Netherlands is also known as "Holland", but this name properly refers only to a region of the country. See Netherlands (terminology).
  10. ^ Russia is a transcontinental country located in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia, with the vast majority of its population (78%) living within its European part.
  11. ^ a b c d The United Kingdom consists of the countries of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The UK is responsible for the foreign relations and ultimate good governance of the Crown Dependencies of Guernsey, the Isle of Man and Jersey, which are otherwise separate. England, Scotland and Wales make up the island of Great Britain (or simply Britain), which is sometimes used synonymously with the United Kingdom.


  1. ^ Lewis, Martin W.; Wigen, Kären (11 August 1997). The Myth of Continents. University of California Press. p. 28. ISBN 9780520207431.
  2. ^ Charles T. Evans (1 July 2009). "Black Sea". Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  3. ^ Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopaedia 2007. Europe. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009. Retrieved 27 December 2007.((cite encyclopedia)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ "Council of Europe in Brief". Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  5. ^ "Geological Development of the Sicilian-Tunisian Platform held in Italy (University of Urbino) on November 4, 5, 6, 1992". 6 November 1992. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  6. ^ "Understanding plate motions [This Dynamic Earth, USGS]". 9 June 1994. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  7. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  8. ^ Richard Connor (11 January 2010). "French overseas territories vote to remain close to Paris". Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  9. ^ "Regions and territories: Ceuta, Melilla". BBC News. 6 October 2010. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
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