The Crimean problem (Russian: Проблема Крыма; Ukrainian: Кримська проблема) or the Crimean question (Russian: Крымский вопрос; Ukrainian: Питання Криму) is a dispute over the status of Crimea between Ukraine and Russia. The dispute began during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, but did not escalate into a conflict until the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, when Russian special forces were deployed to occupy Crimea and took over its government buildings.[1][2][3] The official results of a disputed referendum held during the Russian occupation indicated overwhelming support for annexation to Russia, and the Supreme Council of Crimea unilaterally declared their independence from Ukraine as a state under the name of Republic of Crimea. The republic was then annexed by Russia, whereby the former Autonomous Republic of Crimea became the "Republic of Crimea" as a Russian republic and former city with special status of Sevastopol became a Russian federal city. Ukraine and the majority of the international community continue to regard Crimea as occupied Ukrainian territory.[4] Despite international opinion however, the currency, tax, time zone and legal system are all operational under de facto Russian control. Ukraine has attempted to resolve the matter by filing litigation in multiple international criminal, environmental, political (European Union), and other courts.


In 1921 the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created (as part of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic). This republic was dissolved in 1945, and Crimea became an oblast first of the Russian SSR (1945–1954) and then the Ukrainian SSR (1954–1991). From 1991 the territory was covered by the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol City within independent Ukraine. In 1994 Russia signed the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances, which states that it would "Respect Belarusian, Kazakh and Ukrainian independence, sovereignty, and the existing borders".

The Black Sea Fleet and Sevastopol

Post-independence, the dispute over control the Black Sea Fleet and Sevastopol, the Crimean port city where the fleet was based, was a source of tensions for Russia–Ukraine relations.[5] Until a final agreement was reached in 1997 with the signing of the Partition Treaty and Russian–Ukrainian Friendship Treaty, where Ukraine allowed Russia basing rights in Sevastopol and Crimea until 2017.

Crimea, hosts of Ukraine's largest ethnic Russian population, many of whom are retired military personnel or employees of the Russian Black Sea Fleet, especially in Sevastopol. Between 1992-1995, the dispute over future of the fleet exacerbating internal frictions with Russian politicians announcements which encouraged separatists sentiments.[5][6]

Sovereignty and geopolitics

Despite being an independent country since 1991, as the former Soviet republic Ukraine has been perceived by Russia as being part of its sphere of influence. Iulian Chifu and his co-authors claim that in regard to Ukraine, Russia pursues a modernized version of the Brezhnev Doctrine on "limited sovereignty", which dictates that the sovereignty of Ukraine cannot be larger than that of the Warsaw Pact prior to the demise of the Soviet sphere of influence.[7] This claim is based on statements of Russian leaders that possible integration of Ukraine into NATO would jeopardize Russia's national security.[7]

The issue resurfaced in late 2000s over Ukrainian asserting its sovereignty and Russia's concern over its western orientation. In 2008 Russia used Sevastopol and the Black Sea Fleet in the Russo-Georgian War and ignored Ukraine regulations, leading to Ukrainian Presidency Yushchenko declaration that the lease deal would not be extended and that the fleet would have to leave Sevastopol by 2017.[8] However, in 2010 president Yanukovych signed the Kharkiv Pact amidst Russia–Ukraine gas disputes.[6]

In September 2013, Russia warned Ukraine that if it went ahead with a planned Association Agreement with EU, it would face consequences.[9] Sergey Glazyev, adviser to President Vladimir Putin, said that, "Ukrainian authorities make a huge mistake if they think that the Russian reaction will become neutral in a few years from now. This will not happen." Glazyev allowed for the possibility of separatist movements springing up in the Russian-speaking east and south of Ukraine.[9]

Evolution of status of the Crimean Peninsula within independent Ukraine

Crimean ASSR and Republic of Crimea

After the Crimean referendum of 1991, which asked whether Crimea should be elevated to a signatory of the New Union Treaty (that is, became a union republic on its own), the Ukrainian SSR restored Crimea's autonomous status (Crimean Autonomous SSR), but confirmed that autonomy restored as a part of the Ukrainian SSR. The Crimean Oblast council became Supreme Council of Crimea and, on 4 September 1991, passed the Declaration of state sovereignty of Crimea.[10]

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the autonomy renamed itself the Republic of Crimea.[11] The Ukrainian government initially accepted its name, but not its claims to be a state. According to Ukrainian law "On status of the autonomous Republic of Crimea", passed on 29 April 1992, "Republic of Crimea is an autonomous part of Ukraine and independently decides on matters, of its application of the Constitution and laws of Ukraine" (art. 1).[12] The Regional Supreme Council, on the contrary, insisted that "Republic of Crimea is a legal democratic state", which "has supremacy in respect to natural, material, cultural and spiritual heritage" and "exercises its sovereign rights and full power" on its territory (art. 1 of the May 1992 Constitution), but also a "part of Ukraine and establishes relations in it on a basis of the treaty and agreements" (art. 9).[13] Both Ukrainian law on autonomy status[14] and the 1992 Constitution of Crimea[15] were amended later that year, putting the Republic's status in between what was proposed in the initial revision of the 1992 Constitution and what was proposed in April 1992 Ukrainian law on the status of the Republic.

On 21 May 1992 the Supreme Soviet of Russia declared 1954 transfer of Crimea as having "no legal force", because it was adopted "in violation of the Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Russian SFSR and legislative process", but because subsequent legislation and the 1990 Russo-Ukrainian treaty constituted that fact, parliament considered it necessary to resolve the Crimean question in negotiations between Ukraine and Russia and on the basis of the popular will of the inhabitants of Crimea.[16] A similar resolution was adopted for Sevastopol a year later. Both moves were condemned by Ukraine[17][18][19] and resulted in no changes to the Russian Constitution (neither 1978 nor 1993 documents enumerated Crimea and Sevastopol as federal subjects).

In 1994, after parliamentary and presidential elections in the Republic, the Supreme Council and the executive became dominated by the Russian Bloc (which had won 57 seats in the Supreme Council of Crimea and Presidency for its member, Yuri Meshkov).[20] Following a referendum, held in the same year, the Supreme Council of Crimea restored the 1992 Constitution to its original revision.[21]

Autonomous Republic of Crimea

A year later, the 1992 Crimean constitution, along with the presidency and regional citizenship, was declared null and void by the Ukrainian Parliament, which by that time, had renamed the autonomy from "Republic of Crimea" to Autonomous Republic of Crimea.[22] Another Constitution was passed by Crimean parliament in 1995,[23] but many parts of it were rejected by the Ukrainian parliament; among them were Republic's name (which was to remain "Republic of Crimea") and citizenship.[24] Meanwhile, during drafting of the new Ukrainian Constitution, the question of autonomy was much debated: some legislators proposed abolishing it altogether (downgrading back to oblast status or to autonomy but not autonomous republic),[25][26] while other legislators proposed legalising the 1992 Constitution of Crimea provisions (original May revision) in the new Ukrainian Constitution.[25] Ultimately, the new Constitution of Ukraine adopted neither extreme and reiterated the autonomous status of the republic, while downgrading some of its powers (such as the regional Supreme Council's powers to enact legislation in form of laws ("zakoni")). The Republic was declared to be the "Autonomous Republic of Crimea", but also an "inseparable constituent part of Ukraine".[27] A new Crimean constitution, complying with provisions of the Ukrainian one, was adopted in 1998.

Status of Sevastopol

Before the 1954 transfer of Crimea, Sevastopol was elevated into a "city of republican subordination" of the Russian SFSR (a predecessor[28] of modern status of "city of federal importance"). Nevertheless, in practice it was still governed as a part of Crimean Oblast (for example, inhabitants of Sevastopol elected deputies into Crimean Oblast Council,[29][30] all its structures, such as local militsiya departments, etc., were subordinated to oblast structures[31]) and therefore was practically transferred too. The Ukrainian Constitution of 1978 listed Sevastopol as one of its "cities of republican subordination" (along with Kyiv),[32] whilst the Russian constitution of the same year didn't list Sevastopol as such.[33] In 1993, the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation issued a resolution, which "confirms Russian federal status of Sevastopol" and requested a parliamentary commission to prepare and present to Congress of People's Deputies of Russia corresponding constitutional amendments, but 1993 Russian constitutional crisis prevented that from happening and initial revisions of the Constitution of Russia, adopted on 12 December 1993, did not list Sevastopol as a federal subject. Three years later, the State Duma declared that Russia has a right to exercise sovereignty over Sevastopol,[34] but this resolution went without any actual effect. An agreement was concluded in 1997 by the Russian and Ukrainian governments, allowing the Black Sea Fleet to stay in Sevastopol until 2017 (later extended by another 25 years until 2042, with possible option to extend this period until 2047).

2014 Annexation and subsequent developments

Further information: 2014 Crimean status referendum and Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation

After the events of Euromaidan, the referendum and the decision hold it was held during and after Russia's implementation of a military presence in Crimea.[1]

On 14 March, the Crimean status referendum was deemed unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court of Ukraine,[35] and a day later, the Verkhovna Rada formally dissolved the Crimean parliament.[36] The referendum was held on 16 March despite the opposition from the Ukrainian government, with 97% of voters choosing to leave Ukraine and join Russia, according to Crimean government results. For this purpose, the Autonomous Republic and Sevastopol joined together as a single united nation under the name of Republic of Crimea. This peninsula then was annexed by Russia where it was converted into a federal district under the name of Crimean Federal District. However, the annexation divided the Autonomous Republic and the city of Sevastopol once again into two separate entities: the Autonomous Republic became the Republic of Crimea as a Russian republic while Sevastopol became a Russian federal city.

Regardless of all this, Ukraine and the vast majority of the international community has not recognized the validity of the referendum, and has not recognized the accession of this region into Russia.

Only Russia and a few other nations have recognized all these events. The lack of recognition from Ukraine and the international community is based primarily on the fact that the referendum included an option to join Russia while the region was considered to be under military occupation by Russia itself. The European Union, United States, Canada and several other nations condemned the decision to hold a referendum. In addition, the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People—the unofficial political association of the Crimean Tatars—called for a boycott of the referendum.[37]

Results of the UN General Assembly vote about the territorial integrity of Ukraine in .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  In favor   Against   Abstentions   Absent
Results of the UN General Assembly vote about the territorial integrity of Ukraine in 2014.
  In favor   Against   Abstentions   Absent

In 2014, UN General Assembly adopted a non-binding resolution considering the referendum as invalid and reaffirming Ukraine's territorial integrity by a vote of 100 to 11 with 58 abstentions and 24 absent.[38][39]Since 2014, the UN General Assembly has voted several times, most recently in December 2019,[40] to affirm Ukraine's territorial integrity, condemn the 'temporary occupation' of Crimea, and reaffirm nonrecognition of its annexation.[40]

The Ministry of Temporarily Occupied Territories and Internally displaced persons (Ukrainian: Міністерство з питань тимчасово окупованих територій та внутрішньо переміщених осіб України) is a government ministry in Ukraine that was officially established on 20 April 2016[41] to manage occupied parts of Donetsk, Luhansk and Crimea regions affected by Russian military intervention of 2014.

In 2021, Ukraine launched the Crimea Platform, a diplomatic initiative aimed at protecting the rights of Crimean inhabitants and ultimately reversing the annexation of Crimea.[42]


This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (September 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)


Russia recognized the short-lived Republic of Crimea as a country shortly before concluding the aforementioned treaty of accession, which was approved by the Constitutional Court of Russia.

Russia claimed the Republic of Crimea (country) as a federal district, the Crimean Federal District, on the grounds of historical control of the area and the local population's right to self-determination reflected in the annexation vote.[43] On 28 July 2016 the Crimean Federal District was abolished and Crimea was included in the Southern Federal District.


The Government of Ukraine did not recognize the Republic of Crimea's claim to sovereignty, nor the unification of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea with Sevastopol, nor the referendum that paved the way for Crimean secession.

The Ministry of Temporarily Occupied Territories and Internally displaced persons (Ukrainian: Міністерство з питань тимчасово окупованих територій та внутрішньо переміщених осіб України) is a government ministry in Ukraine that was officially established on 20 April 2016[41] to manage occupied parts of Donetsk, Luhansk and Crimea regions affected by Russian military intervention of 2014.


See also: International reactions to the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262, and United Nations General Assembly resolution A/73/L.47

Pro-Russian stances on Crimea

The following members of the United Nations have taken pro-Russian stances on Crimea, making official statements of support at the United Nations.[44][45][46] Also, some countries, such as India, have voted against the situation of human rights in Crimea but did not vote against Ukraine's territorial integrity in 2014 or 2018 and so are not listed below.[47][48]

State Notes
 Armenia[48][49] On 7 March, President Serzh Sargsyan stated at the European People's Party session in Dublin that the "Ukrainian events are a matter of serious concern to all of us". He called "to take all possible measures in order to ease the tension and find reasonable solutions by the means of a dialogue."[50] During a phone conversation with Putin on 19 March President Serzh Sargsyan said the referendum in Crimea was an exercise of peoples' right to self-determination via free expression of will.[51][52]
 Belarus The position of Belarus was vague until late 2021. It previously included comments by Belarusian president Alexander Lukashenko, who on the one hand said "Ukraine should remain an integral, indivisible, non-aligned state" and "As for Crimea, I do not like it when the integrity and independence of a country are broken", and on the other hand said "Whether Crimea will be recognized as a region of the Russian Federation de jure does not really matter" and "Today Crimea is part of the Russian Federation. No matter whether you recognize it or not, the fact remains."[53] However, in late November 2021, this position shifted as Lukashenko made explicit statements in favor of recognition of Crimea as Russian. In particular, he announced that he plans to visit Crimea, and that would amount to Belarus recognizing the territory as part of Russia, adding "We all understood that de-facto Crimea is Russia's Crimea. After a referendum Crimea has become Russia de-jure as well".[54] He added that the national airline Belavia would begin flying to Crimea when necessary.[55]
 Bolivia[48][49] Under President Evo Morales, Bolivia voted against the resolution pertaining to Ukraine's territorial integrity and voted against the resolution reaffirming non-recognition of Russia's annexation in 2017. In 2016, Morales declared his support for Russia on Crimea.[56]
 Cuba[48][49] Foreign Minister Bruno Rodriguez condemned what he called "the hypocrisy, the double standards and the aggression" of Washington and NATO over the ouster of Yanukovich and warned against any attempt to extend NATO's reach to Russia's borders which he considered to be a flagrant violation of international law and the UN Charter and a threat to peace, security and global stability. Cuba has officially recognized Crimea as a part of Russia.[58]
 Islamic Republic of Afghanistan President Hamid Karzai said, "we respect the decision the people of Crimea took through a recent referendum that considers Crimea as part of the Russian Federation."[45]
 Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan recognizes the 2014 Crimean status referendum[59]
 Nicaragua[48][49] On 27 March 2014, Nicaragua officially recognized Crimea as a part of Russia.[60][61]
 North Korea[48][49] On 15 March 2014, North Korean ambassador to Russia Kim Yong-jae expressed support for Russia's position.[62]
 Sudan[48][49] Nadir Yusuf Babiker, the Sudanese ambassador to Russia, announced recognition of Crimea as part of the Russian Federation. According to him, Sudan believes that the Crimean referendum complies with international law. The ambassador added that representatives of his country's business circles are planning to take part in the upcoming Yalta Economic Forum.[63]
 Syria[48][49][58] President Bashar al Assad expressed support for Putin's efforts to "restore security and stability in the friendly country of Ukraine."[64] Syria has officially recognized Crimea as a part of Russia.[58]
 Venezuela[48][49] On 7 March 2014, the Foreign Ministry released a statement which said President Nicolas Maduro "condemns the coup perpetrated by extremist groups in Ukraine following an attrition strategy promoted from abroad by the government of the United States and its NATO allies." It further stated, "the installation in Kyiv of de facto authorities not only threatens Ukraine's national unity, but the stability of the entire region as it places in danger Ukrainian citizens of Russian origin and the Russian Federation's own sovereignty."[65][66]
 Zimbabwe[48][49] On 22 December 2014, Zimbabwe's Minister of the Environment Saviour Kasukuwere became the first non-Russian politician to visit Crimea since its March 2014 annexation "to offer advice on how to deal with international sanctions".[67] Zimbabwe had also voted against the March 2014 United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262 aimed at recognizing Crimea within Ukraine's borders and underscored the invalidity of the 2014 Crimean referendum.[67]

The following non UN-member states have recognized the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol as federal subjects of Russia:

State Notes
 Abkhazia[68] The President of Abkhazia Alexander Ankvab said, "This is a classic example of when the will of the people is above to all" and "Abkhazia respects the will of Crimeans, [we] support and recognize their fateful choice [and] a nationwide solution is based not only on the historical past but on the modern political realities."[69][70]
 South Ossetia[72] On 5 March 2014, Minister of Foreign Affairs David G. Sanakoyev released a statement blaming the unrest on the coup in Kyiv carried out by "extremists" and U.S. interference. He further noted: "This unrest raised discontent of predominantly Russian speaking population of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Eastern regions of Ukraine who did not want to have the same scenario in the places of their residence. People of South Ossetia understand what is happening in Ukraine more than anybody else. South Ossetia suffered consequences of Georgian nationalism in August 2008, supported by clearly fascist Ukrainian organizations such as UNA-UNSO. It should be said that we express full solidarity with Russian Federation in support of the compatriots in Ukraine to prevent escalation and bloodshed."[73]
 Transnistria Transnistria's government asked the Russian government to make Transnistria become a part of Russia. Irina Kubanskikh, a spokeswoman for the Transnistrian parliament, said that the region's public bodies had "appealed to the Russian Federation leadership to examine the possibility of extending to Trans-Dniester. The legislation, currently under discussion in the State Duma, on granting Russian citizenship and admitting new subjects into Russia."[74]

Pro-Ukrainian stances on Crimea

The following member states have taken a pro-Ukrainian stance from sanctions against Russia to giving support to Ukraine to voting for Ukraine's claim on the territory:

State Notes
 Albania[49] On 3 March 2014, in a statement, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemned the military intervention of the Russian Federation in Ukraine, in defiance of the norms of international law and in violation of territorial sovereignty and integrity of the country.[75]
 Argentina Argentina had abstained from the United Nations General Assembly vote about the territorial integrity of Ukraine referring to some governments' lack of coherence on similar questions.[76] President Cristina Fernández criticized what she called a double standard allowing the Falklands residents to hold a vote on their future, while condemning the Crimean referendum on union with Russia.[77][78]
 Australia[49] On 2 March 2014, Prime Minister Tony Abbott said that Russia's actions in Ukraine were "not the kind ... of a friend and neighbour and I think Russia should back off".[79] The Prime Minister told the Australian House of Representatives on 3 March that "Russia should back off, it should withdraw its forces from the Ukraine and people of the Ukraine ought to be able to determine their future themselves" with the Australian Government cancelling a planned visit to Russia by the Trade Minister Andrew Robb.[80]
 Azerbaijan[49] Azerbaijani ambassador to Ukraine, Eynulla Madatli, expressed public support on 3 March 2014 for Ukraine's territorial integrity.[81]
 Bulgaria[49] On 1 March 2014, President Rosen Plevneliev said in a statement that "Bulgaria is for preserving the sovereignty, the territorial integrity and the democratic future of Ukraine". The President further said that the presence of foreign forces and their unauthorized activity within the territory of a sovereign state "raises serious concern" and called for an end to any provocative actions that could lead to "irreparable consequences not only for the region, but also for the international order".[82] In a later statement that day, following the Russia's Parliament decree allowing the usage of Russian armed forces in Crimea, President Plevneliev reiterated that "the only lasting solution may be achieved by peaceful means and if the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Ukraine is guaranteed" and that "[t]he usage of military force to occupy foreign territories is violation of the rules of international law". The President also called on the UN Security Council and the countries-guarantors to the Budapest Memorandum to ensure a peaceful solution to the problem and to avoid a further escalation of the tension. In conclusion, President Plevneliev stated that "[t]he people of Ukraine should alone decide what their future should be in a democratic way".[83]
 Canada[49] On Feb. 28 2014 Foreign Minister Baird "congratulated the new government and emphasized the need to honour the 1994 Budapest Declaration's commitment to Ukraine's territorial sovereignty and national unity at this critical time."[84] On a 1 March phone call President Obama and Prime Minister Harper "affirmed the importance of unity within the international community in support of international law, and the future of Ukraine and its democracy.'[85] On the same day, Harper condemned Russia's military intervention in Ukraine; he announced that Canada had both recalled its ambassador to Russia and withdrew from preparations for the 40th G8 summit, which is to be chaired by Russia.[86] On 3 March, the Canadian House of Commons passed unanimous motion condemning Russia's intervention in Crimea.[87] This was followed by Prime Minister Harper calling Russia's actions an "invasion and occupation" and Foreign Minister Baird comparing them to Nazi Germany's occupation of the Sudetenland in 1938.[88] Canada then suspended all military cooperation with Russia and the flag of Ukraine was flown on Parliament Hill in Ottawa on 4 March.[89][90] On 7 March 2014 Canada requested any Russian military servicemen (at least nine) to leave its territory in 24 hours.[91]
 Cape Verde[49]
 Chad[49] On 15 March 2014, the Chadian representative to the UN Security Council, Mamet Zene Cherif voted in favor of a US sponsored resolution condemning the 16 March referendum. He elaborated that his Government had consistently supported Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity, and had voted in favour of the resolution out of a commitment to such principles. Concerned about the continued escalation of the crisis, despite the Council's appeals for restraint and calm, he said it was still possible for the parties to open the way for national reconciliation and maintenance of territorial integrity by engaging in dialogue. With that, he reiterated the importance of upholding the principles of territorial integrity, non-use of force and peaceful settlement of disputes, in line with the Charter.[38]
 Central African Republic[49]
 Chile[49] 15 March 2014 the Chilean representative to the UN Security Council, Octavio Errazuriz voted in favor of a US sponsored resolution condemning the 16 March referendum. He elaborated that "as it was an appropriate response to the crisis in Ukraine. The Budapest Memorandum required the parties to observe Ukraine's independence and current borders, and to refrain from military measures. The planned referendum was not in line with Ukraine's Constitution, he said, emphasizing the fundamental importance of ensuring that the rule of law was observed, nationally and internationally. Indeed, it was for Ukrainians to choose their future through a democratic process that respected minority rights. The crisis must be resolved peacefully through dialogue, and Chile regretted the Council's inability to support the resolution due to the use of the veto. The Council had not fulfilled its responsibility."[38]
 Colombia[49] The Foreign Ministry, on behalf of the government, released a press release stating "deep concern about the situation in Ukraine" while also deploring the "acts of violence that have taken place in the last couple of days". In the same press statement, Colombia urged the Government of Ukraine to "guarantee security, human rights, and the fundamental liberties of its citizens".[92]
 Costa Rica[49]
 Czech Republic[49] Foreign Minister Lubomír Zaorálek said on 1 March 2014, "I unambiguously reject and condemn the steps taken by the Russian Federation over the recent days. ... Russia has committed, not only to respect Ukraine's territorial integrity and sovereignty, but also to guarantee them." He also said it reminded him of the 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia.[93] On 6 April 2014, president of the Czech Republic, Miloš Zeman said in an interview for Czech radio that the EU should impose the toughest sanctions on Russia as "at the moment Russia would decide to widen its territorial expansion to the Ukrainian east, this will become really serious as this would trigger a chain reaction". But he also expressed an opinion that Crimea will not be returned to Ukraine in the foreseeable future.[94] Czech President Zeman also said: "Even though I understand the interests of Crimea's Russian-speaking majority, which was annexed to Ukraine by Khrushchev, we have our experience with the 1968 Russian military invasion."[95]
 Denmark[49] Foreign Minister Martin Lidegaard stated on 2 March that, "This is a partial invasion of Ukraine by Russia". He made it clear that Denmark is working closely with the rest of EU and is preparing a condemning statement. He also called for Russia to respect international law.[96]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo[49]
 Dominican Republic[49]
 Estonia[49] Foreign Minister Urmas Paet stated on 1 March 2014 that, "The Russian parliament's decision to authorise the use of troops in Ukraine is a clear threat to Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity," and that Russia's "... military threats and actions against Ukraine must stop." He called for the Ukrainian leadership to pursue all actions to reduce tensions and restore societal unity.[97] Estonian President Toomas Hendrik Ilves stated that the annexation was "done too quickly and professionally not to have been planned far in advance" and said that the failure of the Budapest Memorandum "may have far-reaching implications for generations. I don't know what country in the future would ever give up its nuclear weapons in exchange for a security guarantee."[98]
 Finland[49] Foreign Minister Erkki Tuomioja stated on 1 March 2014, that Russia is implementing a military takeover of Crimean territory and by doing so Russia is violating several international treaties and laws.[99]
 France[49] The representative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Romain Nadal, expressed his concerns on events in Crimea and reminded the foreign minister Laurent Fabius repeatedly called upon to preserve the unity and integrity of Ukraine.[100]
 Georgia[49] On 1 March 2014, President Giorgi Margvelashvili called on the international community "not to allow new conflict in Europe and to use all the available means in order to avert possible aggression and to preserve sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine."[101]
On 11 March 2014 the President further stated that "The failure of the international community to punish Russia for its 2008 invasion of Georgia has let Moscow think it can get away with seizing Ukraine's Crimea region".[102]
On 6 March, the Parliament of Georgia adopted the resolution on supporting sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine and strongly condemned forceful actions against sovereign Ukraine by the Russian Federation as well as all other actions carried out in violation of basic principles of international law. The resolution emphasized that "the recent aggressive acts of the Russian Federation against the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine, including the use of military units on the territory of Ukraine in violation of provisions of the bilateral agreements and the threat of large scale military aggression, pose a serious threat not only to friendly Ukraine, but also to Georgia and the entire Europe."[103]
 Germany[49] Chancellor Angela Merkel called Russia's actions "unacceptable" and their doings would break international law. Merkel reminded that Russia accepted the independence of Ukraine in 1994 and is now not honoring the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances.[104][105] In a policy statement delivered to the Bundestag, she stated that "Ukraine's territorial integrity is not negotiable".[106] She was reported saying that Putin "lives in a different world" while talking with Barack Obama via phone.[107] Chancellor Merkel also stated "The so-called referendum…, the declaration of independence …, and the absorption into the Russian Federation (were), in our firm opinion,…against international law"[108] and that it was "shameful" for Russia to compare the independence of Kosovo with the referendum on the Russian annexation of Crimea.[109] In March 2015, after talks with Petro Poroshenko, Angela Merkel remarked that the annexation was in violation of international law, and therefore it's Germany's goal to restore the Crimean peninsula to Ukraine.
 Hungary[49] In a statement issued 1 March 2014, Ministry of Foreign Affairs expressed concern about the situation on the Crimean Peninsula. The Ministry noted that the Visegrád Four Foreign Ministers had asked both the Kyiv government leaders and the Donetsk region's political leaders to abstain from provocative steps that may heighten tension and lead to violence.[110] Hungarian government's reaction was criticized at home for being soft on Russia because of a recent deal PM Viktor Orbán had made with Russia to expand Paks Nuclear Power Plant. Additionally, Foreign Minister János Martonyi reassured ethnic Hungarians in Ukraine that Hungary would protect their interests.[111]
 Iceland[49] Iceland condemned the actions of the Russian Federation regarding Crimea and expressed its full support to the Ukrainian people, Icelandic Minister for Foreign Affairs Gunnar Bragi Sveinsson told reporters in Kyiv on Saturday, 22 March 2014.[112]
 Indonesia[49] The Indonesian Foreign Minister Marty Natalegawa, issued a statement expressing Indonesia's deep concern to the situation in Ukraine. He described the situation in Ukraine as "an international crisis which threatens not only the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine, but also risks raising tensions in the relations between the affected countries." Indonesia respects the sovereignty of Ukraine and has called for all parties to resolve the issue through peaceful means. Indonesia also calls the UN Security Council, including Permanent Members "to shoulder its responsibility in accordance to the Charter of the United Nations in maintaining international peace and security in responding to the crisis in Ukraine." The statement also suggests that the United Nations to send a special envoy to the Secretary General to the affected areas.[113]
 Ireland[49] Tánaiste and Minister for Foreign Affairs Eamon Gilmore expressed concern regarding the developments in Ukraine. He called on the Russian Federation to abide by international law and to respect Ukraine's territorial integrity and independence, called on all parties "to work to ensure that, through dialogue, all legitimate concerns can be addressed", and stressed the need for all sides to "avoid any provocation",[114] the latter expression echoing language used by both Russia Today and the European Parliament in relation to Kyiv's abolition of the regional status of minority languages, including Russian,[115] as well as a recent attack on the headquarters of the Communist Party of Ukraine.[115]
 Italy Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi accused Putin of having committed "an unacceptable violation".[116][117] On 19 March, during a speech in the Chamber of Deputies, Renzi stated that the Crimean status referendum was illegal and that the G8 countries must start cooperating to solve the crisis and prevent a return to the Cold War.[118] The Foreign Ministry's statement said, "Italy and its European partners strongly condemn the violation of Ukrainian sovereignty and territorial integrity and call on Russia to immediately withdraw its armed forces. They view the political-diplomatic channel as the only way to resolve the crisis."[119] In July 2018, the newly appointed interior minister of Italy Matteo Salvini, declared that the annexation of Crimea by Russia was legitimate, thus no official statement was made.[120]
 Japan[49] The Foreign Ministry issued a statement in which it said that the authorisation on Saturday "for use of the armed forces of the Russian Federation in Ukraine heightens the tension in the region and would harm the peace and stability of the international community," as well that "In this regard, Japan expresses grave anxiety and concern over the decision. ... Japan strongly expects that the situation in Ukraine will be settled in a peaceful manner and strongly urges all the parties concerned to behave with maximum self-restraint and responsibility, to fully observe the relevant international laws," it concluded.[121]
 Jordan On 15 March 2014, Jordan voted for the resolution condemning the 16 March referendum. The Jordanian ambassador, Zeid Ra'ad Zeid Al-Hussein stating he had voted in favour of the resolution out of respect for Ukraine's sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence, as well as for the principle of non-interference in internal affairs. Underlining the importance of adherence to the United Nations Charter, especially Article 1 on peaceful dispute settlement, he said Crimea was under Ukrainian sovereignty.[38]
 Latvia President of Latvia, Speaker of the parliament, Prime Minister and Foreign Minister issued a joint statement stating that "Latvia strongly stands for the territorial integrity of Ukraine and is of the opinion that any measures aimed at splitting Ukrainian society and questioning the territorial integrity of the country must be condemned in the strongest terms possible.".[122]
Foreign Minister Edgars Rinkēvičs said, "The Crimea scenario resembles the occupation of the Baltic states by the USSR in 1940. History repeats itself, first as tragedy, second as farce."[123]
 Liechtenstein[49] On 5 March Foreign Minister Aurelia Frick in the name of the Liechtenstein Government expressed hope for peaceful solution of the Crimean conflict and called for all parties to support the sovereignty of Ukraine.[124]
 Lithuania The Foreign Ministry announced that it had called the Russian Ambassador to Lithuania to discuss the situation in Ukraine.[125]
President Dalia Grybauskaitė said that Russia was dangerous. "After Ukraine will be Moldova, and after Moldova will be different countries. They are trying to rewrite the borders after the Second World War in Europe."[123]
 Malaysia[49] Malaysia through its Minister of Foreign Affairs views with deep concern the developments in Ukraine, particularly the situation in the Crimean peninsula. Given Malaysia's friendly relations with Russia and Ukraine, the country urge both to work towards a peaceful resolution of the issues between them. Malaysia also hopes that both sides would adopt a moderate approach and find a mutually acceptable solution. The interest, welfare and security of the people of Ukraine must be given top-most priority while taking into account the implications on the overall stability and peace in the region. Malaysia also supports all peaceful efforts including international diplomatic initiatives aimed at resolving the crisis situation in Ukraine. All parties involved must respect the rule of law, act responsibly and aim towards finding a peaceful settlement.[126]
 Marshall Islands[49]
 Mexico[49] On 4 March 2014, The foreign ministry issued a press release expressing Mexico's deep concern at the deteriorating situation in Ukraine and its support of calls for respect for Ukraine's national unity and territorial integrity, in accordance with the UN Charter and international law.[127]
 Moldova[49] On 2 March 2014, President Nicolae Timofti stated "Moldova underlines the importance to observe Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity and not to allow violation of the international law principles.[128]
 Montenegro[49] On 5 March 2014, Government of Montenegro issued a statement condemning "blatant violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine and the aggression of Russian armed forces".[129]
 New Zealand[49] On 3 March 2014, Prime Minister of New Zealand John Key speaking on the morning news and talk show Breakfast, referred to the rising tensions in Ukraine as "deeply concerning". The Prime Minister further stated that while Russia has very real interests in Ukraine and Crimea specifically, he agreed with the United States condemnation of Russia's actions, stressing that it would, " a disaster if there was a major problem in the Ukraine," including that the use of force was in nobody's interests.[130]
 Nigeria[49] U. Joy Ogwo, Nigeria's representative on the UN Security Council, voted in favour of the US-backed resolution condemning 16 March referendum; she had voted in favour because the text embodied principles enshrined in the United Nations Charter, which obliged member states to settle disputes through peaceful means. Pointing out that the draft resolution was not a country-specific text, she said the pacific settlement of the territorial dispute between Nigeria and Cameroon through the International Court of Justice should serve as a beacon. Nigeria opposed unilateral actions aimed at altering a country's configuration.[38]
 North Macedonia[49] The Foreign Ministry issued a statement expressing its growing concern over the escalation of violence in Ukraine. It called for undertaking of all necessary measures for urgent easing of tensions, while underscoring the need for establishing political dialogue about all problems citizens of Ukraine face, the resolution of which necessitates involvement of all stakeholders. It also called for moderation and responsibility.[131]
 Norway[49] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemned the Russian military escalation in the Crimea together with the NATO countries. "The Russian authorities must immediately meet the Ukrainian request for dialogue to resolve the crisis without violence," said the Norwegian Foreign Minister Børge Brende.[132]
 Papua New Guinea[49]
 Poland[49] On 1 March 2014, Poland "strongly appeal[ed] for respecting Ukraine's territorial integrity, and observing international law, including fundamental principles of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe...We urge states-signatories to the Budapest Memorandum of December 1994, which gives Ukraine security assurances, to respect and fulfil their commitments," said the MFA statement.[133]
On 6 March 2014, Poland's Minister of Defence Tomasz Siemoniak announced the arrival of 12 American F-16 fighter jets with 300 personnel per Poland's request at NATO, which was granted by the Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel. The situation in Ukraine, he said at a press conference, is extremely serious. The changing of guaranteed borders is not acceptable, neither is the blocking of the OBWE observers in Crimea. The F-16 aviation detachment AvDet is scheduled to station at the Air Force bases in Łask and Powidz.[134] Poland's President Bronisław Komorowski visited the Air Force base in Łask with Siemoniak on Tuesday 11 March 2014 and pronounced the urgent necessity for further military spending on the multi-purpose F-16 programme.[135] Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk called for change in EU energy policy as Germany's dependence on Russian gas poses risks for Europe.[136] On 11 March 2014 Tusk announced that the current situation in Crimea is only a phase in an ongoing crisis, but Poland cannot accept the territorial disintegration of sovereign Ukraine.[137] On 29 August Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs officially recognized "offensive action of the Russian armed forces in the southern regions of Donetsk oblast, in particular in the vicinity of the town of Nowoazowsk" as an aggression by international law.[138]
 Romania[49] On 2 March, President Traian Basescu said that any Russian military presence in Ukraine, without Ukraine's approval and beyond the limits of bilateral accords, would be seen as an act of aggression.[139] On 6 March, the Romanian president took a stronger stance, declaring that 'what Russia has done in Ukraine is an aggression against that country.".[140] He further stated that Romania which has the largest minority in Ukraine aside from Russia (cca. 400.000 Romanian speaking Ukrainian citizens) should play an active role and do more in supporting US and European negotiations with Russia.[141]
 Rwanda On 15 March, Rwandan ambassador Eugène-Richard Gasana voted a resolution in the UN Security Council condemning the 16 March referendum. He said the timing of action on the draft resolution was not productive. Now was the time for frank dialogue, rather than rhetoric that would isolate a country. The situations in Ukraine and Crimea had unfolded rapidly, and the pressure exerted by some countries had diverted attention away from careful analysis of their root causes. While Rwanda had still voted in favour of the text, which embodied important principles such as sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity, it urged Ukraine to launch an inclusive national dialogue, and the international community to help avoid further deterioration of the situation.[38]
 San Marino[49]
 Saudi Arabia[49]
 Sierra Leone[49]
 Singapore[49] On 5 March, Foreign Minister K Shanmugam spoke in parliament outlining Singapores official position: "We strongly object to any unprovoked invasion of a sovereign country under any pretext or excuse. Russian troops should not be in Ukraine in breach of international law. The sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine must be respected. International law must be respected. There can be no qualifications to this."[142]
 Slovenia[49] Prime Minister Alenka Bratušek said that all has to be done to prevent a military conflict to occur in Ukraine, while ministry of foreign affairs has offered to become a mediator for the EU.[143]
 Solomon Islands[49]
 South Korea[49] On 15 March, the representative of the Republic of Korea to the UN Security Council, Oh Joon voted in favor of a US sponsored resolution condemning the 16 March referendum. He elaborated that he "had voted in favour of the text, which embodied important principles such as sovereignty, territorial integrity and unity. Those principles should be respected. Today's failure to adopt the text would not close the window to a diplomatic solution, he emphasized."[38]
 Spain[49] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation released a statement in support of the new Ukrainian government, saying the following: "The Spanish government is concerned about the situation in Ukraine, which remains uncertain and unstable. The current tension in Crimea is especially concerning". The government also expressed its "full support for the territorial integrity of Ukraine", and urged all actors to "cooperate in finding a solution, while dismissing any use of force".[144]
 Sweden[49] Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt said 2 March in an interview on Sveriges Radio:"It's somewhat understandable that Russia is acting on concerns about the Russian minority of Crimea and eastern Ukraine, but not in the way they're doing it. There are of course methods for talking to the Ukrainian government and calm down the situation in that way."[145] In an interview on 19 March, he said that the Russian leadership "are making as many errors as they can, breaking international law and the collective security structure we have built since the end of the Cold War. We ought to feel very worried about that."[146] Foreign Minister Carl Bildt tweeted on 1 March, "Russian military intervention in Ukraine is clearly against international law and principles of European security."[147] He added in an interview in the evening the same day, "There is no doubt that what is happening now is a scarcely camouflaged Russian takeover of Crimea"[148]
 Trinidad and Tobago[49]
 Turkey[49] Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu stated on 28 February that "Turkey attaches importance to democracy and democracy-based political stability in Ukraine's future" and that "Crimea is important for Turkey as it is Turkey's door to Ukraine and it is also important for our Tatar compatriots."[149] Turkish President Abdullah Gül stated on 5 March that the problems must be solved within international law and with respect to Ukraine's political union and borders.[150] Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said: "Unfortunately, throughout history, the right of the Crimean Tatar people to live in dignity in their own homeland was undermined with collective deportations and repression. Today we are witnessing the illegal annexation of the Crimea and other regrettable events," after meeting with Crimean leaders, International Business Times reported Monday, 3 August.[151]
 Turkmenistan[49] Turkmenistan was absent from the UN voting, but President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow supported Ukraine's territorial integrity in 2015.[152]
 United Kingdom[49] The Foreign Secretary William Hague said he was "deeply concerned" at the escalation of tensions and the decision of the Russian parliament to authorise military action. He also said "This action is a potentially grave threat to the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of Ukraine. We condemn any act of aggression against Ukraine".[153]
On 2 March 2014, British Prime Minister David Cameron announced that government officials were planning to boycott the 2014 Winter Paralympics in Sochi in response to the situation in Crimea, while Prince Edward cancelled plans to travel to Sochi for the Games "on the advice of government." These decisions will not affect Great Britain's participation in the Games.[154] Cameron also said "No amount of sham and perverse democratic process or skewed historical references can make up for the fact that this is an incursion into a sovereign state and a land grab of part of its territory with no respect for the law of that country or for international law."[155]
 United States[49] On 28 February, President Barack Obama's statement was released warning Russia not to intervene in Crimea. The statement said that President Obama is "deeply concerned by reports of military movements taken by the Russian Federation inside of Ukraine." It added that "any violation of Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity would be deeply destabilizing, which is not in the interest of Ukraine, Russia, or Europe" and that it would be "a clear violation of Russia's commitment to respect the independence and sovereignty and borders of Ukraine, and of international laws."[156]
On 1 March, Obama held a phone conversation with Putin and said that the Russian invasion was a "violation of Ukrainian sovereignty and territorial integrity ... [and a] breach of international law." He warned of "greater political and economic isolation" and threatened to withdraw the United States from the 40th G8 summit chaired by Russia.[157]
Secretary of State John Kerry then labeled and condemned Russia's "invasion" of Ukraine on 2 March in an interview for Face the Nation. He called it an "incredible act of aggression," and said that "you just don't in the 21st century behave in 19th century fashion by invading another country on completely trumped up pretext."[158]
On 3 March, National Security Council spokeswoman Caitlin Hayden announced that the United States would not send a presidential delegation to the 2014 Winter Paralympics in Sochi (which was to be led by Tammy Duckworth), "in addition to other measures we are taking in response to the situation in Ukraine." As with the British boycott effort, it will not affect the country's participation in the Games themselves.[159]
On 6 March, Obama signed Executive Order 13660, Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine, authorizing sanctions against persons who, being determined by the Secretary of the Treasury in consultation with the Secretary of State, have violated or assisted in the violation of Ukraine's sovereignty.[160][161]
On 17 March, Obama signed Executive Order 13661, Blocking Property of Additional Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine, which expanded the scope of the previous sanctions imposed by EO 13660, to include the freezing of certain Russian government officials' assets in the US and blocking their entry into the US.[162]
The 113th United States Congress considered several different pieces of legislation that would offer Ukraine different levels of loan guarantees, aid, and apply sanctions "against anyone deemed by the president to have undermined Ukraine's security or independence, or to have engaged in corruption in Ukraine or Russia."[163] Those bills included the bill To provide for the costs of loan guarantees for Ukraine (H.R. 4152; 113th Congress), the Support for the Sovereignty, Integrity, Democracy, and Economic Stability of Ukraine Act of 2014 (S. 2124; 113th Congress), and the Ukraine Support Act (H.R. 4278; 113th Congress).[164][165][166] All three bills were introduced and considered in March 2014.
On 3 April, the United States Department of Energy informed the Russian state-run nuclear corporation Rosatom on suspension of several peaceful nuclear cooperation projects.[167]

The following non UN-member states have also voiced support for Ukraine's claim on the territory:

State Notes
 Kosovo The Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemned what it termed the "occupation of Ukrainian territory, and the violation of Ukrainian sovereignty and territorial integrity in full contravention of Russia's obligations under the UN Charter, the Helsinki Final Act and the 1994 Budapest Memorandum."[169]
 Republic of China On 4 March, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement that read: "The ROC government calls on all parties concerned to respect Ukraine's sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and democracy. We urge parties to begin negotiations as soon as possible, so as to peacefully resolve disputes in accordance with international law, prevent tensions from rising further, and work together to advance peace and stability in the region."[170]

In addition to most states listed above, the following states voted for resolution A/73/L.47, the position of Ukraine and thirty-two other states on affirming the General Assembly's commitment to the territorial integrity of Ukraine within its internationally recognized borders and condemning the Kerch Strait incident.[171]

State Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda

Other positions

State Notes
 Bosnia and Herzegovina On 2 March, Foreign Minister Zlatko Lagumdžija called for "Immediate calming of tensions as a key prerequisite for the maintenance of peace, security, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine as a full member of the UN" and said that "Sovereign Ukraine and its people have the right to define their own future, peacefully and through democratic dialogue, which guarantees stability and the international community has a duty and an obligation to support this".[172] However, president of the autonomous region of Srpska, Milorad Dodik voiced support for Crimea, stating "The will of the people must be respected".[173]
 India The Indian government has taken a relatively balanced act on the situation in Ukraine. India in the past has not historically made supporting democracy abroad a central tenet of its foreign policy and has said in its official statement that they would observe the situation in Ukraine and will respect the decisions of both sides as long as they are peaceful.[174] The government of India was the first major country to recognize the annexation of Crimea and have abstained a resolution on the territorial integrity of Ukraine, justifying its decision by saying it was the people of Crimea's choice.[175] The Ministry of External Affairs has asked its nationals, particularly students, to leave Donetsk and Luhansk regions, effective from 29 May 2014, in eastern Ukraine which is witnessing frequent violent clashes and has warned Indian travelers to be cautious and avoid non-essential travel at parts of eastern and southern Ukraine and advised to remain vigilant about their personal safety and security. According to officials, there are about 1000 Non-resident Indians living in the affected regions.[176]
 Kazakhstan Kazakhstan views the referendum held in Crimea "as a free expression of will of the Autonomous Republic's population"[177]
 Pakistan Foreign Ministry spokesperson Tasnim Aslam, in a weekly press briefing, expressed hope that the political crisis in Ukraine would be resolved through peaceful means and stated that talks and diplomacy were the only option to calm down the situation.[178]
 Palestine Palestinian Ambassador to Russia Abdel Hafiz Nofal made a statement in an interview with the media, noting that the people of Crimea "have the right to self-determination," and Palestine itself "supports Russia's actions on this issue." However, soon the Palestinian diplomatic service refuted the ambassador's words, stating that Nofal did not make any statements on the status of the Crimea.[63]
 Serbia On 5 November, the Foreign Ministry issued a statement that it was "it once again wishes to reiterate that Serbia supports the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Ukraine."[179] The statement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs says that Serbia also supports the continuation of the peace process, with firm belief that only dialogue can lead to a solution in accordance with international law and with the respect for the UN Charter. In 2017, however, Serbia voted against a resolution that called Russia an occupier of Crimea. Later President Vucic reiterated support for Ukrainian territorial integrity.[180]
 Vietnam On 5 March, Le Hai Binh, a spokesman for the Foreign Ministry of Vietnam, stated "We hope that stability will soon be restored in Ukraine and that all issues will be resolved by law, for the sake of Ukrainian people, and of peace and development in the region and the world over."[181]
 Uzbekistan Uzbekistan's reaction towards the annexation was initially condemning the actions of Russia.[182][183] However in 2018, Uzbekistan voted against a resolution pertaining to Crimea.[48]

See also


  1. ^ a b How Russia Took Crimea Macias, Amanda (2015). Business Insider. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
  2. ^ Putin Admits Russian Forces Were Deployed to Crimea Reuters (2014). Retrieved August 1, 2017.
  3. ^ De Carbonnel, Alissa (13 March 2014). "RPT-INSIGHT-How the separatists delivered Crimea to Moscow". Reuters. Retrieved 8 March 2015. Only a week after gunmen planted the Russian flag on the local parliament, Aksyonov and his allies held another vote and declared parliament was appealing to Putin to annex Crimea
  4. ^ UN (2014). Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 27 March 2014. United Nations Press.
  5. ^ a b Zaborsky, Victor (31 August 1995). "Crimea and the Black Sea Fleet in Russian- Ukrainian Relations". Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  6. ^ a b Pifer, Steven (January 2009). "Averting Crisis in Ukraine" (PDF). Retrieved 30 September 2021.
  7. ^ a b Iulian Chifu; Oazu Nantoi; Oleksandr Sushko (2009). "Russia–Georgia War of August 2008: Ukrainian Approach" (PDF). The Russian Georgian War: A trilateral cognitive institutional approach of the crisis decision-making process. Bucharest: Editura Curtea Veche. p. 181. ISBN 978-973-1983-19-6. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  8. ^ "No Russian fleet in Ukraine beyond 2017 -Ukrainian PM".
  9. ^ a b Walker, Shaun (22 September 2013). "Ukraine's EU trade deal will be catastrophic, says Russia". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
  10. ^ Parliament of Ukraine (17 November 1994). Декларация о государственном суверенитете Крыма (in Russian). Government of Ukraine. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  11. ^ Parliament of Ukraine (20 October 1999). О Республике Крым как официальном названии демократического государства Крым (in Russian). Government of Ukraine. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  12. ^ Про статус автономної Республіки Крим. Закон від 29.04.1992 № 2299-XII (in Ukrainian)
  13. ^ Конституция Республики Крым (in Russian)
  14. ^ Про внесення змін і доповнень до Закону України "Про статус автономної Республіки Крим" Верховна Рада України; Закон від 30.06.1992 № 2523-XII (in Ukrainian)
  15. ^ О внесении изменений и дополнений в Конституцию Республики Крым. Верховная Рада АРК; Закон от 25.09.1992 № 155-1 (in Russian)
  16. ^ Постановление ВС России "О правовой оценке решений высших органов государственной власти РСФСР по изменению статуса Крыма, принятых в 1954 году" (in Russian). May 1992.
  17. ^ "Letter dated 25 May 1992 from the Permanent Representative of Ukraine to the United Nations, addressed to the Secretary-General". 25 May 1992.
  18. ^ "Letter dated 13 July 1993 from the Permanent Representative of Ukraine to the United Nations, addressed to the President of the Security Council".
  19. ^ "Letter dated 16 July 1993 from the Permanent Representative of Ukraine to the United Nations addressed to the Security Council".
  20. ^ Полунов, Александр Юрьевич. Общественные организации русского Крыма: политическая деятельность, стратегии взаимоотношений с властью. Государственное управление. Выпуск № 21. Декабрь 2009 года. (in Russian)
  21. ^ О восстановлении конституционных основ государственности Республики Крым. Верховная Рада АРК; Закон от 20.05.1994 № 32-1 (in Russian)
  22. ^ Про внесення змін і доповнень до Конституції (Основного Закону) України. Верховна Рада України; Закон від 21.09.1994 № 171/94-ВР (in Ukrainian)
  23. ^ Конституция Автономной Республики Крым. Верховная Рада АРК; Закон, Конституция от 01.11.1995 № 611k-1 (in Russian)
  24. ^ Про Конституцію Автономної Республіки Крим. Верховна Рада України; Закон від 04.04.1996 № 117/96-ВР (in Ukrainian)
  25. ^ a b Table of amendments to the 11 March 1996 draft Ukrainian Constitution (in Ukrainian)
  26. ^ "Офіційний портал Верховної Ради України".
  27. ^ Constitution of Ukraine, 1996  – via Wikisource.
  28. ^ Закон РФ от 9 декабря 1992 г. N 4061-I "Об изменениях и дополнениях Конституции (Основного Закона) Российской Федерации – России" (принят седьмым Съездом народных депутатов РФ): "В статье 71<...>в части второй слова "республиканского подчинения" заменить словами "федерального значения"" (in Russian)
  29. ^ "Анализ документов: Севастополь – украинский город". Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  30. ^ "Город республиканского подчинения". Retrieved 12 November 2017.
  31. ^ «Сверхнаглость» сработает? Севастополь: псевдоюридические аргументы Ю. М. Лужкова [Will "super insolence" work? Sevastopol: pseudo-legal arguments of Yu. M. Luzhkov] (in Russian). 7 October 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  32. ^ Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (in Ukrainian)
  33. ^ "Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic". Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
  34. ^ "Постановление Государственной Думы Федерального Собрания РФ от 24 октября 1996 г. N 747-II ГД "Об обращении Государственной Думы Федерального Собрания Российской Федерации "К …". Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  35. ^ "КС признал неконституционным постановление о проведении референдума в Крыму – Видео".
  36. ^ Про дострокове припинення повноважень Верховної Ради Автономної Республіки Крим [On the dissolution of the Verkhovna Rada of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea]. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (in Ukrainian). 15 March 2014.
  37. ^ "Tatar leader: referendum's results 'predetermined'". DW.DE. 16 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g United Nations News Centre – Backing Ukraine's territorial integrity, UN Assembly declares Crimea referendum invalid. (1 March 2014). Retrieved on 28 March 2014.
  39. ^ U.N. General Assembly declares Crimea secession vote invalid. Reuters. 27 March 2014.
  40. ^ a b Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 18 December 2019], UN General Assembly
  41. ^ a b (in Ukrainian) The Cabinet decided to create the Ministry of temporarily occupied territories and internally displaced persons, Ukrayinska Pravda (20 April 2016)
  42. ^ "'Crimea is Ukraine': Zelenskyy opens inaugural Crimea summit". euronews. 23 August 2021. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  43. ^ Juan Valdes; Rosemary Wardley (5 March 2014). "300 Years of Embattled Crimea History in 6 Maps". National Geographic. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  44. ^ Russian Federation Council ratifies treaty on Crimea's entry to Russia. 21 March 2014
  45. ^ a b Rosenberg, Matthew (23 March 2014). "Breaking With the West, Afghan Leader Supports Russia's Annexation of Crimea". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  46. ^ "Visiting Russia, Fidel Castro's Son Scoffs at U.S. Sanctions Over Crimea". Retrieved 12 November 2017.
  47. ^ [1][dead link]
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k [2][dead link]
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262
  50. ^ Hayrumyan, Naira (7 March 2014). "Armenian leader attends EPP summit, addresses Karabakh, Turkish blockade, Ukraine crisis". ArmeniaNow. Archived from the original on 6 November 2019. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
  51. ^ "Armenian and Russian presidents say Crimea referendum an example of peoples' right to self-determination". 20 March 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
  52. ^ "TODAY THE PRESIDENT OF ARMENIA HELD A TELEPHONE CONVERSATION WITH THE PRESIDENT OF RUSSIA". Office to the President of the Republic of Armenia. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
  53. ^ "Events | The Official Internet Portal of the President of the Republic of Belarus". 23 March 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  54. ^ AFP (30 November 2021). "Lukashenko Says Crimea is Russian, Will Visit Peninsula With Putin". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  55. ^ "Lukashenko comments on plans to launch Belarus-Crimea air service". 1 December 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  56. ^ "Боливия готова признать Крым частью России | ПОЛИТИКА | АиФ Крым". 3 June 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  57. ^ a b c d "Problem of the militarization of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol, Ukraine, as well as parts of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov". 17 December 2018. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  58. ^ a b c Bender, Jeremy (31 May 2016). "These are the 6 countries on board with Russia's illegal annexation of Crimea". Business Insider. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  59. ^ "Kyrgyzstan Says Crimea Referendum 'Legitimate'". Radio Liberty. Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  60. ^ "Nicaragua recognizes Crimea as part of Russia". 27 March 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
  61. ^ "Nicaragua unconditionally recognizes incorporation of Crimea into Russia". The Voice of Russia. 16 March 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
  62. ^ "КНДР поддержала позицию России по украинскому". 15 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
  63. ^ a b "Крым – ваш: кто в мире признал полуостров частью России / Крым.net". Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  64. ^ "Syria's Assad expresses support for Putin on Ukraine". Euronews. 6 March 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  65. ^ "Gobierno venezolano repudia el "golpe de Estado de extremistas" en Ucrania". EL UNIVERSAL. 7 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  66. ^ "Putin on Ukraine Okay With China-Syria-Venezuela Minority". Bloomberg News. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  67. ^ a b "WATCH : KASUKUWERE scores a first in CRIMEA". NewsdzeZimbabwe (22 December 2014)
    Ukraine angry as Zimbabwe minister visits Crimea, Interfax-Ukraine (22 December 2014)
  68. ^ "Abkhazian president hails Russia-Crimea reunion". Voice of Russia. 15 April 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  69. ^ "Georgia's breakaway regions recognize Crimea vote".
  70. ^ "Crimea votes to join Russia: Armenia observes 'silently' new realities emerge in post-Soviet neighborhood - Analysis -". Archived from the original on 6 August 2020.
  71. ^ "Karabakh Foreign Ministry Issues Statement on Crimea". Asbarez Armenian News. 17 March 2014.
  72. ^ Leonid Tibilov: South Ossetia fully supports the decision of the Russian leadership on Crimea and Sevastopol. 20 March 2014.
  73. ^ "Commentary of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Republic of South Ossetia – Министерство иностранных дел".
  74. ^ "Moldova's Trans-Dniester region pleads to join Russia". BBC News. 18 March 2014.
  75. ^ Statement of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on the latest developments in Ukraine, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2014-03-03
  76. ^ "General Assembly Adopts Resolution Calling upon States Not". 27 March 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  77. ^ "Malvinas/Crimea: Cristina Fernandez blasts UK on "double standard" — MercoPress". MercoPress. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  78. ^ "Crimea referendum worthless as Falklands poll, says Argentina". the Guardian. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  79. ^ "Ukraine: Tony Abbott tells Russia to 'back off'". Sydney Morning Herald. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  80. ^ "Tony Abbott condemns Russia's 'unprovoked aggression' in Ukraine". The Australian. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  81. ^ "Russia's Crimea Gambit Draws Various Responses in Caucasus".
  82. ^ "Announcement of the Press Secretariat". Administration of the President of the Republic of Bulgaria. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  83. ^ "Announcement of the Press Secretariat of the Head of State". Administration of the President of the Republic of Bulgaria. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  84. ^ "Baird Promotes Territorial Integrity and National Unity in Ukraine". 28 February 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  85. ^ "Readout of President Obama's calls with President Hollande and Prime Minister Harper". 1 April 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2014 – via National Archives.
  86. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Canada, U.S. tell Russia to withdraw forces". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  87. ^ "MPs 'strongly condemn' Russia's actions in Ukraine". CTV News. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  88. ^ Steven Chase (4 March 2014). "Harper compares Russia's Crimea moves to Third Reich aggression". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  89. ^ Steven Chase (4 March 2014). "Ukraine's flag flown on Parliament Hill". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  90. ^ Andrea Janus (4 March 2014). "Canada suspends military activity with Russia 'effective immediately'". CTV News. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  91. ^ Canada gives Russian military 24 hours to leave country. Ukrinform. 7 March 2014
  92. ^ "Comunicado del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores sobre la situación en Ucrania". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Colombia. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  93. ^ "Ukraine: Minister Zaorálek's Statement on the Russian Stance" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  94. ^ Zeman: NATO should go to Ukraine if Russia invades it | Prague Monitor
  95. ^ "Cold War Ghosts Haunt East Europe in Moves for Crimea". Bloomberg. 3 March 2014
  96. ^ "Lidegaard: Russia has invaded Ukraine".
  97. ^ "Foreign Minister Urmas Paet: everything must be done to achieve a political solution to the crisis in Ukraine". Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 1 March 2014. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  98. ^ Kramer, David J. (22 December 2014). "We Have Allowed Aggression to Stand". The American Interest.
  99. ^ Tuomioja: Venäjä toteuttaa Krimin sotilaallista haltuunottoa Archived 2014-03-05 at the Wayback Machine,, 2 March 2014. Accessed on 2 March 2014.
  100. ^ France expressed its concern over the deteriorating situation in Crimea Archived 2014-03-07 at the Wayback Machine. Ukrinform. 28 February 2014.
  101. ^ "Georgia Condemns Russian Moves in Ukraine". Civil Georgia. 1 March 2014. Archived from the original on 8 April 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  102. ^ Metreveli, Irakli. "Georgia says 2008 war encouraged Russia to take Crimea". AFP. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  103. ^ "Georgian Parliament adopts resolution in supporting Ukraine".
  104. ^ "Merkel wirft Putin Verletzung des Völkerrechts vor (German)". Der Spiegel. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  105. ^ "Merkel wirft Putin Verstoß gegen Völkerrecht vor (German)". Stern. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  106. ^ "Federal Government | Policy statement by Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel on the situation in Ukraine". 13 March 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  107. ^ 03.03.2014 – 10:27 Uhr (3 March 2014). "Ukraine-Krisentelefonat mit Obama – Merkel schimpft: Putin lebt in einer anderen Welt" (in German). Retrieved 18 May 2014.
  108. ^ "Merkel: Crimea grab 'against international law'".
  109. ^ "EUobserver / Merkel: Comparing Crimea to Kosovo is 'shameful'".
  110. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs concerned about Crimean situation". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Hungary. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  111. ^ Feher, Margit (3 March 2014). "Hungary Not Part of Russia-Ukraine Conflict, Premier Orban Says". Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  112. ^ "Iceland condemns Russian aggression in Crimea".
  113. ^ "Indonesia Calls For Maximum Restraint and Peaceful Settlement in Ukraine". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 4 March 2014. Archived from the original on 22 December 2014.
  114. ^ "Statement by the Tánaiste on the situation in Ukraine".
  115. ^ a b "Ukraine: MEPs urge EU to help financial rescue, but enact targeted sanctions too". European Parliament. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014. PLENARY SESSION Press release – External relations ... Ukraine's new leaders should distance themselves from extremists and avoid provocation that might fuel "separatist moves", MEPs warn, adding that they should respect the rights of minorities in the country, including the right to use Russian and other minority languages. MEPs also condemn a recent attack on the headquarters of the Communist Party of Ukraine.
  116. ^ "Renzi ammonisce la Russia: 'Una violazione inacettabile'" [Renzi warns Russia: 'The violence is unacceptable'].
  117. ^ "L'Italia: 'Sovranità violata in Crimea, inaccettabile'" [Italy: 'Violation of Crimean sovereignty is unacceptable'].
  118. ^ "Matteo Renzi alla Camera: "Illegittimo il referendum in Crimea"". L'Huffington Post. 19 March 2014.
  119. ^ "Ukraine: Mogherini at Foreign Affairs Council – Extraordinary Summit in Brussels. "Political solution only through dialogue"". Ministero degli Affari Esteri. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  120. ^ "Su Gerusalemme capitale e Crimea russa, Salvini irrita la Farnesina (di U. De Giovannangeli)". L’Huffington Post (in Italian). 20 July 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  121. ^ "Japan expresses concern over Russia's Ukraine move". Japan Today.
  122. ^ "Statement by President of Latvia, Speaker of Saeima, Prime Minister and Foreign Minister on Russia's interference in Ukraine" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  123. ^ a b Milda Seputyte; Aaron Eglitis (7 March 2014). "U.S. Fighters Circle Baltics as Putin Fans Fear of Russia". Bloomberg.
  124. ^ "Vaduz: Frick hofft auf friedliche Krim-Lösung".
  125. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania called the Russia's ambassador to talk about Crimea. UNIAN. 28 February 2014.
  126. ^ "Press Statement By Minister of Foreign Affairs On Developments in Ukraine". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  127. ^ "MEXICO EXPRESSES ITS DEEP CONCERN AT THE DETERIORATING SITUATION IN UKRAINE". Mexican Foreign Ministry. 8 March 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  128. ^ "Moldova's position towards critical situation in Ukraine".
  129. ^ "Crna Gora osudila "rusku agresiju"". B92.
  130. ^ "Rt Hon John Key Prime Minister on Ukraine Crisis". TVNZ.
  131. ^ "Statement of the Ministry of foreign affairs of the Republic of Macedonia on the situation in Ukraine".
  132. ^ "Norway condemns the Russian military escalation in the Crimea". 2 March 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  133. ^ "Statement on the situation in Ukraine". 26 February 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  134. ^ Polska Agencja Prasowa, Szef MON i ambasador USA: 12 myśliwców F-16 przyleci do Polski. Archived 2014-03-12 at Serwis Informacyjny PAP. 06.03.2014 Warszawa.
  135. ^ Polska Agencja Prasowa, Prezydent apeluje o wspólny wysiłek na rzecz modernizacji wojska. Archived 2014-03-12 at Serwis Informacyjny PAP. 11.03.2014 Warszawa.
  136. ^ "Germany's dependence on Russian gas poses risks for Europe – Polish PM | Reuters". 10 March 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
  137. ^ Polska Agencja Prasowa, Tusk: Sytuacja nigdy jeszcze nie była tak poważna. To, co się dzieje na Krymie to tylko etap planów Rosji. 11.03.2014.
  138. ^ "Oświadczenie MSZ o eskalacji sytuacji na Ukrainie wschodniej" (in Polish). The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Poland.
  139. ^ "Romania sees no immediate risks to national security related to Crimea crisis". Hotnews (in Romanian). 2 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  140. ^ "Criza din Ucraina March 6th 2014". 23 October 2014.
  141. ^ "Basescu, despre criza din Ucraina: Ce a facut Rusia e o agresiune, Romania trebuie sa se implice (Video)" (in Romanian). Retrieved 18 May 2014.
  142. ^ "MFA Press Release: Remarks by Minister for Foreign Affairs K Shanmugam, 2nd Minister for Foreign Affairs Grace Fu, SMS for Foreign Affairs Masagos Zulkifli and SPS for Foreign Affairs Sam Tan in Parliament during the Committee of Supply Debate on 5 March".
  143. ^ "STA: Bratuškova: Narediti moramo vse, da v Ukrajini ne pride do oboroženega spopada". Retrieved 18 May 2014.
  144. ^ "COMUNICADO 061 Situación en Ucrania" (in Spanish). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  145. ^ "Swedish PM: Russian worries 'understandable' – The Local".
  146. ^ Karlsson (19 March 2014). "Reinfeldt orolig inför toppmötet". (in Swedish). Aftonbladet. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  147. ^ "Carl Bildt". Twitter. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  148. ^ "Bildt: Russia is breaking the law in Ukraine". The Local. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  149. ^ "Turkey closely following developments in Crimea". Journal of Turkish Weekly. 28 February 2014. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  150. ^ "Ankara'dan Ukrayna'da 'toprak bütünlüğü' ve 'uluslararası hukuka saygı' vurgusu". EurActiv. 5 March 2014. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  151. ^ "Ukraine to form Muslim military unit to fight Russia". Trtworld. 4 August 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.[permanent dead link]
  152. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 October 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  153. ^ "Russia Approves Military Action". Sky News. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  154. ^ "British Officials to Boycott Sochi Paralympics". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  155. ^ Nicholas Watt. "Ukraine: UK to push for tougher sanctions against Russia over Crimea". The Guardian.
  156. ^ "Statement by the President on Ukraine". 28 February 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014 – via National Archives.
  157. ^ DeYoung, Karen (1 March 2014). "Obama speaks with Putin by phone, calls on Russia to pull forces back to Crimea bases". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  158. ^ "Kerry condemns Russia's 'incredible act of aggression' in Ukraine". Reuters. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  159. ^ "USA won't send presidential delegation to Sochi Paralympics". USA Today. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  160. ^ "Executive Order 13660 – Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine". (Press release). 6 March 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014 – via National Archives.
  161. ^ "Sanctions: US and EU action on Ukraine" (PDF). PwC Financial Services Regulatory Practice, March, 2014.
  162. ^ "Executive Order – Blocking Property of Additional Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine". (Press release). 17 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014 – via National Archives.
  163. ^ Cox, Ramsey (25 March 2014). "Reid sets up Ukraine vote for Thursday". The Hill. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  164. ^ "H.R. 4152 – Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  165. ^ "S. 2124 – CBO Cost Estimate" (PDF). Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
  166. ^ "H.R. 4278 – Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  167. ^ "US energy department suspends peaceful atom projects with Russia". TASS.
  168. ^ "Meetings" (PDF). Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  169. ^ "Investment Incentives".
  170. ^ 外交部 (9 January 2015). "中華民國外交部 – 全球資訊網 Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan)".
  171. ^ United Nations General Assembly resolution A/73/L.47
  172. ^ "Lagumdžija: Ukrajina ima pravo da svoju budućnost definiše samostalno".
  173. ^ "Pro-Russian Bosnian Serb leader claims Crimea issue "settled" | UNIAN". 6 March 2017. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  174. ^ "India's balancing act in Crimea crisis – Asia – DW.DE – 01.04.2014". DW.DE.
  175. ^ Zachary Keck. "India Backs Russia's 'Legitimate Interests' in Ukraine". The Diplomat.
  176. ^ "Ukraine crisis: India asks nationals to leave Donetsk, Lugansk". Firstpost.
  177. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic of Kazakhstan". Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
  178. ^ "Pakistan urges peaceful end to Ukraine crisis". The Nation. 6 March 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
  179. ^ "Serbia supports territorial integrity, sovereignty of Ukraine". Government of the Republic of Serbia. 5 November 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  180. ^ "Aleksandar Vucic says recognition of Crimea as Russian would mean support of Kosovo's independence". KyivPost. 2 June 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  181. ^ "Remarks by FM Spokesman Le Hai Binh on 5 March 2014 regarding the situation in Ukraine".
  182. ^ "Russia's Actions in Crimea Stir Bad Memories in Former East Bloc". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 6 March 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  183. ^ "Statement of the Information Agency "Jahon" on the Events in Ukraine".