Clockwise from top left: A large European flag is waved across Maidan on 27 November 2013; opposition activist and popular singer Ruslana addresses the crowds on Maidan on 29 November 2013; Euromaidan on European Square on 1 December; plinth of the toppled Lenin statue; crowds direct hose at militsiya; tree decorated with flags and posters.
Date21 November 2013 (2013-11-21) – 22 February 2014 (3 months and 1 day)
Ukraine, primarily Maidan Nezalezhnosti in Kyiv
Caused by
Main catalyst:
MethodsDemonstrations, civil disobedience, civil resistance, hacktivism,[11] occupation of administrative buildings[nb 1]
Resulted in
Full results

Government of Ukraine

Pro-government groups


Supported by:

Lead figures

400,000–800,000 protesters[60]
12,000 "self-defense sotnia"[61][62]

Across Ukraine:
50,000 (Lviv)[63]
20,000 (Cherkasy)[64]
10,000+ (Ternopil)[65]
other cities and towns

Law enforcement in Kyiv:

  • 4,000 Berkut
  • 1,000 Internal Troops

3,000–4,000 titushky[66]
Pro-government/anti-EU demonstrations:
20,000–60,000 (Kyiv)
40,000 (Kharkiv)[67]
15,000 (Donetsk)[68]
10,000 (Simferopol)[69]

2,500 pro-Russia (Sevastopol)[70]
Casualties and losses
  • Died: 108[71]
  • Injured: 1,850–1,900 (sought medical help as of 21 January 2014)[72]
    681 (hospitalised as of 30 January 2014)[73][74]
  • Missing (probably abducted): 166–300[75][76] (as of 30 March 2014)
  • Arrested: 234[77]
  • Imprisoned: 140[77]
  • ...further details

Euromaidan (/ˌjʊərəmˈdɑːn, ˌjʊər-/ YOOR-ə-my-DAHN, YOOR-oh-;[82][83] Ukrainian: Євромайдан, romanizedYevromaidan, IPA: [ˌjɛu̯romɐjˈdɑn], lit.'Euro Square'),[nb 6] or the Maidan Uprising,[87] was a wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Ukraine, which began on 21 November 2013 with large protests in Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square) in Kyiv. The protests were sparked by President Viktor Yanukovych's sudden decision not to sign the European Union–Ukraine Association Agreement, instead choosing closer ties to Russia and the Eurasian Economic Union. Ukraine's parliament had overwhelmingly approved of finalizing the Agreement with the EU,[88] but Russia had put pressure on Ukraine to reject it.[89] The scope of the protests widened, with calls for the resignation of Yanukovych and the Azarov government.[90] Protesters opposed what they saw as widespread government corruption, abuse of power, human rights violations,[91] and the influence of oligarchs.[92] Transparency International named Yanukovych as the top example of corruption in the world.[93] The violent dispersal of protesters on 30 November caused further anger.[5] Euromaidan was the largest democratic mass movement in Europe since 1989[94] and led to the 2014 Revolution of Dignity.

During the uprising, Independence Square (Maidan) in Kyiv was a huge protest camp occupied by thousands of protesters and protected by makeshift barricades. It had kitchens, first aid posts and broadcasting facilities, as well as stages for speeches, lectures, debates and performances.[95][96] It was guarded by 'Maidan Self-Defense' units made up of volunteers in improvised uniform and helmets, carrying shields and armed with sticks, stones and petrol bombs. Protests were also held in many other parts of Ukraine. In Kyiv, there were clashes with police on 1 December; and police assaulted the camp on 11 December. Protests increased from mid-January, in response to the government introducing draconian anti-protest laws. There were deadly clashes on Hrushevsky Street on 19–22 January. Protesters then occupied government buildings in many regions of Ukraine. The uprising climaxed on 18–20 February, when fierce fighting in Kyiv between Maidan activists and police resulted in the deaths of almost 100 protesters and 13 police.[71]

As a result, Yanukovych and the parliamentary opposition signed an agreement on 21 February to bring about an interim unity government, constitutional reforms and early elections. Police abandoned central Kyiv that afternoon, then Yanukovych and other government ministers fled the city that evening.[97] The next day, parliament removed Yanukovych from office[98] and installed an interim government.[99] The Revolution of Dignity was soon followed by the Russian annexation of Crimea and pro-Russian unrest in Eastern Ukraine, eventually escalating into the Russo-Ukrainian War.


Protesters in Kyiv, 29 December 2013

The demonstrations began on the night of 21 November 2013, when protests erupted in the capital, Kyiv, after the Ukrainian government rejected draft laws that would allow the release of jailed opposition leader Yulia Tymoshenko and suspend preparations for signing the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement with the European Union, to seek closer economic relations with Russia.[100] The reversal was preceded by a campaign of threats, insults and preemptive trade restrictions from Russia.[101][102][103][104]

After a few days of demonstrations an increasing number of university students joined the protests.[105] The Euromaidan has been characterised as an event of major political symbolism for the European Union itself, particularly as "the largest ever pro-European rally in history."[106]

The protests continued despite heavy police presence,[107][108] regularly sub-freezing temperatures, and snow. Escalating violence from government forces in the early morning of 30 November caused the level of protests to rise, with 400,000–800,000 protesters, according to Russia's opposition politician Boris Nemtsov, demonstrating in Kyiv on the weekends of 1 December[60] and 8 December.[109] In the preceding weeks, protest attendance had fluctuated from 50,000 to 200,000 during organised rallies.[110][111] Violent riots took place 1 December and 19 January through 25 January in response to police brutality and government repression.[112] Starting 23 January, several Western Ukrainian Oblast (province) government buildings and regional councils were occupied in a revolt by Euromaidan activists.[16] In the Russophone cities of Zaporizhzhya, Sumy, and Dnipropetrovsk, protesters also tried to take over their local government buildings and were met with considerable force from both police and government supporters.[16]

According to journalist Lecia Bushak writing in the 18 February 2014 issue of Newsweek magazine,

EuroMaidan [had] grown into something far bigger than just an angry response to the fallen-through EU deal. It's now about ousting Yanukovych and his corrupt government; guiding Ukraine away from its 200-year-long, deeply intertwined and painful relationship with Russia; and standing up for basic human rights to protest, speak and think freely and to act peacefully without the threat of punishment.[113]

Late February marked a turning point when many members of the president's party fled or defected, causing it to lose its majority in parliament. A sufficient number of opposition members remained to form the necessary quorum. This allowed parliament to pass a series of laws that removed police from Kyiv, canceled anti-protest operations, restored the 2004 constitution, freed political detainees, and removed President Yanukovych from office. Yanukovych then fled to Ukraine's second-largest city of Kharkiv, refusing to recognise the parliament's decisions. The parliament assigned early elections for May 2014.[114]

In early 2019, a Ukrainian court found Yanukovych guilty of treason. Yanukovych was also charged with asking Vladimir Putin to send Russian troops to invade Ukraine after he had fled the country. The charges have had little practical effect on Yanukovych, who has lived in exile in the Russian city of Rostov since fleeing Ukraine under armed guard in 2014.[115]


Name history

The term "Euromaidan" was initially used as a hashtag on Twitter.[84] A Twitter account named Euromaidan was created on the first day of the protests.[116] It soon became popular across international media.[117]

The name is composed of two parts: "Euro" is short for Europe, reflecting the pro-European aspirations of the protestors, and "maidan" refers to Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square), the large square in downtown Kyiv, where the protests mostly took place. The word "Maidan" is a Persian word meaning "square" or "open space". It is a loanword in many other languages and was adopted into both the Ukrainian and Russian languages during the period of Ottoman Empire influence on Ukraine.[citation needed] During the protests, the word "Maidan" acquired the meaning of the public practice of politics and protest.[118]

When Euromaidan first began, media outlets in Ukraine dubbed the movement Eurorevolution[119] (Ukrainian: Єврореволюція, Russian: Еврореволюция).[120][121] The term "Ukrainian Spring" was also occasionally used during the protests, echoing the term Arab Spring.[122][123]

Initial causes

Main articles: Ukraine–European Union relations and Russia–Ukraine relations

On 30 March 2012 the European Union (EU) and Ukraine initiated an Association Agreement;[124] however, the EU leaders later stated that the agreement would not be ratified unless Ukraine addressed concerns over a "stark deterioration of democracy and the rule of law", including the imprisonment of Yulia Tymoshenko and Yuriy Lutsenko in 2011 and 2012.[125][nb 7] In the months leading up to the protests Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych urged the parliament to adopt laws so that Ukraine would meet the EU's criteria.[127][128] On 25 September 2013 Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada (Ukraine's parliament) Volodymyr Rybak stated he was sure that his parliament would pass all the laws needed to fit the EU criteria for the Association Agreement since, except for the Communist Party of Ukraine, "The Verkhovna Rada has united around these bills."[129] According to Pavlo Klimkin, one of the Ukrainian negotiators of the Association Agreement, initially "the Russians simply did not believe [the association agreement with the EU] could come true. They didn't believe in our ability to negotiate a good agreement and didn't believe in our commitment to implement a good agreement."[130]

In mid-August 2013 Russia changed its customs regulations on imports from Ukraine[131] such that on 14 August 2013, the Russian Customs Service stopped all goods coming from Ukraine[132] and prompted politicians[133] and media[134][135][136] to view the move as the start of a trade war against Ukraine to prevent Ukraine from signing a trade agreement with the European Union. Ukrainian Industrial Policy Minister Mykhailo Korolenko stated on 18 December 2013 that because of this Ukraine's exports had dropped by $1.4 billion (or a 10% year-on-year decrease through the first 10 months of the year).[131] The State Statistics Service of Ukraine reported in November 2013 that in comparison with the same months of 2012, industrial production in Ukraine in October 2013 had fallen by 4.9 per cent, in September 2013 by 5.6 per cent, and in August 2013 by 5.4 per cent (and that the industrial production in Ukraine in 2012 total had fallen by 1.8 per cent).[137]

On 21 November 2013 a Ukrainian government decree suspended preparations for signing of the Association Agreement.[138][139][140] The reason given was that in the previous months Ukraine had experienced "a drop in industrial production and our relations with CIS [Commonwealth of Independent States] countries".[141][nb 8] The government also assured, "Ukraine will resume preparing the agreement when the drop in industrial production and our relations with Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries are compensated by the European market."[141] According to Ukrainian Prime Minister Mykola Azarov, "the extremely harsh conditions" of an International Monetary Fund (IMF) loan (presented by the IMF on 20 November 2013), which included big budget cuts and a 40% increase in gas bills, had been the last argument in favour of the Ukrainian government's decision to suspend preparations for signing the Association Agreement.[143][144] On 7 December 2013 the IMF clarified that it was not insisting on a single-stage increase in natural gas tariffs in Ukraine by 40%, but recommended that they be gradually raised to an economically justified level while compensating the poorest segments of the population for the losses from such an increase by strengthening targeted social assistance.[145] The same day, IMF Resident Representative in Ukraine Jerome Vacher stated that this particular IMF loan was worth US$4 billion and that it would be linked with "policy, which would remove disproportions and stimulate growth".[146][nb 9]

President Yanukovych attended the 28–29 November 2013 EU summit in Vilnius (where originally it was planned that the Association Agreement would be signed on 29 November 2013),[127] but the Association Agreement was not signed.[148][149] Both Yanukovych and high level EU officials signalled that they wanted to sign the Association Agreement at a later date.[150][151][152] Yanukovych explained later to his own entourage the decision as the result of an exchange with Putin, who had allegedly threatened to occupy Crimea and a good part of southeastern Ukraine, including the Donbas, if he signed the EU agreement.[153]

In an interview with Lally Weymouth, Ukrainian billionaire businessman and opposition leader Petro Poroshenko said:

From the beginning, I was one of the organizers of the Maidan. My television channel—Channel 5—played a tremendously important role. We gave the opportunity to the journalists to tell the truth.... On the 11th of December, when we had [U.S. Assistant Secretary of State] Victoria Nuland and [E.U. diplomat] Catherine Ashton in Kyiv, during the night they started to storm the Maidan. I put my car in front of the riot police.[154]

On 11 December 2013 the Prime Minister, Mykola Azarov, said he had asked for €20 billion (US$27 billion) in loans and aid to offset the cost of the EU deal.[155] The EU was willing to offer €610 million (US$838 million) in loans,[156] but Russia was willing to offer US$15 billion in loans.[156] Russia also offered Ukraine cheaper gas prices.[156] As a condition for the loans, the EU required major changes to the regulations and laws in Ukraine. Russia did not.[155]


Opposition leaders Vitali Klitschko, Arseniy Yatsenyuk and Oleh Tyahnybok, addressing demonstrators, 27 November 2013

On 29 November, a formal resolution by protest organisers made the following demands:[107]

  1. The formation of a co-ordinating committee to communicate with the European community.
  2. A statement indicating that the president, parliament, and the Cabinet of Ministers weren't capable of carrying out a geopolitically strategic course of development for the state and demanding Yanukovych's resignation.
  3. The cessation of political repression against EuroMaidan activists, students, civic activists and opposition leaders.

The resolution stated that on 1 December, on the 22nd anniversary of Ukraine's independence referendum, the group would gather at noon on Independence Square to announce their further course of action.[107]

After the forced police dispersal of all protesters from Maidan Nezalezhnosti on the night of 30 November, the dismissal of Minister of Internal Affairs Vitaliy Zakharchenko became one of the protesters' main demands.[157]

A petition to the US White House demanding sanctions against Viktor Yanukovych and Ukrainian government ministers gathered over 100,000 signatures in four days.[158][159][160]

Ukrainian students nationwide also demanded the dismissal of Minister of Education Dmytro Tabachnyk.[161]

On 5 December, Batkivshchyna faction leader Arseniy Yatsenyuk stated,

Our three demands to the Verkhovna Rada and the president remained unchanged: the resignation of the government; the release of all political prisoners, first and foremost; [the release of former Ukrainian Prime Minister] Yulia Tymoshenko; and [the release of] nine individuals [who were illegally convicted after being present at a rally on Bankova Street on December 1]; the suspension of all criminal cases; and the arrest of all Berkut officers who were involved in the illegal beating up of children on Maidan Nezalezhnosti.[162]

The opposition also demanded that the government resume negotiations with the IMF for a loan that they saw as key to helping Ukraine "through economic troubles that have made Yanukovych lean toward Russia".[163]

Timeline of the events

Euromaidan protestors on 27 November 2013, Kyiv, Ukraine
Euromaidan protestors on 27 November 2013, Kyiv, Ukraine
The protest camp in Kyiv

Main article: Timeline of the Euromaidan

The Euromaidan protest movement began late at night on 21 November 2013 as a peaceful protest.[164] The 1,500 protesters were summoned following a Facebook post by a journalist, Mustafa Nayyem, calling for a rally against the government.[165][166]

Protests in Kyiv

On 30 November 2013, protests were dispersed violently by Berkut riot police units.[167] On 1 December, more than half a million Kyivans joined the protests in order to defend the students "and to protect society in the face of crippling authoritarianism",[168] and through December, further clashes with the authorities and political ultimatums by the opposition ensued. This culminated in a series of anti-protest laws by the government on 16 January 2014 and further rioting on Hrushevskoho Street. Early February 2014 saw a bombing of the Trade Unions Building,[169] as well as the formation of "Self Defense" teams by protesters.[170]

1 December 2013 protests

Main article: 1 December 2013 Euromaidan protests

11 December 2013 assault on Maidan

Protesters clashing with riot police on 11 December 2013
Protesters surround the Ministry of Justice, Kyiv, 27 January 2014

Main article: 11 December 2013 Euromaidan assault

Hrushevsky Street protests

Main article: 2014 Hrushevskoho Street protests

On 19 January, up to 200,000 protesters gathered in central Kyiv to oppose the new anti-protest laws, dubbed the Dictatorship Laws.[171][172] Many protesters ignored the face concealment ban by wearing party masks, hard hats and gas masks.[173] They attempted to march from the Maidan to the parliament buildings. Fierce clashes broke out on Hrushevsky Street when the protest march was blocked by riot police. The violent standoff continued for three days, during which three protesters were shot dead by riot police.[71]

February 2014: Revolution

Main article: Revolution of Dignity

The deadliest clashes were on 18–20 February, which saw the most severe violence in Ukraine since it regained independence.[174] Thousands of protesters advanced towards parliament, led by activists with shields and helmets, and were fired on by the Berkut and police snipers. Almost 100 were killed.[71][175]

On 21 February, an agreement was signed by Yanukovych and leaders of the parliamentary opposition (Vitaly Klitschko, Arseny Yatsenyuk, Oleh Tyahnybok) under the mediation of EU and Russian representatives. There was to be an interim unity government formed, constitutional reforms to reduce the president's powers, and early elections.[92] Protesters were to leave occupied buildings and squares, and the government would not apply a state of emergency.[92] The United States supported a stipulation that Yanukovych remain president in the meantime, but Maidan protesters demanded his resignation.[92] The signing was witnessed by Foreign Ministers of Poland, Germany and France.[176] The Russian representative would not sign the agreement.[92]

The next day, 22 February, Yanukovych fled to Donetsk and Crimea and parliament voted to remove him from office.[177][178][179] On 24 February Yanukovych arrived in Russia.[180]

Protests across Ukraine

City Peak attendees Date Ref.
Kyiv 400,000–800,000 1 Dec [60]
Lviv 50,000 1 Dec [63]
Kharkiv 30,000 22 Feb [181]
Cherkasy 20,000 23 Jan [64]
Ternopil 20,000+ 8 Dec [182]
Dnipropetrovsk (now Dnipro) 15,000 2 Mar [107][183]
Ivano-Frankivsk 10,000+ 8 Dec [184]
Lutsk 8,000 1 Dec [185]
Sumy 10,000 2 Mar [186]
Poltava 10,000 24 Jan [187]
Donetsk 10,000 5 Mar [188]
Zaporizhzhia 10,000 26 Jan [189]
Chernivtsi 4,000–5,000 1 Dec [185]
Simferopol 5,000+ 23 Feb [190]
Rivne 4,000–8,000 2 Dec [191]
Mykolaiv 10,000 2 Mar [192]
Mukacheve 3,000 24 Nov [193]
Odesa 10,000 2 Mar [194]
Khmelnytskyi 8,000 24 Jan [184]
Bila Tserkva 2,000+ 24 Jan [195]
Sambir 2,000+ 1 Dec [196]
Vinnytsia 5,000 8 Dec 22 Jan [197]
Zhytomyr 2,000 23 Jan [198]
Kirovohrad 1,000 8 Dec 24 Jan [187][199]
Kryvyi Rih 1,000 1 Dec [200]
Luhansk 1,000 8 Dec [201]
Uzhhorod 1,000 24 Jan [202]
Drohobych 500–800 25 Nov [203]
Kherson 2,500 3 Mar [204]
Mariupol 400 26 Jan [205]
Chernihiv 150–200 22 Nov [206]
Izmail 150 22 Feb [207]
Vasylkiv 70 4 Dec [208]
Yalta 50 20 Feb [209]

A 24 November 2013 protest in Ivano-Frankivsk saw several thousand protestors gather at the regional administration building.[210] No classes were held in the universities of western Ukrainian cities such as Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Uzhhorod.[211] Protests also took place in other large Ukrainian cities, such as Kharkiv, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk (now Dnipro), and Luhansk. The rally in Lviv in support of the integration of Ukraine into the EU was initiated by the students of local universities. This rally saw 25–30 thousand protesters gather on Liberty Avenue [uk] in Lviv. The organisers planned to continue this rally until the 3rd Eastern Partnership summit in Vilnius, Lithuania, on 28–29 November 2013.[212] A rally in Simferopol, which drew around 300, saw nationalists and Crimean Tatars unite to support European integration; the protesters sang both the Ukrainian national anthem and the anthem of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen.[213]

7 people were injured after a tent encampment in Dnipropetrovsk was ordered cleared by court order on 25 November and it appeared that thugs had undertaken to perform the clearance.[214][215] Officials estimated the number of attackers to be 10–15,[216] and police did not intervene in the attacks.[217] Similarly, police in Odesa ignored calls to stop the demolition of Euromaidan camps in the city by a group of 30, and instead removed all parties from the premises.[218] 50 police officers and men in plain clothes also drove out a Euromaidan protest in Chernihiv the same day.[219]

On 25 November, in Odesa, 120 police raided and destroyed a tent encampment made by protesters at 5:20 in the morning. The police detained three of the protesters, including the leader of the Odesa branch of Democratic Alliance, Alexei Chorny. All three were beaten in the police vehicle and then taken to the Portofrankovsk Police Station without their arrival being recorded. The move came after the District Administrative Court earlier issued a ban restricting citizens' right to peaceful assembly until New Year. The court ruling places a blanket ban on all demonstrations, the use of tents, sound equipment and vehicles until the end of the year.[220]

On 26 November, a rally of 50 was held in Donetsk.[221]

On 28 November, a rally was held in Yalta; university faculty who attended were pressured to resign by university officials.[222]

On 29 November, Lviv protesters numbered some 20,000.[223] Like in Kyiv, they locked hands in a human chain, symbolically linking Ukraine to the European Union (organisers claimed that some 100 people even crossed the Ukrainian-Polish border to extend the chain to the European Union).[223][224]

The largest pro-European Union protests outside Kyiv took place at the Taras Shevchenko monument in Lviv
Pro-European Union protests in Luhansk

On 1 December, the largest rally outside of Kyiv took place in Lviv by the statue of Taras Shevchenko, where over 50,000 protesters attended. Mayor Andriy Sadovy, council chairman Peter Kolody, and prominent public figures and politicians were in attendance.[63] An estimated 300 rallied in the eastern city of Donetsk demanding that President Viktor Yanukovych and the government of Prime Minister Mykola Azarov resign.[225] Meanwhile, in Kharkiv, thousands rallied with writer Serhiy Zhadan during a speech, calling for revolution. The protest was peaceful.[226][227][228] Protesters claimed at least 4,000 attended,[229] with other sources saying 2,000.[230] In Dnipropetrovsk, 1,000 gathered to protest the EU agreement suspension, show solidarity with those in Kyiv, and demanded the resignation of local and metropolitan officials. They later marched, shouting "Ukraine is Europe" and "Revolution".[231] EuroMaidan protests were also held in Simferopol (where 150–200 attended)[232] and Odesa.[233]

On 2 December, in an act of solidarity, Lviv Oblast declared a general strike to mobilise support for protests in Kyiv,[234] which was followed by the formal order of a general strike by the cities of Ternopil and Ivano-Frankivsk.[235]

In Dnipropetrovsk on 3 December, a group of 300 protested in favour of European integration and demanded the resignation of local authorities, heads of local police units, and the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU).[236]

On 7 December it was reported that police were prohibiting those from Ternopil and Ivano-Frankivsk from driving to Kyiv.[237]

Protests on 8 December saw record turnout in many Ukrainian cities, including several in eastern Ukraine. in the evening, the fall of the monument to Lenin in Kyiv took place.[238]

On 9 December, a statue of Vladimir Lenin was destroyed in the town of Kotovsk in Odesa Oblast.[239] In Ternopil, Euromaidan organisers were prosecuted by authorities.[240]

The removal or destruction of Lenin monuments and statues gained particular momentum after the destruction of the Kyiv Lenin statue. The statue removal process was soon termed “Leninopad” (Ukrainian: Ленінопад, Russian: Ленинопад), literally meaning 'Leninfall' in English. Soon, activists pulled down a dozen monuments in the Kyiv region, Zhytomyr, Chmelnitcki, and elsewhere, or damaged them during the course of the Euromaidan protests into spring of 2014.[241] In other cities and towns, monuments were removed by organised heavy equipment and transported to scrapyards or dumps.[242]

On 14 December, Euromaidan supporters in Kharkiv voiced their disapproval of authorities fencing off Freedom Square from the public by covering the metal fence in placards.[243] From 5 December, they became victims of theft and arson.[244] A Euromaidan activist in Kharkiv was attacked by two men and stabbed twelve times. The assailants were unknown, but activists told the Kharkiv-based civic organisation Maidan that they believe the city's mayor, Gennady Kernes, to be behind the attack.[245]

On 22 December, 2,000 rallied in Dnipropetrovsk.[246]

New Year celebration on Maidan

In late December, 500 marched in Donetsk. Due to the regime's hegemony in the city, foreign commentators have suggested that, "For 500 marchers to assemble in Donetsk is the equivalent of 50,000 in Lviv or 500,000 in Kyiv."[247][better source needed] On 5 January, marches in support of Euromaidan were held in Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Odesa, and Kharkiv, the latter three drawing several hundred and Donetsk only 100.[248]

On 11 January 2014, 150 activists met in Kharkiv for a general forum on uniting the nationwide Euromaidan efforts. A church where some were meeting was stormed by over a dozen thugs, and others attacked meetings in a book store, smashing windows and deploying tear gas to stop the Maidan meetings from taking place.[249]

Police clash with protesters

On 22 January in Donetsk, two simultaneous rallies were held – one pro-Euromaidan and one pro-government. The pro-government rally attracted 600 attendees, compared to about 100 from the Euromaidan side. Police reports claimed 5,000 attended to support the government, compared to only 60 from Euromaidan. In addition, approximately 150 titushky appeared and encircled the Euromaidan protesters with megaphones and began a conflict, burning wreaths and Svoboda Party flags, shouting, "Down with fascists!", but were separated by police.[250] Meanwhile, Donetsk City Council pleaded with the government to take tougher measures against Euromaidan protesters in Kyiv.[251] Reports indicated a media blackout took place in Donetsk.[citation needed]

In Lviv on 22 January, amid the police shootings of protesters in the capital, military barracks were surrounded by protesters. Many of the protesters included mothers whose sons were serving in the military, who pleaded with them not to deploy to Kyiv.[252]

In Vinnytsia on 22 January, thousands of protesters blocked the main street of the city and the traffic. Also, they brought "democracy in coffin" to the city hall, as a present to Yanukovych.[253]

On 23 January. Odesa city council member and Euromaidan activist Oleksandr Ostapenko's car was bombed.[254] The Mayor of Sumy threw his support behind the Euromaidan movement on 24 January, laying blame for the civil disorder in Kyiv on the Party of Regions and Communists.[255]

The Crimean parliament repeatedly stated that because of the events in Kyiv it was ready to join autonomous Crimea to Russia. On 27 February, armed men seized the Crimean parliament and raised the Russian flag.[256] 27 February was later declared a day of celebration for the Russian Spetsnaz special forces by Vladimir Putin by presidential decree.[257]

In the beginning of March, thousands of Crimean Tatars in support of Euromaidan clashed with a smaller group of pro-Russian protesters in Simferopol.[258][259]

On 4 March 2014, a mass pro-Euromaidan rally was held in Donetsk for the first time. About 2,000 people were there. Donetsk is a major city in the far east of Ukraine and served as Yanukovych's stronghold and the base of his supporters. On 5 March 2014, 7,000–10,000 people rallied in support of Euromaidan in the same place.[260] After a leader declared the rally over, a fight broke out between pro-Euromaidan and 2,000 pro-Russian protesters.[260][261]

Occupation of administrative buildings

Main article: 2014 Euromaidan regional state administration occupations

Starting on 23 January, several Western Ukrainian oblast (province) government buildings and Regional State Administrations (RSAs) were occupied by Euromaidan activists.[16] Several RSAs of the occupied oblasts then decided to ban the activities and symbols of the Communist Party of Ukraine and Party of Regions in their oblast.[17] In the cities of Zaporizhzhia, Dnipropetrovsk and Odesa, protesters also tried to take over their local RSAs.[16]

Protests outside Ukraine

Euromaidan in Munich

See also: International reactions to the Euromaidan § Solidarity demonstrations and protests

Smaller protests or Euromaidans have been held internationally, primarily among the larger Ukrainian diaspora populations in North America and Europe. The largest took place on 8 December 2013 in New York, with over 1,000 attending. Notably, in December 2013, Warsaw's Palace of Culture and Science,[262] Cira Centre in Philadelphia,[263] the Tbilisi City Assembly in Georgia,[264] and Niagara Falls on the US-Canada border were illuminated in blue and yellow as a symbol of solidarity with Ukraine.[265]

Antimaidan and pro-government rallies

Main article: Anti-Maidan

Pro-government rallies during Euromaidan were largely credited as funded by the government.[266][267] Several news outlets investigated the claims to confirm that by and large, attendees at pro-government rallies did so for financial compensation and not for political reasons, and were not an organic response to the Euromaidan. "People stand at Euromaidan protesting against the violation of human rights in the state, and they are ready to make sacrifices," said Oleksiy Haran, a political scientist at Kyiv Mohyla Academy in Kyiv. "People at Antimaidan stand for money only. The government uses these hirelings to provoke resistance. They won't be sacrificing anything."[268]

Euromaidan groups


Main article: Automaidan

Automaidan[269] was a movement within Euromaidan that sought the resignation of Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych. It was made up mainly of drivers who would protect the protest camps and blockade streets. It organised a car procession on 29 December 2013 to the president's residence in Mezhyhirya to voice their protests at his refusal to sign the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement in December 2013. The motorcade was stopped a couple of hundred metres short of his residence. Automaidan was the repeated target of violent attacks by government forces and supporters.[citation needed]

Self-defence groups

Self-defense of the Maidan

On 30 November 2013, the day after the dispersion of the first major protests, Euromaidan activists, with the support of pro-Maidan political parties such as Svoboda, and aided by the Ukrainian politician and businessman Arsen Avakov,[270] created a self-defence group entitled “Self-Defence of the Maidan" or “Maidan Self-Defence” – an independent police force that aimed to protect protesters from riot police and provide security within Kyiv.[271][272] At the time, the head of the group was designated as Andriy Parubiy.[273]

“Self-Defence of the Maidan” adhered to a charter that “promoted the European choice and unity of Ukraine”,[270] and were not officially allowed to mask themselves or carry weapons, although most men in the group did not adhere to such rules and groups of volunteers were mainly fractured under a centralised leadership. The group ran its headquarters from a former women’s shoe store in central Kyiv, organising patrols, recruiting new members, and taking queries from the public. The makeshift headquarters was run by volunteers from across Ukraine.[270] After the ousting of President Yanukovych, the group took on a much larger role, serving as the de facto police force in Kyiv in early 2014, as most police officers abandoned their posts for fears of reprisal.[270] Aiming to prevent looting or arson from tainting the success of Euromaidan, government buildings were among the first buildings to be protected by the group, with institutions such as the Verkhovna Rada (Parliament of Ukraine) and the National Bank of Ukraine under 24-hour supervision during this time.[270]

“Self-defence” groups such as “Self-Defence of the Maidan” were divided up into sotnias (plural: sotni) or 'hundreds', which were described as a "force that is providing the tip of the spear in the violent showdown with government security forces". The sotni take their name from a traditional form of Cossacks cavalry formation, and were also used in the Ukrainian People's Army, Ukrainian Insurgent Army, and Ukrainian National Army.[274]

Along with “Self-Defence of the Maidan”, there were also some "independent" divisions of enforcers (some of them were also referred to as sotnias and even as “Self-Defence” groups), like the security of the Trade Unions Building until 2 January 2014,[275] Narnia and Vikings from Kyiv City State Administration,[276] Volodymr Parasyuk's sotnia from Conservatory building,[277][278] although Andriy Parubiy officially asked such divisions to not term themselves as “Self-Defence” groups.[279]

Pravy Sektor coordinates its actions with Self-defence and is formally a 23rd sotnia,[280] although already had hundreds of members at the time of registering as a sotnia. Second sotnia (staffed by Svoboda's members) tends to dissociate itself from "sotnias of self-defence of Maidan".[281]

Some Russian citizens sympathetic to the opposition joined the protest movement as part of the Misanthropic Division, many of them later becoming Ukrainian citizens.[39]


Main article: Maidan casualties

Ukrainian Red Cross Society volunteers administering first aid to a wounded protester, 19 January 2014

Altogether, more than 100 people were killed and 2,500 injured.[282] The death toll included 108 protesters and 13 police officers.[71] Most of the deaths and injuries were during the Revolution of Dignity in February 2014.[citation needed]

In November 2015, the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court released a legal analysis of the Maidan protests, concluding that: "violence against protesters, including the excessive use of force causing death and serious injury as well as other forms of ill-treatment, was actively promoted or encouraged by the Ukrainian authorities" under Yanukovych.[71]

By June 2016, 55 people had been charged in relation to the deaths of Maidan protesters, including 29 former members of the Berkut special police, ten titushky and ten senior government officials.[71]

Press and medics injured by police attacks

See also: 1 December 2013 Euromaidan riots and 2014 Hrushevskoho Street riots

A number of attacks by law enforcement agents on members of the media and medical personnel have been reported. Some 40 journalists were injured during the staged assault at Bankova Street on 1 December 2013. At least 42 more journalists were victims of police attacks at Hrushevskoho Street on 22 January 2014.[283] On 22 January 2014, Television News Service (TSN) reported that journalists started to remove their identifying uniform (vests and helmets), as they were being targeted, sometimes on purpose, sometimes accidentally.[284] Since 21 November 2013, a total of 136 journalists have been injured.[285]

On 21 January 2014, 26 journalists were injured, with at least two badly injured by police stun grenades;[286] 2 others were arrested by police.[287] On 22 January, a correspondent of Reuters, Vasiliy Fedosenko, was intentionally shot in the head by a marksman with rubber ammunition during clashes at Hrushevskoho Street.[288][289][290] Later, a journalist of Espresso TV Dmytro Dvoychenkov was kidnapped, beaten and taken to an unknown location, but later a parliamentarian was informed that he was finally released.[291] On 24 January, President Yanukovych ordered the release of all journalists from custody.[292] On 31 January, a video from 22 January 2014 was published that showed policemen in Berkut uniforms intentionally firing at a medic who raised his hands.[293] On 18 February 2014, American photojournalist Mark Estabrook was injured by Berkut forces, who threw two separate concussion grenades at him just inside the gate at the Hrushevskoho Street barricade, with shrapnel hitting him in the shoulder and lower leg. He continued bleeding all the way to Cologne, Germany for surgery. He was informed upon his arrival in Maidan to stay away from the hospitals in Kyiv to avoid Yanukovych's Berkut police capture (February 2014)[294][295][296]


Public opinion about Euromaidan

Maidan protesters in Kyiv, 19 January 2014

According to December 2013 polls (by three different pollsters), between 45% and 50% of Ukrainians supported Euromaidan, while between 42% and 50% opposed it.[297][298][299] The biggest support for the protest was found in Kyiv (about 75%) and western Ukraine (more than 80%).[297][300] Among Euromaidan protesters, 55% were from the west of the country, with 24% from central Ukraine and 21% from the east.[301]

In a poll taken on 7–8 December, 73% of protesters had committed to continue protesting in Kyiv as long as needed until their demands were fulfilled.[5] This number had increased to 82% as of 3 February 2014.[301] Polls also showed that the nation was divided in age: while a majority of young people were pro-EU, older generations (50 and above) more often preferred the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia.[302] More than 41% of protesters were ready to take part in the seizure of administrative buildings as of February, compared to 13 and 19 per cent during polls on 10 and 20 December 2013. At the same time, more than 50 per cent were ready to take part in the creation of independent military units, compared to 15 and 21 per cent during the past studies, respectively.[301]

According to a January poll, 45% of Ukrainians supported the protests, and 48% of Ukrainians disapproved of Euromaidan.[303]

In a March poll, 57% of Ukrainians said they supported the Euromaidan protests.[304]

A study of public opinion in regular and social media found that 74% of Russian speakers in Ukraine supported the Euromaidan movement, and a quarter opposed.[305]

Support for Euromaidan in Ukraine

Opposition leaders, 8 December 2013

According to a 4 to 9 December 2013 study[297] by Research & Branding Group, 49% of all Ukrainians supported Euromaidan and 45% had the opposite opinion. It was mostly supported in Western (84%) and Central Ukraine (66%). A third (33%) of residents of South Ukraine and 13% of residents of Eastern Ukraine supported Euromaidan as well. The percentage of people who do not support the protesters was 81% in East Ukraine, 60% in South Ukraine[nb 10], in Central Ukraine 27% and in Western Ukraine 11%. Polls have shown that two-thirds of Kyivans supported the ongoing protests.[300]

A poll conducted by the Kucheriv Democratic Initiatives Fund and Razumkov Center, between 20 and 24 December, showed that over 50% of Ukrainians supported the Euromaidan protests, while 42% opposed it.[299]

Another Research & Branding Group survey (conducted from 23 to 27 December) showed that 45% of Ukrainians supported Euromaidan, while 50% did not.[298] 43% of those polled thought that Euromaidan's consequences "sooner could be negative", while 31% of the respondents thought the opposite; 17% believed that Euromaidan would bring no negative consequences.[298]

An Ilko Kucheriv Democratic Initiatives Foundation survey of protesters conducted 7 and 8 December 2013 found that 92% of those who came to Kyiv from across Ukraine came on their own initiative, 6.3% was organised by a public movement, and 1.8% were organised by a party.[5][307] 70% Said they came to protest the police brutality of 30 November, and 54% to protest in support of the European Union Association Agreement signing. Among their demands, 82% wanted detained protesters freed, 80% wanted the government to resign, and 75% want president Yanukovych to resign and for snap elections.[5][308] The poll showed that 49.8% of the protesters are residents of Kyiv and 50.2% came from elsewhere in Ukraine. 38% Of the protesters are aged between 15 and 29, 49% are aged between 30 and 54, and 13% are 55 or older. A total of 57.2% of the protesters are men.[5][307]

In the eastern regions of Donetsk, Luhansk and Kharkiv, 29% of the population believe "In certain circumstances, an authoritarian regime may be preferable to a democratic one."[309][310]

According to polls, 11% of the Ukrainian population has participated in the Euromaidan demonstrations, and another 9% has supported the demonstrators with donations.[311]

Public opinion about EU integration

According to a 4 to 9 December 2013 study[297] by Research & Branding Group 46% of Ukrainians supported the integration of the country into EU, and 36% into the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia. Most support for EU integration could be found in West (81%) and in Central (56%) Ukraine; 30% of residents of South Ukraine and 18% of residents of Eastern Ukraine supported the integration with EU as well. Integration with the Customs Union was supported by 61% of East Ukraine and 54% of South Ukraine and also by 22% of Central and 7% of Western Ukraine.[citation needed]

According to a 7 to 17 December 2013 poll by the Sociological group "RATING", 49.1% of respondents would vote for Ukraine's accession to the European Union in a referendum, and 29.6% would vote against the motion.[312] Meanwhile, 32.5% of respondents would vote for Ukraine's accession to the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and 41.9% would vote against.[312]

Public opinion about joining the EU

According to an August 2013 study by a Donetsk company, Research & Branding Group,[313] 49% of Ukrainians supported signing the Association Agreement, while 31% opposed it and the rest had not decided yet. However, in a December poll by the same company, only 30% claimed that terms of the Association Agreement would be beneficial for the Ukrainian economy, while 39% said they were unfavourable for Ukraine. In the same poll, only 30% said the opposition would be able to stabilise the society and govern the country well, if coming to power, while 37% disagreed.[314]

Authors of the GfK Ukraine poll conducted 2–15 October 2013 claim that 45% of respondents believed Ukraine should sign an Association Agreement with the EU, whereas only 14% favoured joining the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and 15% preferred non-alignment. Full text of the EU-related question asked by GfK reads, "Should Ukraine sign the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement, and, in the future, become an EU member?"[315][316]

Another poll conducted in November by IFAK Ukraine for DW-Trend showed 58% of Ukrainians supporting the country's entry into the European Union.[317] On the other hand, a November 2013 poll by Kyiv International Institute of Sociology showed 39% supporting the country's entry into the European Union and 37% supporting Ukraine's accession to the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia.[318]

In December 2013, then Prime Minister of Ukraine Mykola Azarov refuted the pro-EU poll numbers claiming that many polls posed questions about Ukraine joining the EU, and that Ukraine had never been invited to join the Union,[319] but only to sign the European Union Association Agreement (a treaty between the EU and another country, in this case Ukraine).[320]

Comparison with the Orange Revolution

External image
image icon The writing on the wall «Revolution»

The pro-European Union protests were Ukraine's largest since the Orange Revolution of 2004, which saw Yanukovych forced to resign as prime minister over voting irregularities. Although comparing the 2013 events in the same East-West vector as 2004, with Ukraine remaining "a key geopolitical prize in eastern Europe" for Russia and the EU, The Moscow Times noted that Yanukovych's government was in a significantly stronger position following his election in 2010.[321] The Financial Times said the 2013 protests were "largely spontaneous, sparked by social media, and have caught Ukraine's political opposition unprepared" compared to their well-organised predecessors.[322] The hashtag #euromaidan (Ukrainian: #євромайдан, Russian: #евромайдан), emerged immediately on the first meeting of the protests and was highly useful as a communication instrument for protesters.[323] Vitali Klitschko wrote in a tweet[324] "Friends! All those who came to Maydan [Independence Square], well done! Who has not done it yet – join us now!" The protest hashtag also gained traction on the VKontakte social media network, and Klitschko tweeted a link to a speech[325] he made on the square saying that once the protest was 100,000-strong, "we'll go for Yanukovych" – referring to President Viktor Yanukovych.[323]

In an interview, opposition leader Yuriy Lutsenko, when asked if the current opposition was weaker than it was in 2004, argued that the opposition was stronger because the stakes were higher, "I asked each [of the opposition leaders]: 'Do you realise that this is not a protest? It is a revolution [...] we have two roads – we go to prison or we win.'"[326]

Paul Robert Magocsi illustrated the effect of the Orange Revolution on Euromaidan, saying,

Was the Orange Revolution a genuine revolution? Yes it was. And we see the effects today. The revolution wasn't a revolution of the streets or a revolution of (political) elections; it was a revolution of the minds of people, in the sense that for the first time in a long time, Ukrainians and people living in territorial Ukraine saw the opportunity to protest and change their situation. This was a profound change in the character of the population of the former Soviet Union.[327]

Lviv-based historian Yaroslav Hrytsak also remarked on the generational shift,

This is a revolution of the generation that we call the contemporaries of Ukraine's independence (who were born around the time of 1991); it is more similar to the Occupy Wall Street protests or those in Istanbul demonstrations (of this year). It's a revolution of young people who are very educated, people who are active in social media, who are mobile and 90 percent of whom have university degrees, but who don't have futures.[107]

According to Hrytsak: "Young Ukrainians resemble young Italians, Czech, Poles, or Germans more than they resemble Ukrainians who are 50 and older. This generation has a stronger desire for European integration and fewer regional divides than their seniors."[328] In a Kyiv International Institute of Sociology poll taken in September, joining the European Union was mostly supported by young Ukrainians (69.8% of those aged 18 to 29), higher than the national average of 43.2% support.[329][330] A November 2013 poll by the same institute found the same result with 70.8% aged 18 to 29 wanting to join the European Union while 39.7% was the national average of support.[329] An opinion poll by GfK conducted 2–15 October found that among respondents aged 16–29 with a position on integration, 73% favoured signing an Association Agreement with the EU, while only 45% of those over the age of 45 favoured Association. The lowest support for European integration was among people with incomplete secondary and higher education.[315]

Escalation to violence

Clashes on Hrushevskyi Street in Kyiv, 22 January 2014

The movement started peacefully but violence broke out, especially in January and February 2014.[331] The Associated Press said on 19 February 2014:

The latest bout of street violence began Tuesday when protesters attacked police lines and set fires outside parliament, accusing Yanukovych of ignoring their demands to enact constitutional reforms that would limit the president's power—a key opposition demand. Parliament, dominated by his supporters, was stalling on taking up a constitutional reform to limit presidential powers. Police responded by attacking the protest camp. Armed with water cannons, stun grenades and rubber bullets, police dismantled some barricades. But the protesters held their ground through the night, encircling the protest camp with new burning barricades of tires, furniture and debris.[332]

In the early stages of Euromaidan, there was discussion about whether the Euromaidan movement constituted a revolution. At the time many protest leaders (such as Oleh Tyahnybok) had already used this term frequently when addressing the public. Tyahnybok called in an official 2 December press release for police officers and members of the military to defect to 'the Ukrainian revolution'.[333]

In a Skype interview with media analyst Andrij Holovatyj, Vitaly Portnikov, Council Member of the "Maidan" National Alliance and President and Editor-in-Chief of the Ukrainian television channel TVi, stated "EuroMaidan is a revolution and revolutions can drag on for years" and that "what is happening in Ukraine goes much deeper. It is changing the national fabric of Ukraine."[334]

On 10 December Yanukovych said, "Calls for a revolution pose a threat to national security."[335] Former Georgian president Mikhail Saakashvili has described the movement as "the first geopolitical revolution of the 21st century".[336]

Political expert Anders Åslund commented on this aspect,

Revolutionary times have their own logic that is very different from the logic of ordinary politics, as writers from Alexis de Tocqueville to Crane Brinton have taught. The first thing to understand about Ukraine today is that it has entered a revolutionary stage. Like it or not, we had better deal with the new environment rationally.[337]


Political impact

During the annual World Economic Forum meeting at the end of January 2014 in Davos (Switzerland) Ukrainian Prime Minister Mykola Azarov received no invitations to the main events; according to the Financial Times's Gideon Rachman because the Ukrainian government was blamed for the violence of the 2014 Hrushevskoho Street riots.[338]

A telephone call was leaked of US diplomat Victoria Nuland speaking to the US Ambassador to Ukraine, Geoffrey Pyatt about the future of the country, in which she said that Klitschko should not be in the future government, and expressed her preference for Arseniy Yatsenyuk, who became interim Prime Minister. She also casually stated "fuck the EU."[339][340] German chancellor Angela Merkel said she deemed Nuland's comment "completely unacceptable".[341] Commenting on the situation afterwards, State Department spokeswoman Jen Psaki said that Nuland had apologized to her EU counterparts[342] while White House spokesman Jay Carney alleged that because it had been "tweeted out by the Russian government, it says something about Russia's role".[343]

In February 2014 IBTimes reported, "if Svoboda and other far-right groups gain greater exposure through their involvement in the protests, there are fears they could gain more sympathy and support from a public grown weary of political corruption and Russian influence on Ukraine."[344] In the following late October 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election Svoboda lost 31 seats of the 37 seats it had won in the 2012 parliamentary election.[345][346] The other main far-right party Right Sector won 1 seat (of the 450 seats in the Ukrainian parliament) in the same 2014 election.[345] From 27 February 2014 till 12 November 2014 three members of Svoboda did hold positions in Ukraine's government.[347]

On 21 February, after negotiations between President Yanukovych and representatives of opposition with mediation of representatives of the European Union and Russia, the agreement "About settlement of political crisis in Ukraine" was signed. The agreement provided return to the constitution of 2004, that is to a parliamentary presidential government, carrying out early elections of the president until the end of 2014 and formation of "the government of national trust".[348] The Verkhovna Rada adopted the law on release of all detainees during protest actions. Divisions of "Golden eagle" and internal troops left the center of Kyiv. On 21 February, at the public announcement leaders of parliamentary opposition of conditions of the signed Agreement, representatives of "Right Sector" declared that they don't accept the gradualness of political reforms stipulated in the document, and demanded immediate resignation of the president Yanukovych—otherwise they intended to go for storm of Presidential Administration and Verkhovna Rada.[349]

On the night of 22 February activists of Euromaidan seized the government quarter[350] left by law enforcement authorities and made a number of new demands—in particular, immediate resignation of the president Yanukovych.[351] Earlier that day, they stormed into Yanukovych's mansion.[352]

On 23 February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, the Rada passed a bill that would have altered the law on languages of minorities, including Russian. The bill would have made Ukrainian the sole state language at all levels.[353] However, on the next week 1 March, President Turchynov vetoed the bill.[354]

Following the Protests, Euromaidan activists mobilized toward state transformation. Activists began to, "promote reforms, drafting and advocating for legislative proposals and monitoring reform implementations."[355]

Economic impact

The Prime Minister, Mykola Azarov, asked for 20 billion Euros (US$27 billion) in loans and aid from the EU[155] The EU was willing to offer 610 million euros (838 million US) in loans,[156] however Russia was willing to offer 15 billion US in loans.[156] Russia also offered Ukraine cheaper gas prices.[156] As a condition for the loans, the EU required major changes to the regulations and laws in Ukraine. Russia did not.[155]

Moody's Investors Service reported on 4 December 2013 "As a consequence of the severity of the protests, demand for foreign currency is likely to rise" and noted that this was another blow to Ukraine's already poor solvency.[356] First deputy Prime Minister Serhiy Arbuzov stated on 7 December Ukraine risked a default if it failed to raise $10 billion "I asked for a loan to support us, and Europe [the EU] agreed, but a mistake was made – we failed to put it on paper."[357]

Petro Poroshenko addresses Euromaidan on 8 December 2013

On 3 December, Azarov warned that Ukraine might not be able to fulfill its natural gas contracts with Russia.[358] And he blamed the deal on restoring gas supplies of 18 January 2009 for this.[358]

On 5 December, Prime Minister Mykola Azarov stated that "money to finance the payment of pensions, wages, social payments, support of the operation of the housing and utility sector and medical institutions do not appear due to unrest in the streets" and he added that authorities were doing everything possible to ensure the timely financing of them.[359] Minister of Social Policy of Ukraine Natalia Korolevska stated on 2 January 2014 that these January 2014 payments would begin according to schedule.[360]

On 11 December, the second Azarov Government postponed social payments due to "the temporarily blocking of the government".[361] The same day Reuters commented (when talking about Euromaidan) "The crisis has added to the financial hardship of a country on the brink of bankruptcy" and added that (at the time) investors thought it more likely than not that Ukraine would default over the next five years (since it then cost Ukraine over US$1 million a year to insure $10 million in state debt).[362]

Fitch Ratings reported on 16 December that the (political) "standoff" had led to "greater the risk that political uncertainty will raise demand for foreign currency, causing additional reserve losses and increasing the risk of disorderly currency movement".[363] It also added "Interest rates rose sharply as the National Bank sought to tighten hryvnia liquidity."[363]

First Deputy Finance Minister Anatoliy Miarkovsky stated on 17 December the Ukrainian government budget deficit in 2014 could amount to about 3% with a "plus or minus" deviation of 0.5%.[364]

On 18 December, the day after an economical agreement with Russia was signed, Prime Minister Mykola Azarov stated, "Nothing is threatening stability of the financial-economic situation in Ukraine now. Not a single economic factor."[365] However, BBC News reported that the deal "will not fix Ukraine's deeper economic problems" in an article titled "Russian bailout masks Ukraine's economic mess".[366]

On 21 January 2014, the Kyiv City State Administration claimed that protests in Kyiv had so far caused the city more than 2 million US dollars worth of damage.[367] It intended to claim compensation for damage caused by all demonstrators, regardless of their political affiliation.[367]

On 5 February 2014, the hryvnia fell to a five-year low against the US dollar.[368]

Kyiv, 2 February 2014

On 21 February 2014, Standard & Poor's cut Ukraine's credit rating to CCC; adding that the country risked default without "significantly favourable changes".[369] Standard & Poor's analysts believed the compromise deal of the same day between President Yanukovych and the opposition made it "less likely Ukraine would receive desperately needed Russian aid, thereby increasing the risk of default on its debts".[370]

Social impact

In Kyiv, life continued "as normal" outside the "protest zone" (namely Maidan Nezalezhnosti).[371][372]

Before the Euromaidan demonstrations happened, Ukrainians did not have a strong and unified understanding of what it meant to be Ukrainian. There was confusion on whether a person should be considered Ukrainian on a civic or ethnographic basis. Most citizens of Ukraine during the Euromaidan perceived the protests as a battle against the regime. Therefore, the social impact that Euromaidan had on Ukrainians is a stronger sense of national identity and unity. Results from a survey shows that the people who identified themselves as Ukrainian after the Euromaidan grew by 10% compared to the survey conducted before the protests.[373]

"Euromaidan" was named Word of the Year for 2013 by modern Ukrainian language and slang dictionary Myslovo,[374] and the most popular neologism in Russia by web analytics company[375]

Cultural impact

According to a representative of the Kyiv History Museum, its collection in the Ukrainian House on the night of 18–19 February, after it was recaptured by the police from the protesters.[376] Eyewitnesses report seeing the police forces plundering and destroying the museum's property.[377]

Music of Maidan

Protester performs on the roof of burned "Berkut" bus. The barricade across Hrushevskoho str. Kyiv, 10 February 2014.

Leading Ukrainian performers sang the song "Brat za Brata" (English: "Brother for Brother") by Kozak System to support protesters. The song was one of the unofficial anthems of Euromaidan.[378]

Ukrainian-Polish band Taraka came up with a song dedicated to "Euromaidan" "Podaj Rękę Ukrainie" (Give a Hand to Ukraine). The song uses the first several words of the National anthem of Ukraine "Ukraine has not yet died".[379][380][381]

Among other tunes, some remakes of the Ukrainian folk song "Aflame the pine was on fire" appeared (Ukrainian: Горіла сосна, палала).[382][383]

The Ukrainian band Skriabin created a song dedicated to the revolutionary days of Maidan.[384] Another native of Kyiv dedicated a song to titushky.[385]

DJ Rudy Paulenko created a track inspired by events on Maidan called "The Battle at Maidan".[386]

Belarusian rock band Lyapis Trubetskoy's song "Warriors of Light" (Voiny Svieta) was one of the unofficial anthems of Maidan.[387]

Films on Maidan

A compilation of short films about the 2013 revolution named Babylon'13 was created.[388]

Polish and Ukrainian activists created a short film, "Happy Kyiv", editing it with the Pharrell Williams hit "Happy" and some shoots of Babylon'13.[389]

On 5 February 2014, a group of activist cinematographers initiated a series of films about the people of Euromaidan.[390]

The American filmmaker John Beck Hofmann made the film Maidan Massacre, about the sniper shootings. It premiered at the Siena International Film Festival, receiving the Audience Award.[391]

In 2014 Belarusian-Ukrainian filmmaker Sergei Loznitsa released the documentary Maidan. It was filmed by several cameramen instructed by Loznitsa during the revolution in 2013 and 2014 and depicts different aspects, from peaceful rallies to the bloody clashes between police and protesters.[392]

In 2015 Netflix released the documentary Winter on Fire: Ukraine's Fight for Freedom about the Euromaidan protests. The documentary shows the protests from the start until the resignation of Viktor Yanukovych. The movie won the Grolsch People's Choice Documentary Award at the 2015 Toronto International Film Festival.[393]

In 2016 the documentary Ukraine on Fire premiered at the Taormina Film Fest.[394] The central thesis of the film is that the events that led to the flight of Yanukovych in February 2014 were a coup d'état led by the USA.[395]

The Long Breakup premiered at the 2020 East Oregon Film Festival. This long term documentary about complex relationship between Ukraine and Russia tells about the Euromaidan and the Orange Revolution and moreover from the Crimea annexation and the Donbass War.[396]

Visual Arts at Maidan

Performance "artist-fighter"

The protests attracted numerous photographers who documented everyday life and symbolic moments at Maidan.[397][398][399][400] The Maidan portest also attract support by visual artists including illustrator Sasha Godiayeva[401] and the painter Temo Svirely.[402]


While many Ukrainian playwrights and directors had trained and worked in Russia during the 1990s and 2000s, for lack of opportunity in their home country, an increasing number of them - such as Natalia Vorozhbit and Maksim Kyrochkin - decided to return to Ukraine after the Euromaidan, to contribute to an emerging vibrant field of new drama, or Ukrainian New Drama.[403] There was also a noticeable shift towards writing in Ukrainian after 2014, whereas some bilingual Ukrainian dramatists had used Russian prior to 2014 in order to serve a greater audience base. Vorozhbit wrote a highly significant play about the Euromaidan, The Maidan Diaries, which opened at the Franko National Theatre (one of Ukraine's two national theatres; Franko is the Ukrainian language national theatre).[403]


The 2013–14 UEFA Europa League Round of 32 match of 20 February 2014 between FC Dynamo Kyiv and Valencia CF was moved by UEFA from Kyiv's Olimpiyskiy National Sports Complex to the GSP Stadium in Nicosia, Cyprus, "due to the security situation in the Ukrainian capital".[404][405]

On 19 February, the Ukrainian athletes competing in the 2014 Winter Olympics asked for and were refused permission by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to wear black arm bands to honour those killed in the violent clashes in Kyiv.[406] IOC president Thomas Bach offered his condolences "to those who have lost loved ones in these tragic events".[406]

On 19 February 2014, alpine skier Bohdana Matsotska refused to further participate in the 2014 Winter Olympics in protest against the violent clashes in Kyiv.[407] She and her father posted a message on Facebook stating "In solidarity with the fighters on the barricades of the Maidan, and as a protest against the criminal actions made towards the protesters, the irresponsibility of the president and his lackey government, we refuse further performance at the Olympic Games in Sochi 2014."[407]

On 4 March 2014, the 2013–14 Eurocup Basketball Round of 16 game between BC Budivelnyk Kyiv and JSF Nanterre was moved to Žalgiris Arena in Kaunas, Lithuania. On 5 March 2014, another Round of 16 game between Khimik Yuzhny and Aykon TED Ankara was moved to Abdi Ipekci Arena in Istanbul.[408]


Coin commemorating the Euromaidan, 2015.

In mid-October 2014, President Petro Poroshenko stated that 21 November (Euromaidan started on 21 November 2013) will be celebrated as "Day of Dignity and Freedom".[164]

As of February 2019, the Ukrainian government has broken ground on a new Maidan memorial that will run the length of Instytutska Street, now also known as Avenue of the Heavenly Hundred.[409]

On 10 January 2022 Russian President Vladimir Putin claimed that the protesters of the 2022 Kazakh protests had used "Maidan technologies".[410]

Slogans and symbols

The Ukrainian ribbon. Ribbons are common symbols of non-violent protest
The rally on European Square in Kyiv, 24 November 2013
Headquarters of the Euromaidan. At the front entrance there is a portrait of Stepan Bandera, a twentieth century Ukrainian nationalist.

A chant that was commonly chanted among protesters was “Slava Ukraini! Heroiam slava!” - "Glory to Ukraine, Glory to Heroes!"[411] The chant has extended beyond Ukrainians and has been used by Crimean Tatars and Russians.[411][412]

The red-and-black battle flag of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) is another popular symbol among protesters, and the wartime insurgents have acted as a large inspiration for Euromaidan protesters.[413] Serhy Yekelchyk of the University of Victoria says the use of UPA imagery and slogans was more of a potent symbol of protest against the current government and Russia rather than adulation for the insurgents themselves, explaining "The reason for the sudden prominence of [UPA symbolism] in Kyiv is that it is the strongest possible expression of protest against the pro-Russian orientation of the current government."[414] The colours of the flag symbolise Ukrainian red blood spilled on Ukrainian black earth.[415]


Main articles: Domestic responses to the Euromaidan and International reactions to the Euromaidan

In a poll published on 24 February 2014 by the state-owned Russian Public Opinion Research Center, only 15% of those Russians polled said 'yes' to the question: "Should Russia react to the overthrow of the legally elected authorities in Ukraine?"[416]

Legal hearings and investigation

Investigation about Euromaidan was ongoing since December 2013 following the initial dispersal of student gathering on the night of 30 November. On 13 December 2013 the President Viktor Yanukovych and government officials announced that three high-ranking officials will be brought to justice.[417][418] The General Prosecutor's Office of Ukraine questioned a chairman of the Kyiv City State Administration Oleksandr Popov on 13 December and a Security Council secretary Andriy Klyuev on 16 December.[419] The announcement about ongoing investigation became public at the so-called "round table" negotiations initiated by former Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk.[420] On 14 December, both Sivkovych and Popov were officially temporarily relieved of their duties until conclusion of the investigation.[421]

On 17 December the Prosecutor General questioned an activist Ruslana Lyzhychko who informed that beside Popov under pre-trial investigation are Sivkovych, Koriak and Fedchuk.[422] On request of parliamentary opposition, Prosecutor General Viktor Pshonka read in Verkhovna Rada (Ukrainian parliament) a report on investigation about dispersal of protesters on 30 November.[423] During the report the Prosecutor General acknowledged that members of public order militsiya "Berkut" "exceeded the use of force" after being provoked by protesters. Pshonka also noted that investigation has not yet determined who exactly ordered use of force.[424] Following the PG's report, the parliamentary opposition registered a statement on creation of provisional investigation committee in regards to actions of law enforcement agencies towards peaceful protests in Kyiv.[425]

Earlier, a separate investigation was started by the Security Service of Ukraine on 8 December 2013 about actions aimed at seizing state power in Ukraine.[426] In the context of the 1 December 2013 Euromaidan riots, the Prosecutor General informed that in calls for the overthrow of the government are involved member of radical groups.[427] During the events at Bankova, the Ukrainian militsiya managed to detained 9 people and after few days the Ministry of Internal Affairs announced that it considers Ukrainian organization Bratstvo (see Dmytro Korchynsky) to be involved in instigation of disorders, while no one out of the detained were members of that organization.[428][429]

Ukrainian mass media reported the results of forensic examinations, according to which, the government police Berkut was implicated in the murders of maidan protesters since, according to these forensic examinations, matches were found between the bullets extracted from the bodies of maidan protesters and the weapons of the government police Berkut.[430][431][432][433][434][435][436] The experts explained why no match between the bullets and the weapons, which had been assigned to the Berkut special force, had been found as a result of the examination of the bullets held in January 2015, whereas the examination carried out in December of the same year had showed such a match.[436][437]

See also


  1. ^ Since 1 December 2013 Kyiv's Town Hall has been occupied by Euromaidan protesters; this forced the Kyiv City Council to meet in the Solomianka Raion state administration building instead.[12]
  2. ^ There was no legal basis for these bans since in Ukraine only a court can ban the activities of a political force.[18]
  3. ^ Reports of some protesters attending under duress from superiors[46]
  4. ^ Titushky are provocators during protests.[50]
  5. ^ Early November 2012 Communist Party party leader Petro Symonenko stated that his party will not co-operate with other parties in the new parliament elected in the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election.[56] Nevertheless, in at the time in parliament its parliamentary faction usually voted similarly to the Party of Regions parliamentary faction.[57]
  6. ^ The term Euromaidan; was initially used as a hashtag on Twitter.[84] A Twitter account named Euromaidan was created on the first day of the protests.[85] It soon became popular in the international media.[86] It is composed of two parts: Euro is short for Europe and maidan refers to Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square), the main square of Kyiv, where the protests were centered.[84]
  7. ^ On 7 April 2013 a decree by Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych freed Yuriy Lutsenko from prison and exempted him from further punishment.[126]
  8. ^ On 20 December 2013 Ukrainian Prime Minister Mykola Azarov stated that the public had not been given clear explanations by the authorities of the reason of the decree suspended preparations for signing of the association agreement.[142]
  9. ^ On 10 December President Yanukovych stated "We will certainly resume the IMF negotiations. If there are conditions that suit us, we will take that path."[147] However, Yanukovych also (once again) stated that the conditions put forward by the IMF were unacceptable "I had a conversation with U.S. Vice President Joseph Biden, who told me that the issue of the IMF loan has almost been solved, but I told him that if the conditions remained ... we did not need such loans."[147]
  10. ^ According to the Financial Times, people in East Ukraine and South Ukraine "tend to be more politically passive than their western counterparts. Locals say they still feel part of Ukraine and have no desire to reunite with Russia – nor are they likely to engage in conflict with the west".[306]


  1. ^ a b "EuroMaidan rallies in Ukraine – Nov. 21–23 coverage". Kyiv Post. 25 November 2013.
  2. ^ Snyder, Timothy (3 February 2014). "Don't Let Putin Grab Ukraine". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 February 2014. The current crisis in Ukraine began because of Russian foreign policy.
  3. ^ Calamur, Krishnadev (19 February 2014). "4 Things To Know About What's Happening in Ukraine". Parallels (World Wide Web log). NPR. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  4. ^ Spolsky, Danylo. "One minister's dark warning and the ray of hope". Kyiv Post (editorial). Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Ukrainian opposition uses polls to bolster cause". Euronews. 13 December 2013. Archived from the original on 28 January 2014. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  6. ^ "Where did the downfall of Ukraine's President Viktor Yanukovych begin?". Public Radio International. 24 February 2014.
  7. ^ "Ukrainian opposition calls for President Yanukovych's impeachment". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  8. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (1 December 2013). "Thousands of Protesters in Ukraine Demand Leader's Resignation". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
  9. ^ Bonner, Brian (21 November 2013). "Two petition drives take aim at Yanukovych". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  10. ^ "EuroMaidan passes an anti-Customs Union resolution". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 15 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  11. ^ Веб-сайт Кабміну теж уже не працює [Cabinet Website also no longer works]. Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 11 November 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  12. ^ "Hereha closes Kyiv City Council meeting on Tuesday". Interfax-Ukraine. 24 December 2013.
  13. ^ "Party of Regions, Communist Party banned in Ivano-Frankivsk and Ternopil regions". Kyiv Post. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  14. ^ "Activity of Regions Party, Communist Party, Yanukovych's portraits banned in Drohobych". Kyiv Post. 21 February 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  15. ^ "Jailed Ukrainian opposition leader Yulia Tymoshenko has been freed from prison, says official from her political party". CNN. 22 February 2014.
  16. ^ a b c d e f "Ukraine protests 'spread' into Russia-influenced east". BBC News. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2023.
  17. ^ a b Thousands mourn Ukraine protester amid unrest , Al Jazeera (26 January 2014)
  18. ^ Dangerous Liasons, The Ukrainian Week (18 May 2015)
  19. ^ "Ukraine's PM Azarov and government resign". BBC. 28 January 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  20. ^ "Law on amnesty of Ukrainian protesters to take effect on Feb 17", Interfax-Ukraine (17 February 2014)
  21. ^ "Ukraine lawmakers offer protester amnesty". The Washington Post. 29 January 2014. Archived from the original on 30 January 2014.
  22. ^ "Ukraine: Amnesty law fails to satisfy protesters". Euronews. 30 January 2014. Archived from the original on 26 September 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  23. ^ Halya Coynash (30 January 2014). "Ruling majority takes hostages through new 'amnesty law'". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  24. ^ Ukraine parliament passes protest amnesty law. BBC. 29 January 2014
  25. ^ "Ukraine leader's sick leave prompts guessing game". South China Morning Post. Associated Press. 30 January 2014.
  26. ^ Ukraine president Viktor Yanukovych takes sick leave as amnesty, other moves fail to quell Kyiv protests. CBS news. 30 January 2014
  27. ^ Cabinet resumed preparations for the association with the EU Archived 12 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Ukrinform. 2 March 2014
  28. ^ Pravda, Ukrainska (2 February 2014). "Evidence shows falsified reports used against AutoMaidan - Feb. 02, 2014". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  29. ^ "Українські студенти підтримали Євромайдан. У Києві та регіонах – страйки" [Ukrainian students supported Yevromaydan. In Kyiv and regions – Strikes]. NEWSru. UA. 26 November 2013. Archived from the original on 27 January 2016.
  30. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Key players". BBC News. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  31. ^ "Kiev's protesters: Ukraine uprising was no neo-Nazi power-grab". The Guardian. 13 March 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  32. ^ Свобода, Радіо (19 January 2014). ""Правий сектор" підтверджує свою участь у подіях на Грушевського". Радіо Свобода (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  33. ^ На Евромайдане в Киеве собрались десятки тысяч украинцев [Euromaydan in Kyiv gathered tens of thousands of Ukrainians] (in Russian). 24 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  34. ^ "Mr Akhtem Chiygoz: "Crimean Tatars Leave Actively to Kyiv on Maidan Nezalezhnosti"". 3 December 2013. Archived from the original on 9 April 2022. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  35. ^ Ivakhnenko, Vladimir (6 December 2013). Майдан готовит Януковичу вече [Square prepare Yanukovych Veche]. Svoboda (in Russian). Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  36. ^ Об'єднані ліві йдуть з Майдану (tr. "The United Left is leaving the Maidan") Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine (18 March 2014)
  37. ^ "Danyluks group under fire for seizure of government buildings". Kyiv Post.
  38. ^ В'ячеслав Березовський: Євромайдани України стали потужним об'єднавчим чинником [Vyacheslav Berezovsky: Euromaydan Ukraine became a powerful unifying factor] (in Ukrainian). UA: Cun. 2 December 2013. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  39. ^ a b Hrytsenko, Anya (30 September 2016). "Misanthropic Division: A Neo-Nazi Movement from Ukraine and Russia". Euromaidan Press.
  40. ^ Novogrod, James (21 February 2014). "Dozens of Ukrainian Police Defect, Vow to Protect Protesters". NBC News. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  41. ^ Nemtsova, Anna (13 December 2013). "Kiev's Military Guardian Angels". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  42. ^ Post, Kyiv (27 January 2014). "EuroMaidan rallies in Ukraine (Jan. 26-27 live updates) - Jan. 27, 2014". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  43. ^ Під час штурму Банкової постраждали вже 15 правоохоронців [During the storming of Bankova, 15 law enforcement officers were injured]. TVi (in Ukrainian). 1 December 2013. Archived from the original on 17 December 2014.
  44. ^ Golitsina, Natalya (3 April 2014). "Photos Link Yanukovych's Troops To Maidan Massacre". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  45. ^ Митинг в поддержку действий президента по защите национальных интересов Украины прошел в Харькове [Rally in support of the president's actions to protect the national interests of Ukraine took place in Kharkiv] (in Russian). Interfax-Ukraine. 30 November 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  46. ^ Днепропетровских бюджетников заставляют ехать в Киев на 'Антимайдан' [Dnipropetrovsk state employees are forced to go to Kyiv to 'Antimaydan']. (in Russian). UA: Comments. 12 December 2013. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  47. ^ Кожного привезеного на столичний "антимайдан" ошукали на 500 грн [Everyone brought to the capital's "anti-Maidan" was deceived for UAH 500]. Gazeta (in Russian). 14 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  48. ^ На Євроманда "тітушки" йдуть з металевими трубами ["Aunts" go to Euromand with metal pipes] (in Ukrainian). Kyiv Comments. 29 November 2013. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
  49. ^ 'Анти-євромайдан' завершився. 'Тітушки' чекають відмашки 'стартувати' на Майдан? ['Anti-Euromaidan' is over. Are 'aunts' waiting for the 'start' on the Maidan?]. Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 29 November 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  50. ^ "Tyagnibok Zaproponuvav rozformuvati Berkut" [Tiagnybok offered to disband 'Berkut']. Ukrainian National News. 2 December 2013. Archived from the original on 7 February 2015.
  51. ^ Responsibility for burning private vehicles of protesters was taken by the Red Sector Archived 1 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine. TVi. 1 February 2014
  52. ^ "From Russia, 'Tourists' Stir the Protests". The New York Times. 3 March 2014.
  53. ^ "Meet Moscow's New "Ukrainian Front" | The XX Committee". 3 February 2014. Archived from the original on 25 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  54. ^ Luhansk administration is being guarded by Don Cossacks. 24tv. 26 January 2014
  55. ^ "Друг Путина Хирург вывел байкеров на баррикады | Украинская правда" [Putin's friend Surgeon takes bikers to barricades | Ukrainian Pravda]. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  56. ^ "Ukrainian communists not to join other political forces in new parliament, says Symonenko". Interfax-Ukraine. 8 November 2012.
  57. ^ "Result of parliamentary votes" (in Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada.
  58. ^ Musicians liven up EuroMaidan stage, Kyiv Post (29 November 2013)
  59. ^ (in Ukrainian) Руслана Лижичко разом із однодумцями оголосила голодування на майдані Ruslana together with like-minded hunger strike on Maidan, TSN (25 November 2013)
  60. ^ a b c Whitmore, Brian (6 December 2013). "Putin's Growing Threat Next Door". The Atlantic.
  61. ^ "EuroMaidan rallies in Ukraine – Dec. 16". Kyiv Post. 15 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  62. ^ "The Council of Maidan Self-Defense Organizes "United Revolutionary Army" throughout Ukraine | Euromaidan PR". 8 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  63. ^ a b c Євромайдан Львів встановив кількісний рекорд [Euromaidan Lviv set a quantitative record]. Lviv Expres (in Ukrainian). 1 December 2013. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  64. ^ a b "EuroMaidan rallies in Ukraine (Jan. 23 live updates)". Kyiv Post. 23 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  65. ^ Тернопільський Євромайдан зібрав більше 10 тисяч людей [Ternopil Eeuromaydan brought together more than 10 thousand people] (in Ukrainian). UA: TE. 8 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  66. ^ Мариинском парке собралось около 3–4 тысяч "титушек" – нардеп [Mariinsky park were about 3–4 thousand "titushek" – People's Deputy] (in Ukrainian). UNIAN. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
  67. ^ В Харькове провели масштабный провластный митинг [A large-scale pro-government rally was held in Kharkiv]. BBC News (in Russian). 30 November 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  68. ^ "На провластный митинг в Донецке привезли несколько десятков автобусов "неравнодушных"" [Dozens of "indifferent" buses brought to pro-government rally in Donetsk]. 23 July 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  69. ^ Наша задача: отстаивать национальные интересы, строить Европу в Крыму и в Украине – Павел Бурлаков [Our task: to defend national interests, to build Europe in the Crimea and in Ukraine – Paul Boatmen]. Новости Крыма [Crimean News] (in Ukrainian). UkraineInfo. 4 December 2013. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  70. ^ ЄвромадаЇ в Україні: Запоріжжя вражало кількістю, а в Одесі пам'ятник Дюку "одягли" у прапор ЄС [YevromadaYi in Ukraine Zaporizhzhia striking number, and in Odesa Monument to Duke "dressed" in the EU flag] (in Ukrainian). UA: TSN. 24 November 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  71. ^ a b c d e f g h "Accountability for killings in Ukraine from January 2014 to May 2016" (PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. pp. 9, 21–25.
  72. ^ "On Grushevskogo for Šutka postradali 1400 chelovek oppozitsiya". Liga. 400+(50–100)+1400
  73. ^ "Some 700 protestors hospitalized in past two months". Kyiv Post. 30 January 2014.
  74. ^ "BBC News – Ukraine: Speaker Oleksandr Turchynov named interim president". BBC News. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  75. ^ "Around 780 people die during protests in Ukraine in reality, say volunteer doctors". Interfax. 10 April 2014.
  76. ^ "Около 150 активистов с Майдана остаются пропавшими без вести – Беркут, избиение, евромайдан, Революция в Украине (30.03.14 18:12) « Политика Украины « Новости" [About 150 Maidan activists remain missing – Berkut, beating, Euromaidan, Revolution in Ukraine (30.03.14 18:12) « Politics of Ukraine « News]. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  77. ^ a b Grytsenko, Oksana (31 January 2014). "'On The Brink of Civil War'". Kyiv Post.
  78. ^ Список погибших в ходе акций протеста в Украине (январь-март 2014). Дополняется (tr. "List of victims of protests in Ukraine (January–March 2014). Complemented"), 15 March 2014
  79. ^ "Clashes rage as 100,000 Ukrainians demand EU pact". Yahoo!. 2 December 2013. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  80. ^ Міліція повідомила, що госпіталізовано 75 її бійців [Police said 75 of its soldiers were hospitalized]. Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 2 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  81. ^ "Medics were short on account of beat up police personnel (Медики недосчитались побитых демонстрантами милиционеров)". Ukrayinska Pravda (in Russian). 3 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  82. ^ For Euro-, see eurocentric in: Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach; James Hartmann; Jane Setter (eds.), English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-3-12-539683-8
  83. ^ "maidan". Unabridged (Online). n.d.
  84. ^ a b c "Ukraine's Euromaidan: What's in a name?". The Washington Post. 2 December 2013. Archived from the original on 12 December 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  85. ^ "Євромайдан" [Euromaidan]. Twitter. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  86. ^ Chervonenko, Vitalii (25 November 2013). "Ukraine's EU options 'still open'". BBC News. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
  87. ^ Marples, David (1 July 2020). "The Maidan Revolution in Ukraine". E-International Relations.
  88. ^ "Parliament passes statement on Ukraine's aspirations for European integration". Kyiv Post. 22 February 2013.
  89. ^ Dinan, Desmond; Nugent, Neil (eds.). The European Union in Crisis. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 3, 274.
  90. ^ Kiev protesters gather, EU and Putin joust, Reuters (12 December 2013)
  91. ^ Yanukovych Offers Opposition Leaders Key Posts, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (25 January 2014)
  92. ^ a b c d e Marples, David; Mills, Frederick, eds. (2015). Ukraine's Euromaidan: Analyses of a Civil Revolution. Ibidem Press. pp. 9–14.
  93. ^ "Transparency International names Yanukovych world's most corrupt". Kyiv Post. 11 February 2016.
  94. ^ Gestwa, Klaus (2023). Osteuropa-Historiker vs 8 Thesen zum Ukraine-Krieg [Historian of Eastern Europe vs 8 theses on the Ukrainian War]. Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen Philosophische Fakultät Institut für Osteuropäische Geschichte und Landeskunde. 19-20 minutes in. Retrieved 2 June 2024. Der Euromaidan im Jahr 2013 / 2014 war kein von den USA organisierter und von ukrainischen Faschisten durchgeführter Putsch, wie dies einige hier in Deutschland mit Verweis auf die russischen Medien darstellen wollen. ... Es gibt eine große Zahl von sehr überzeugenden, geschichts-, kultur-, sozial- und politikwissenschaftlichen Studien dazu, dass der Euromaidan die größte demokratische Massenbewegung Europas seit dem Jahr 1989 gewesen ist. [The Euromaidan in 2013 / 2014 was no coup organized by the US and carried out by Ukrainian faschists, as some people here in Germany want to present it with reference to the Russian media. ... There is a large number of very convincing studies from the fields of history, cultural science, social science, and political science showing that the Euromaidan was the largest democratic mass movement in Europe since 1989.]((cite AV media)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  95. ^ Wynnyckyj, Mychailo (2019). Ukraine's Maidan, Russia's War. Ibidem Press. pp. 93–99.
  96. ^ Anatomy of Maidan. Virtual tour of the protesters' grounds". Euromaidan Press. 30 January 2014.
  97. ^ Walker, Shaun; Salem, Harriet (22 February 2014). "Ukraine: 'The dictatorship has fallen.' But what will take its place?". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  98. ^ Sindelar, Daisy (23 February 2014). "Was Yanukovych's Ouster Constitutional?". Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty ( Retrieved 25 February 2014. [I]t is not clear that the hasty February 22 vote upholds constitutional guidelines, which call for a review of the case by Ukraine's Constitutional Court and a three-fourths majority vote by the Verkhovna Rada – i.e., 338 lawmakers.
  99. ^ Boris N. Mamlyuk (6 July 2015). "The Ukraine Crisis, Cold War II, and International Law". The German Law Journal. SSRN 2627417.
  100. ^ "Ukraine drops EU plans and looks to Russia". Al Jazeera. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
  101. ^ "Russia seeks to derail Ukraine's trade deal with E.U., deploying taunts and insults". The Washington Post. 14 September 2022.
  102. ^ "Russia's Medvedev warns Ukraine over joining EU trade bloc". Reuters. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  103. ^ "Russia threatens Ukraine with bankruptcy over plans to sign EU agreement". 22 September 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  104. ^ "EU: Russia to blame for failure of Ukraine deal". The Herald-Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  105. ^ Students in Ukraine threaten indefinite national strike Archived 2 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Euronews (26 November 2013)
  106. ^ "Ukraine Offers Europe Economic Growth and More". The New York Times. 12 December 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
  107. ^ a b c d e Live updates of the protests, Kyiv Post (27, 28 and 29 November 2013)
  108. ^ Protests continue in Kyiv ahead of Vilnius EU summit Archived 2 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Euronews (27 November 2013)
  109. ^ "Ukraine's capital Kiev gripped by huge pro-EU demonstration". BBC News. 8 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  110. ^ Auyezov, Olzhas; Stubbs, Jack (22 December 2013). "Ukraine opposition urges more protests, forms political bloc". Reuters. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  111. ^ Ukraine pro-Europe protesters hold first big rally of 2014, Reuters (12 January 2014)
  112. ^ "No Looting or Anarchy in this Euromaidan Revolution". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  113. ^ Bushak, Lecia (18 February 2014). "Kiev's Minstrel of the Street Revolution". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  114. ^ Fisher, Max (20 February 2014). "Ukraine's parliament just threw President Yanukovych under the bus. That's great news". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  115. ^ Roth, Andrew (25 January 2019). "Ukraine's ex-president Viktor Yanukovych found guilty of treason". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  116. ^ "Євромандай" [Euromaidan]. Twitter. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  117. ^ Chervonenko, Vitalii (25 November 2013). "Ukraine's EU options 'still open'". BBC News. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
  118. ^ Timothy Snyder (20 March 2014). "Fascism, Russia, and Ukraine". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 3 March 2014. But a maidan now means in Ukrainian what the Greek word agora means in English: not just a marketplace where people happen to meet, but a place where they deliberately meet, precisely in order to deliberate, to speak, and to create a political society. During the protests the word maidan has come to mean the act of public politics itself, so that for example people who use their cars to organize public actions and protect other protestors are called the automaidan.
  119. ^ "Anders Aslund: Euro revolution in Ukraine". Kyiv Post. 3 December 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  120. ^ Portnov, Andriy (4 May 2015). "Ukraine's "Eurorevolution": Chronology and Interpretations". Russian Politics & Law. 53 (3): 6–27. doi:10.1080/10611940.2015.1053782. ISSN 1061-1940. S2CID 142538039.
  121. ^ Upheaval in Ukraine: Shape and Significance of a Revolution (PDF). Religion & Society in East and West. Vol. 42. Wilson Center. 2014.
  122. ^ "Kerry in Moldova Supports Ukrainian 'Spring'". Israel National News. 6 December 2013. Archived from the original on 7 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  123. ^ Verger, Rob (9 December 2013). "Photo Essay: The Ukrainian Spring". Newsweek. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  124. ^ European Neighbourhood Watch Issue 80 Archived 13 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Centre for European Policy (March 2012)
  125. ^ Ukraine's jailed Tymoshenko calls off hunger strike, Kyiv Post (16 November 2012)
  126. ^ Ukraine President Viktor Yanukovych pardons Yulia Tymoshenko allies, BBC News (8 April 2013)
  127. ^ a b "EU Commissioner Fule expects Rada to pass European integration bills on November 21", Interfax-Ukraine (20 November 2013)
  128. ^ "Ukrainian president asks for laws to be passed to facilitate EU association agreement | Euronews". 17 November 2020. Archived from the original on 17 November 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  129. ^ EU-Ukraine Association Agreement to be signed, Ukraine to go to Europe – speaker Archived 18 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax (25 September 2013)
  130. ^ Klimkin: Russia trying to force renegotiation of Minsk deals, Kyiv Post (18 January 2015)
  131. ^ a b Eased Russian customs rules to save Ukraine $1.5 bln in 2014, says minister, Interfax-Ukraine (18 December 2013)
  132. ^ Ukraine's Employers Federation: Russia's customs service halts all Ukrainian imports. Kyiv Post. 14 August 2013.
  133. ^ Russia sets off trade war to prevent Ukraine from signing agreement with EU, says UDAR. Kyiv Post. 14 August 2013.
    "Ukraine Leader Ignores Putin Warning on EU Path". Voice of America. 24 August 2013. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
    "Russia hits at Ukraine with chocolate war". EurActiv. 14 August 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
    "Trading insults". The Economist Newspaper. 24 August 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
    "Putin warns Ukraine against EU pact". euobserver. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
    "Ukraine PM tells Russia to accept "reality" of EU trade deal". Reuters. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
    "Putin 'deserves medal' for pushing Ukraine towards EU". Euractiv. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
    "О комплексе мер по вовлечению Украины в евразийский интеграционный процесс" [On a set of measures to involve Ukraine in the Eurasian integration process]. Зеркало недели. Украина. 16 August 2013. Archived from the original on 30 August 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
    Does Russia Have a Secret Plan for Ukraine?, The Atlantic (21 August 2013)
    Caught in a Zeitnot, The Ukrainian Week (6 August 2013)
  134. ^ Ukraine media see Kremlin pressure over EU, BBC News (22 November 2013)
    Q&A: Stand-off in Ukraine over EU agreement, BBC News (29 December 2013)
    Analysis: Russia's carrot-and-stick battle for Ukraine, BBC News (17 December 2013)
  135. ^ Eased Russian customs rules to save Ukraine $1.5 bln in 2014, says minister, Interfax-Ukraine (18 December 2013)
    Russia to lift restrictions on Ukrainian pipe imports – Ukrainian ministry, Interfax-Ukraine (18 December 2013)
    Russia tightens customs rules to force Ukraine into union, Reuters (15 August 2013)
  136. ^ Russia cuts Ukraine gas price by a third, BBC News (17 December 2013)
  137. ^ Decline in industrial production in Ukraine in October 2013 slows to 4.9 percent, Kyiv Post (18 November 2013)
  138. ^ "ORDER OF THE CABINET OF MINISTERS OF UKRAINE". Retrieved 21 November 2013.
  139. ^ "Ukraine drops EU plans and looks to Russia". Retrieved 21 November 2013.
  140. ^ Cox-Kwasniewski mission to continue until Eastern Partnership Summit, Interfax-Ukraine (21 November 2013)
  141. ^ a b Ukraine to resume preparing agreement with EU when compensation for production drop found – Boiko, Interfax-Ukraine (21 November 2013)
  142. ^ Azarov: Ukraine would face crisis if it signed Association Agreement with EU, Interfax-Ukraine (21 December 2013)
  143. ^ David M. Herszenhorn (22 November 2013). "Ukraine Blames I.M.F. for Halt to Agreements With Europe". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  144. ^ Ambrose Evans-Pritchard (22 November 2013). "Historic defeat for EU as Ukraine returns to Kremlin control". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  145. ^ MF not insisting on single-stage increase in tariffs, says resident representative in Ukraine, Interfax-Ukraine (7 December 2013)
  146. ^ IMF links loan amount to Ukraine with reforms Archived 25 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Ukrinform (7 December 2013)
  147. ^ a b Ukraine to resume talks with IMF soon, says Yanukovych, Interfax-Ukraine (10 December 2013)
  148. ^ Ukraine fails to sign landmark deal at EU summit Archived 13 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Euronews (29 November 2013)
  149. ^ Ukraine's rejection of EU deal brings rival rallies at home Archived 26 July 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Euronews (29 November 2013)
  150. ^ Barroso: EU to continue its dialog with Ukraine on principles of mutual respect, transparency and responsibility, Interfax-Ukraine (29 November 2013)
  151. ^ EU and Ukraine say 'door still open' for future trade pact Archived 23 October 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Euronews (29 November 2013)
  152. ^ Yanukovych says Ukraine-EU deal is suspended, not cancelled Archived 31 October 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Euronews (29 November 2013)
  153. ^ Plokhy, Serhii (2023). The Russo-Ukrainian War: The Return of History. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 94–95. ISBN 978-1-324-05119-0.
  154. ^ Weymouth, Lally (25 April 2014). "Interview with Ukrainian presidential candidate Petro Poroshenko". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  155. ^ a b c d "EU talking to IMF, World Bank, others about Ukraine assistance". CNBC. 11 December 2013. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  156. ^ a b c d e f "Ukraine leader seeks cash at Kremlin to fend off crisis". CNBC. 17 December 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  157. ^ Ukraine's interior minister has no intention to resign, Interfax-Ukraine (5 December 2013)
  158. ^ More than 100,000 people petition Obama for sanctions against Yanukovych. Kyiv Post. 30 November 2013
  159. ^ The United States will not consider a petition against Yanukovych, but relations between the two countries deteriorate – O.Haran Archived 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  160. ^ Petition for sanctions against Yanukovych gathers 45,000 votes Archived 2 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine. ZIK.
  161. ^ "Ukraine Students Demand Minister Quit". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 1 March 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  162. ^ Yatseniuk: Current political crisis cannot be resolved through parliamentary methods, Interfax-Ukraine (5 December 2013)
  163. ^ Ukraine opposition: no talks unless government fired, CBC News (7 December 2013)
  164. ^ a b "Ukrainians to celebrate Day of Dignity and Freedom on November 21, Unity Day on January 22". Interfax-Ukraine. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
    Противники приостановки евроинтеграции Украины в ночи вышли на улицы Киева [Opponents of suspension Ukraine's European integration in the night took to the streets of Kyiv] (in Russian). NEWSru. 22 November 2013.
  165. ^ Kotsyuba, Oleh (29 November 2013). "Ukraine's Battle for Europe". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 November 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  166. ^ "Uprising in Ukraine: How It All Began". Open Society Foundations: voices. 4 April 2014. Archived from the original on 18 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  167. ^ Ivan Gomza and Nadiia Koval. "The Winter of Our Discontent: Emotions and Contentious Politics in Ukraine during Euromaidan" (PDF). Kyiv-Mohyla Law and Politics Journal.
  168. ^ Plokhy, Serhii (2023). The Russo-Ukrainian War: The Return of History. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 95–96. ISBN 978-1-324-05119-0.
  169. ^ T12:21+02:00 12:21 7 February 2014 (20 October 2012). "Ukrainian Interior Ministry has questions about a Thursday blast at Trade Unions House in Kyiv". Retrieved 16 March 2014.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  170. ^ "Opposition leaders call for people to join self-defense teams to protect EuroMaidan". Kyiv Post. 9 February 2014.
  171. ^ "EuroMaidan rallies in Ukraine (Jan. 19 live updates)". Kyiv Post. 19 January 2014. Archived from the original on 19 January 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  172. ^ "200,000 mass in Ukraine in defiance of protest curbs". New Straits Times. 19 January 2014. Archived from the original on 19 January 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  173. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Clashes after thousands defy protest ban". BBC News. 19 January 2014. Archived from the original on 19 January 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  174. ^ "Europe's new battlefield". The Economist. 22 February 2014. It is the worst violence Ukraine has known in its 22 years as an independent country
  175. ^ "Ukraine Health Ministry: Kyiv unrest death toll reaches 100". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  176. ^ "Гарантом выполнения Соглашения об урегулировании кризиса в Украине является народ – Томбинский" [The guarantor of the implementation of the Agreement on the settlement of the crisis in Ukraine is the people - Tombinsky].
  177. ^ "Ukraine conflict: Tymoshenko speech ends historic day of revolution". BBC News. 22 February 2014.
  178. ^ Neil Buckley and Roman Olearchyk (22 February 2014). "Yanukovich toppled in new Ukrainian revolution". Financial Times.
  179. ^ "Yanukovych: The man who sparks revolution in Ukraine". Yahoo! News. Agence France-Presse. 20 February 2014. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008.
  180. ^ "Yanukovych reveals, that when Parliament voted about his self-removal, he was in Donetsk". Interfax-Ukraine. 28 November 2016.
  181. ^ Активісти пояснили, що рвучи политчину символіку провладної партії "прощаються з минулим". Більше читайте тут [The activists explained that they were tearing apart the symbols of the pro-government party and "saying goodbye to the past". Read more here]. TSN (in Ukrainian). 1 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  182. ^ Тернопільський Євромайдан зібрав більше 10 тисяч людей [Ternopil Euromaidan gathered more than 10 thousand people]. ZZ TE UA (in Russian). 8 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  183. ^ Днепропетровск: 15 тысяч людей спели гимн Украины / Гордон [Dnipropetrovsk: 15 thousand people sang the anthem of Ukraine / Gordon]. Commentary (in Russian). 2 March 2014. Archived from the original on 22 July 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  184. ^ a b Хмельничани вимагають відставки голови облдержадміністрації [Khmelnytsky residents demand resignation of the head of the regional state administration]. VSIM (in Ukrainian). 24 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  185. ^ a b Акции протеста проходят в десятках [Dozens of protests are taking place]. UNIAN (in Russian). 1 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  186. ^ Сумской Евромайдан собрал более 5 тысяч человек [Sumy Euromaidan gathered more than 5,000 people]. Segodnya (in Russian). 24 January 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
  187. ^ a b Хроника и карта революционной Украины [Chronicle and map of revolutionary Ukraine]. Gordon UA (in Russian). 24 January 2014.
  188. ^ "У Донецьку почалася масова бійка. Є постраждалі" [A mass fight broke out in Donetsk. There are victims]. Ukrayinska Pravda (Українська правда, Ukrainian Pravda). 5 March 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  189. ^ В Запорожье пошли на штурм ОГА [In Zaporizhzhia went to storm the Regional State Administration]. Mignews (in Russian). 26 January 2014. Archived from the original on 28 January 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  190. ^ "У Криму вимагали дострокових виборів і покарання чиновників за сепаратизм" [Crimea demands early elections and punishment of officials for separatism]. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  191. ^ В Ривне тысячи протестующих требуют от чиновников выйти из Партии регионов [Thousands of protesters in Rivne demand officials to withdraw from the Party of Regions]. Podrobnosti (in Russian). 2 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  192. ^ В центре Николаева прошла многотысячная акция "Защитим Украину вместе" [In the center of Mykolaiv, a multi-thousand action "Let's Defend Ukraine Together" was held] (in Russian). 2 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  193. ^ Близько 3 000 закарпатців, попри дощ, вийшли на ЄвроМайдан у Мукачеві (ФОТО, Відео, Доповнено) [About 3,000 Transcarpathians, despite the rain, came to the EuroMaidan in Mukachevo (PHOTOS, Video, Updated)]. (in Ukrainian). 24 November 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
  194. ^ "Одесский Майдан: одесситы растянули 500-метровый флаг Украины " Вся правда из блогосферы на UAINFO" [Odesa Maidan: Odesans stretched the 500-meter flag of Ukraine "The whole truth from the blogosphere on UAINFO]. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  195. ^ В Белой Церкви прошло факельное шествие с требованием отставки Януковича [A torchlight procession took place in Bila Tserkva demanding Yanukovych's resignation] (in Russian). 24 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  196. ^ "Революція на місцях: коротке зведення по Галичині" [The revolution in the field: a brief summary of Galicia]. Galinfo (in Ukrainian). 1 December 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  197. ^ Митинги проходят в Харькове, Виннице, Тернополе, Николаеве, Кировограде, Львове, Одессе, Полтаве [Rallies are held in Kharkiv, Vinnytsia, Ternopil, Mykolaiv, Kirovohrad, Lviv, Odesa, Poltava]. Obozrevatel (in Russian). 8 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  198. ^ Shevchuk, Sergei (23 January 2014). "Две тысячи протестующих перекрыли центральную улицу Житомира" [Two thousand protesters blocked the central street of Zhytomyr].(in Russian)
  199. ^ Народное вече в Кировограде собрало около тысячи человек [The People's Council in Kirovohrad gathered about a thousand people]. Tvi (in Russian). 8 December 2013. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  200. ^ #Євромайдан у Кривому Розі [# Euromaidan in Kryvyi Rih]. Голос Криворіжжя (in Ukrainian). 1 December 2013. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
  201. ^ "Influential women of world urged to apply sanctions against Yanukovych" У Луганську на підтримку київського маршу вийшли близько тисячі людей (in Ukrainian). UNIAN. 9 December 2013.
  202. ^ Yosef Kish (24 January 2014). Ужгород: хроніка гарячого дня (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 25 January 2014.
  203. ^ Хроніка дрогобицького євромайдану-2. Дрогобицький Портал (in Ukrainian). 26 November 2013. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
  204. ^ Сегодня в Херсоне сторонники евроинтеграции собрались на Евромайдан в 17-й раз. Kherson Online (in Russian). 8 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  205. ^ "мариуполь: На митинге в Мариуполе осудили политику власти. ФОТОрепортаж – Беркут, избиение, мариуполь, митинг, оппозиция, Евросоюз, Евромайдан, Революция в Украине 27.01.14 1" [Mariupol: At a rally in Mariupol condemned the policy of the authorities. PHOTO report - Golden eagle, beating, Mariupol, rally, opposition, European Union, Euromaidan, Revolution in Ukraine 01/27/14 1]. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  206. ^ Міліція каже, що розганяти не буде. Чернiгiвщина: події (in Ukrainian). 23 November 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  207. ^ В Измаиле состоялся свой Майдан (in Russian). Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  208. ^ "Активісти блокують у Василькові полк «Тигр» із Криму (доповнено)" Активісти блокують у Василькові полк "Тигр" із Криму (доповнено). Daily Lviv (in Ukrainian). 4 December 2013. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
  209. ^ У Ялті організували Євромайдан, в Севастополі вимагали "посадити" опозицію. Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  210. ^ Interfax-Ukraine (25 November 2013). "Lviv students want EU deal signed". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
  211. ^ Bershidsky, Leonid (16 April 2010). "Ukrainians protest rejection of EU for Russia". Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  212. ^ "Rally in Lviv grows to 25,000". 24 November 2013. Archived from the original on 2 December 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  213. ^ В Крыму на Евромайдане спели гимн УПА. VESTI (in Russian). 24 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  214. ^ Через погроми у наметовому містечку Дніпропетровська травмовані 7 людей – Відео (in Ukrainian). 11 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  215. ^ Євромайдан. У Дніпропетровську 40 "тітушок" напали на наметове містечко (in Ukrainian). 11 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  216. ^ Проти "тітушків", які розгромили дніпропетровський Євромайдан, відкрито кримінальне провадження (in Ukrainian). 11 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  217. ^ Євромайдан у Дніпропетровську розгромили за рішенням суду, проте міліція не втручалася (in Ukrainian). 11 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  218. ^ "Євромайдан в Одесі – Міліція знесла Євромайдан в Одесі – Новини України на 1+1 – ТСН.ua" [Euromaidan in Odesa - Police demolished Euromaidan in Odesa - News of Ukraine on 1 + 1 -] (in Ukrainian). Televiziyna Sluzhba Novyn. 25 November 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  219. ^ "У Чернігові знесли Євромайдан, а обурений протестувальник намагався себе підпалити – ЗМІ – Новини України на 1+1 – ТСН.ua" [Euromaidan demolished in Chernihiv, and outraged protester tried to set himself on fire - mass media - News of Ukraine on 1 + 1 -] (in Ukrainian). TSN. 25 November 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  220. ^ "Odessa EuroMaidan: Heavy-handed measures by police and their questionable back-up". 25 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  221. ^ Европа грозит Украине развратом – "Русский блок" провел в Донецке "антимайдан" [Europe threatens Ukraine with debauchery - "Russian Block" held "anti-Maidan" in Donetsk]. Gazeta (in Russian). 26 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  222. ^ В Ялте начали преследовать участников Евромайдана – Новости Крыма [In Yalta began to persecute the participants of the Euromaidan – News of the Crimea] (in Russian). 25 November 2013. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  223. ^ a b Ukraine opposition demands leader resign after EU snub, Seven News (30 November 2013) Archived 4 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  224. ^ "Żywy łańcuch poparcia dla protestujących na Ukrainie – TVP Regionalna – Telewizja Polska S.A." [A living chain of support for protesters in Ukraine - TVP Regionalna - Telewizja Polska S.A.] (in Polish). 29 November 2013. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  225. ^ "A rally of 300 in Donetsk demands Yanukovych's resignation". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 1 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  226. ^ Жадан прошел по харьковскому Евромайдану "путь в Европу" [Zhadan walked along the Kharkiv Euromaidan "the way to Europe"]. Kharkiv Commentary (in Russian). 1 December 2013. Archived from the original on 6 February 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
  227. ^ Сергій Жадан закликав студентів на революцію #Євромайдан #Харків [Serhiy Zhadan called on students for the #Euromaidan #Kharkiv revolution] (in Ukrainian). Monitoring Maidan. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  228. ^ "# Yevromaydan Kharkiv" [# Euromaidan Kharkiv]. Maidan Monitor. 1 December 2013. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
  229. ^ "Харьковский Евромайдан заночует на площади Свободы" [Kharkiv Euromaidan will spend the night on Svobody Square]. Vesti. 1 December 2013.
  230. ^ На Евромайдан в Харькове вышли тысячи человек [Thousands of people took to the Euromaidan in Kharkiv]. Segodnya (in Russian). 1 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  231. ^ В Днепропетровске около 1000 человек требовали отставки виновных в разгоне Евромайдана [In Dnipropetrovsk, about 1,000 people demanded the resignation of those responsible for dispersing the Euromaidan]. Segodnya (in Russian). 1 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  232. ^ Крымский Евромайдан извинился за жестокость "Беркута" в Киеве – Новости Крыма [Crimean Euromaidan apologized for the brutality of "Berkut" in Kyiv – News of the Crimea] (in Russian). 1 December 2013. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  233. ^ Vladimir Ivahnenko and Ярослав Шимов (2 December 2013). Хроника "Евромайдана" [Chronicle of "Euromaidan"]. Радио Свобода (in Russian). Svoboda. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  234. ^ "Сьогодні у більшості облрад відбудуться позачергові сесії через ситуацію в Україні – Політика – ТСН.ua" [Extraordinary sessions due to the situation in Ukraine will take place in most regional councils today - Politics -] (in Ukrainian). TSN. 2 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  235. ^ Три західні області оголосили страйк [Three western oblasts went on strike]. Ukrainska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 2 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  236. ^ Свобода, Радіо (3 December 2013). У Дніпропетровську євромайданівці вимагають відставки місцевої влади [In Dnipropetrovsk, Euromaidan activists demand the resignation of local authorities]. Радіо Свобода (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  237. ^ Новини (7 December 2013). Прикарпатська міліція не пускає Івано-Франківських мітингувальників до Києва [Prykarpattia police do not allow Ivano-Frankivsk protesters to enter Kyiv] (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  238. ^ "Lenin statue toppled in Ukraine protest". CNN. 8 December 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  239. ^ Одесского Ленина сокрушили вслед за киевским [Odesa's Lenin was crushed after Kyiv's] (in Russian). 9 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  240. ^ В Тернополе организаторы Евромайдана подверглись уголовному преследованию – Украина [In Ternopil, the organizers of the Euromaidan were prosecuted - Ukraine] (in Russian). 9 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  241. ^ "Ленінопад триває: вождя скинули в Каневі, Миколаєві, Херсоні – Новини України на 1+1 – ТСН.ua" [Leninopad continues: the leader was overthrown in Kaniv, Mykolaiv, Kherson - News of Ukraine on 1 + 1 -]. 22 February 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  242. ^ Софія Середа. "В Україні – Ленінопад: пам'ятники вождю падають один за одним" [In Ukraine - Leninopad: monuments to the leader fall one after another]. Радіо Свобода. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  243. ^ Харьковчане недовольны забором на площади Свободы (ФОТО) [Kharkiv residents dissatisfied with fence on Freedom Square (PHOTOS)] (in Russian). 14 December 2013. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  244. ^ "In Kharkiv, the second burned car Euromaidan (У Харкові спалили другу машину Євромайдану)". Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 24 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  245. ^ Christopher J. Miller (25 December 2013). "Unknown assailants beat and stab Kharkiv EuroMaidan organizer". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
  246. ^ В Днепропетровске около двух тысяч человек поддержали вече в Киеве [In Dnipropetrovsk, about two thousand people supported the council in Kyiv] (in Russian). UNIAN. 22 December 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
  247. ^ "A Free Donetsk?". World Affairs. 10 January 2014. Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2014.((cite news)): CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  248. ^ В Донецке, Днепропетровске, Харькове, Одессе вышли на Евромайдан [In Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Kharkiv, Odesa went to Euromaidan] (in Russian). 5 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
  249. ^ Oksana Grytsenko (11 January 2014). "Smashed windows, tear gas accompany EuroMaidan forum in Kharkiv". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
  250. ^ "Тітушки" вогнем розігнали Донецький Євромайдан ["Aunts" dispersed Donetsk Euromaidan by fire] (in Ukrainian). The Insider. 22 January 2014. Archived from the original on 24 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
  251. ^ "Донецька міськрада просить Януковича вжити жорсткі заходи" [Donetsk City Council asks Yanukovych to take tough measures]. The Insider. 22 January 2014. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
  252. ^ "Mothers block their soldier sons from serving in Kyiv". Euronews. 22 January 2014. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
  253. ^ У Вінниці активісти перекрили центральну вулицю міста та заблокували ОДА [In Vinnytsia, activists blocked the city's main street and blocked the regional state administration] (in Ukrainian). 23 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
  254. ^ Украина, Комментарии. "взрыв — последние новости | Комментарии Украина" [The car of the Odesa oppositionist was blown up]. (in Russian). Retrieved 10 March 2023.
  255. ^ Мэр Сум и его фракция в горсовете заявили о поддержке протестов [The mayor of Sumy and his faction in the city council expressed support for the protests]. LB (in Russian). 24 January 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
  256. ^ Kyiv, Harriet Salem Shaun Walker in; Harding, Luke (24 February 2014). "Ukraine's Crimeans eye alliance with Russia". The Guardian (in Russian). Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  257. ^ Zmeyev, Maxim (27 February 2017). "PUTIN CONGRATULATES RUSSIAN SPECIAL FORCES ON CRIMEA ANNIVERSARY". Newsweek. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  258. ^ Putilov, Ivan; Sindelar, Daisy (18 March 2015). "One Year After Annexation, Remembering The Crimea That Fought Back". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  259. ^ "Tensions high in Ukraine's Crimea as rival crowds gather". Reuters. 26 February 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  260. ^ a b "Новости Донбасса :: Митинг за мир и единство Украины в центре Донецка – все видео и фото до драки (обновлено)" [Donbas News :: Rally for peace and unity of Ukraine in the center of Donetsk – all videos and photos before the fight (updated)]. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  261. ^ "На площади Ленина пророссийские активисты напали на участников антивоенного митинга – Донецк" [On Lenin Square, pro-Russian activists attacked participants in an anti-war rally –]. Archived from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  262. ^ "Pałac Kultury w kolorach flagi Ukrainy" [Palace of Culture in the colors of the Ukrainian flag] (in Polish). Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  263. ^ "Blue and Yellow for Ukraine – Cira Centre lights up". Ukrainian Selfreliance Federal Credit Union. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  264. ^ "Parliament Adopts Statement on Ukraine". Civil Georgia. 11 December 2013. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  265. ^ "Niagara Falls was blue and yellow". iReport. 30 December 2013. Archived from the original on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  266. ^ "Maidan 2.0: A Protest With Reservations". Retrieved 2 February 2023.
  267. ^ Post, Kyiv (10 December 2013). "EuroMaidan rallies in Ukraine – Dec.9". KyivPost. Retrieved 2 February 2023.
  268. ^ Rudenko, Olga (16 February 2014). "Protesters: Ukraine paying for pro-government rallies". USA Today.
  269. ^ Winter on Fire: Ukraine's Fight for Freedom (Motion picture). 9 October 2015.
  270. ^ a b c d e "Out in force: Ukraine's Self-Defense – DW – 03/20/2014". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  271. ^ Luhn, Alec (4 March 2014). ""As Far-Right Groups Infiltrate Kiev's Institutions, the Student Movement Pushes Back" 4 Mar 2014". The Nation. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  272. ^ Закриваючи собою Майдан [Closing the Maidan] (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  273. ^ Парубій розповів про історію створення та структуру самооборони Майдану [Parubiy told about the history of creation and structure of Maidan self-defense] (in Ukrainian). 13 February 2014. Archived from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  274. ^ ANDREW HIGGINS; ANDREW E. KRAMER (20 February 2014). "Converts Join With Militants in Kiev Clash". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  275. ^ "Андрій Парубій на Hromadske.TV" [Andrew Parubiy on Hromadske.TV] (in Ukrainian). Hromadske.TV. 3 January 2014. Archived from the original on 8 November 2021. Retrieved 16 March 2014 – via YouTube.
  276. ^ "Вікинги" і "Нарнія" штурмували КМДА, бо не мали куди йти ["Vikings" and "Narnia" stormed the Kyiv City State Administration because they had nowhere to go] (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  277. ^ Виступ сотника Володимира Парасюка 21 лютого на Майдані [Speech by Captain Volodymyr Parasyuk on February 21 on the Maidan] (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  278. ^ Грани.Ру/Персоны/Владимир Парасюк [Grani.Ru / Persons / Vladimir Parasyuk] (in Russian). 28 February 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  279. ^ "Парубій підписав наказ "Про основні засади організації «Самооборони Майдану" – Новини – Самооборона Майдану" [Parubiy signs order on Maidan Self-Defense Principles - News - Maidan Self-Defense]. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  280. ^ Структура протесту: Євромайдан представляють понад 10 груп різних організацій [Structure of the protest: Euromaidan is represented by more than 10 groups of different organizations] (in Ukrainian). 7 February 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  281. ^ "Євген Карась: "Оголошення в розшук – помста за те, що ми зловили міліцейську спецгрупу, елітний "ескадрон смерті" – Хто не чув легенди –" [Eugene Karas: "Announcement wanted - revenge for the fact that we caught a police task force, an elite" death squad "- Who has not heard the legend -] (in Ukrainian). 8 February 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  282. ^ "Amnesty International: Five Years After Euromaidan, Justice For The Victims 'Still Not Even In Sight'". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. RFE/RL. 19 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  283. ^ Only at Hrushevskoho suffered 42 journalists (Лише на Грушевського постраждали 42 журналісти). Ukrayinska Pravda. 22 January 2014
  284. ^ Journalists are disguising themselves as regular protesters for own safety. TSN. 22 January 2014
  285. ^ "EuroMaidan rallies in Ukraine (Feb. 4 live updates)". Kyiv Post. 4 February 2014.
  286. ^ "At least two reporters injured by stun grenade in Kyiv". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 20 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  287. ^ Mark Rachkevych (20 January 2014). "Watchdog: 26 journalists injured in police clashes, two detained". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  288. ^ Belarusian photocorrespondent in Kiev was shot Archived 25 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Belapan. 22 January 2014
  289. ^ Belarusian journalist suffered during the events in Kiev. 22 January 2014
  290. ^ In Kiev sniper wounded a journalist Archived 19 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Belarusian partizan. 22 January 2014
  291. ^ Nataliya Trach (22 January 2014). "Police assault journalist providing live video for Espresso TV". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  292. ^ Ukrainian president demands all detained reporters be released immediately, Interfax-Ukraine (24 January 2014)
  293. ^ Berkut shoots at medic with raised hands. Ukrayinska Pravda. 31 January 2014. (video no longer available)
  294. ^ Photographic slideshow by Mark Estabrook of the EuroMaidan revolution in February 2014 in Kyiv
  295. ^ Austin photographer Mark Estabrook smuggled out of Kiev Austin American Statesman,; 19 February 2014.
  296. ^ German television network ntv interview with Mark Estabrook,, 3 February 2014, Cologne, Germany.
  297. ^ a b c d "EUROMAYDAN – 2013" Archived 13 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Research & Branding Group (10 December 2013)
  298. ^ a b c Half of Ukrainians don't support Kyiv Euromaidan, R&B poll, Interfax-Ukraine (30 December 2013)
  299. ^ a b "Poll reveals Ukrainian majority supports EuroMaidan". 30 December 2013. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  300. ^ a b Ukraine protesters take rally to Yanukovich's residence, Financial Times (29 December 2013)
  301. ^ a b c "Poll discovers EuroMaidan evolution from dreamy to radical". Kyiv Post. 6 February 2014.
  302. ^ "Viktor Yanukovych: Losing Europe ... and Losing the Ukrainian Public?". Brookings Institution. 18 November 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  303. ^ "Poll: More Ukrainians disapprove of EuroMaidan protests than approve of it". Kyiv Post. 7 February 2014.
  304. ^ "Public Opinion Survey, Residents of Ukraine — March 14–26, 2014" (PDF). p. 100. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  305. ^ "Harvard Study Shows Russian-speaking Ukrainians Backing Kyiv". VOA. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
  306. ^ Ukraine Q&A: How protests turned violent and what comes next, Financial Times (26 January 2014)
  307. ^ a b "Poll: Over 70 percent of Euromaidan participants are ready to protest for as long as is needed". Kyiv Post. 13 December 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  308. ^ Rachkevych, Mark (10 December 2013). "Survey: EuroMaidan is grassroots movement, in danger of being 'radicalized'". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  309. ^ Каждый пятый украинец хочет жить в авторитарном государстве [Every Fifth Ukrainian Wants to Live in Sovereign State] (in Russian). 21 January 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
  310. ^ "Ukraine, poll: Attitudes of the population of Ukraine towards democracy and authoritarianism (recurrent, 2004–2012) // Razumkov Centre". Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  311. ^ "В акциях Евромайдана приняли участие 20% населения – опрос" [20% of the population took part in Euromaidan actions - poll]. 13 November 2017.
  312. ^ a b The socio-political situation in Ukraine: December 2013, Sociological group "RATING" (25 December 2013)
  313. ^ "Большинство украинцев поддерживают ассоциацию с ЕС" [Most Ukrainians support association with the EU]. Зеркало недели. Украина.
  314. ^ Авдотья СкворцоваИнтернет издание – Ваш день. ""ЕВРОМАЙДАН – 2013"" ["EUROMAYDAN - 2013"]. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  315. ^ a b "Українці обирають Євросоюз" [Ukrainians choose the European Union]. GfK Ukraine. 12 November 2013. Archived from the original on 12 February 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  316. ^ "Українці обирають Євросоюз" [Ukrainians choose the European Union] (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 January 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  317. ^ "DW-Trend: більшість українців – за вступ до ЄС" [DW-Trend: the majority of Ukrainians are in favor of joining the EU]. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  318. ^ Poll: Ukrainian public split over EU, Customs Union options, Kyiv Post (26 November 2013)
  319. ^ "Азаров: Украину никто не приглашает вступать в ЕС" [Azarov: Nobody invites Ukraine to join the EU]. 27 December 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  320. ^ "срыв евроинтеграции: Вопрос о вступлении Украины в ЕС – бессмысленный, – Азаров – Азаров, Евросоюз, Срыв ассоциации с ЕС, срыв евроинтеграции (27.12.13 21:31) " Политика Украи" [failure of European integration: The issue of Ukraine's accession to the EU is meaningless, - Azarov - Azarov, European Union, Failure of association with the EU, failure of European integration (27.12.13 21:31) " Politics of Ukraine]. 27 December 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  321. ^ "Ukrainian Protests Compared to 2004 Orange Revolution". The Moscow Times. 26 November 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  322. ^ Olearchyk, Roman (30 November 2013). "Ukraine protests hampered by fragmenting of political opposition". Financial Times. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  323. ^ a b BBC Trending (22 November 2013). "BBC News – European Square: Hashtag of Ukraine protest". BBC. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  324. ^ "Vitaliy_Klychko: Друзі! Усі, хто" [Vitaliy Klychko: Friends! All, who]. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  325. ^ "Кличко: Зберемо 100 000 і підемо в гості на Банкову" [Klitschko: We will collect 100,000 and visit Bankova]. VK. 22 November 2013. Archived from the original on 20 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  326. ^ "Юрій Луценко: У нас дві дороги – у в'язницю або до перемоги" [Yuriy Lutsenko: We have two roads - to prison or to victory]. Ukrayinska Pravda. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  327. ^ Magocsi, Paul Robert. "EuroMaidan vs. Orange Revolution, PR Magocsi (ЄвроМайдан)". UkeTube. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
  328. ^ In Ukraine, Protests Highlight 'Generational Rift', Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (27 November 2013)
  329. ^ a b (in Ukrainian) Which way Ukraine should go – which union should join?, Kyiv International Institute of Sociology (3 October 2013)
  330. ^ "Poll: Ukrainian public split over EU, Customs Union options". Kyiv Post. 26 November 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  331. ^ Kudelia, Serhiy (2018). "When Numbers Are Not Enough: The Strategic Use of Violence in Ukraine's 2014 Revolution". Comparative Politics. 50 (4): 501–521. doi:10.5129/001041518823565623. ISSN 0010-4159. JSTOR 26532701. S2CID 187052079.
  332. ^ Calamur, Krishnadev (19 February 2014). "4 Things To Know About What's Happening In Ukraine". NPR. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  333. ^ Tyahnybok, Oleh. "Oleh Tyahnybok: I appeal to law-enforcement agents who still have their honor – choose the side of the Ukrainian revolution!". Svoboda. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
  334. ^ UkeTube on YouTube
  335. ^ Ukraine president slams calls for revolution, Al Jazeera (10 December 2013)
  336. ^ Saakashvili, Mikheil (27 January 2014). "Why the West Must Join the Ukraine Protesters". The Wall Street Journal.
  337. ^ Åslund, Anders (30 January 2014). "Yanukovych's Time Is Up in Ukraine; the West Must Prepare". Peterson Institute for International Economics. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  338. ^ Davos leaves Ukraine PM out in the cold, Financial Times (23 January 2014)
  339. ^ "'Fuck the EU': US diplomat Victoria Nuland's phonecall leaked – video". The Guardian. 7 February 2014.
  340. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Transcript of leaked Nuland-Pyatt call". BBC News. 7 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  341. ^ "Angela Merkel: Victoria Nuland's remarks on EU are unacceptable". The Guardian. 7 February 2014.
  342. ^ AFP (6 February 2014). "Top US diplomat for Europe sorry for cursing the EU". Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  343. ^ AFP (6 February 2014). "US blames Russia for leak of undiplomatic language from top official". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  344. ^ "Euromaidan: The Dark Shadows Of The Far-Right In Ukraine Protests", International Business Times, 19 February 2014.
  345. ^ a b Poroshenko Bloc to have greatest number of seats in parliament Archived 10 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Ukrainian Television and Radio (8 November 2014)
    People's Front 0.33% ahead of Poroshenko Bloc with all ballots counted in Ukraine elections – CEC Archived 12 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (8 November 2014)
    Poroshenko Bloc to get 132 seats in parliament – CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (8 November 2014)
  346. ^ After the parliamentary elections in Ukraine: a tough victory for the Party of Regions Archived 17 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Centre for Eastern Studies (7 November 2012)
  347. ^ Svoboda party members in Ukrainian government resign – Deputy Premier Sych, Interfax-Ukraine (12 November 2014)
  348. ^ "Three leaders of opposition and the president of Ukraine signed the document on settlement of a political situation". Archived from the original on 22 March 2014.
  349. ^ ""The Right Sector" is dissatisfied with the agreement with Yanukovych". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  350. ^ "Protesters seize Ukraine president's office, take control of Kiev". CBS News. 22 February 2015. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  351. ^ "Майдан полностью контролирует Киев – Парубий" [Maidan fully controls Kyiv - Parubiy]. 11 July 2022.
  352. ^ Cullison, Alan (22 February 2014). "Ukrainians Flock to See Yanukovych's Mansion". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
  353. ^ Traynor, Ian (24 February 2014). "Western nations scramble to contain fallout from Ukraine crisis". The Guardian.
  354. ^ Kramer, Andrew (2 March 2014). "Ukraine Turns to Its Oligarchs for Political Help". The New York Times.
  355. ^ Shapovalova, Natalia; Burlyuk, Olga (2018). "Civil Society in post-Euromaidan Ukraine: From revolution to consolidation". Civil Society. ibidem Press.
  356. ^ Protests in Ukraine up risk of growth in foreign currency demand, says Moody's, Interfax-Ukraine (4 December 2013)
  357. ^ Ukraine needs $10 bln to avoid default – deputy PM, Interfax-Ukraine (7 December 2013)
  358. ^ a b Ukraine might not be able to fulfill gas contracts with Russia, says Ukrainian premier, Interfax-Ukraine (3 December 2013)
  359. ^ Money for pensions, wages, social payments short due to actions of protesters, says Ukrainian premier, Interfax-Ukraine (5 December 2013)
  360. ^ Korolevska: Payment of pensions in January to begin according to schedule, Interfax-Ukraine (2 January 2014)
  361. ^ Azarov: Full repayment of debt on social payments postponed until end of this year due to protests, Interfax-Ukraine (11 December 2013)
  362. ^ Ukraine protesters defy police, leaders reject talks with president, Reuters (11 December 2013)
  363. ^ a b Fitch: Ukraine protests increase pressure on credit profile, Interfax-Ukraine (16 December 2013)
  364. ^ Ukraine's budget deficit in 2014 expected at 3% of GDP – Finance Ministry, Interfax-Ukraine (17 December 2013)
  365. ^ Nothing threatening Ukraine's economic, financial stability now – PM Azarov, Interfax-Ukraine (18 December 2013)
  366. ^ Russian bailout masks Ukraine's economic mess, BBC News (18 December 2013)
  367. ^ a b Protests cause multi-mln-USD damage to Ukrainian capital: official, Xinhua News Agency (21 January 2014)
  368. ^ EU's Ashton demands more urgency from Ukraine politicians Archived 26 June 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Euronews (6 February 2014)
  369. ^ Ukraine Bonds Rally as Factions Sign Peace Pact to End Crisis, Bloomberg News (21 February 2014)
  370. ^ S&P downgrades Ukraine again over default fears Archived 1 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Euronews (21 February 2014)
  371. ^ Why Ukraine Is So Important, Business Insider (28 January 2014)
  372. ^ "'Life goes on' amid Kiev protests". BBC News. Retrieved 15 June 2023.
  373. ^ Kulyk, Volodymyr (20 April 2016). "National Identity in Ukraine: Impact of Euromaidan and the War". Europe-Asia Studies. 68 (4): 588–608. doi:10.1080/09668136.2016.1174980. ISSN 0966-8136. S2CID 147826053.
  374. ^ «Євромайдан»— слово року, і не тільки в Україні, Газета.ua, 14 January 2014 (in Ukrainian)
  375. ^ Євромайдан і Тітушко— неологізми року в Росії, Газета.ua, 14 January 2014 (in Ukrainian)
  376. ^ "Неизвестные разграбили фонды Музея истории Киева в Украинском доме" [Unknown people plundered the stock of the Museum of the History of Kyiv in the Ukrainian House]. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  377. ^ "Фонды Музея истории Киева в Украинском доме полностью разгромлены (ДОПОЛНЕНО)" [The stock of the Museum of the History of Kyiv in the Ukrainian House are completely destroyed (UPDATED)]. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  378. ^ Brat za Brata (Брат за брата) [Brother for Brother- Famous Ukrainian artists against the Regime.]. YouTube. 1 December 2013. Archived from the original on 8 November 2021.
  379. ^ All Polish TV channels simultaneously turned on a song in sign of support for Ukraine. TSN. 2 February 2014
  380. ^ All Polish TV channels simultaneously turned on a song in sign of support for Ukraine. Mirror Weekly. 2 February 2014
  381. ^ Band Taraka moved hearts. Polskie Radio. 4 February 2014
  382. ^ Aflame the tire was on fire: new eurohit. Video. Ukrayinska Pravda. 29 January 2014
  383. ^ New hit of the revolutionary Maidan: "Aflame the barrel was on smoke" Archived 11 February 2014 at espreso TV. 4 February 2014
  384. ^ Band Skriabin at night on 23 January wrote a song Archived 11 February 2014 at espreso TV. 23 January 2014
  385. ^ Race car driver Mochanov dedicated his song to titushky Archived 11 February 2014 at espreso TV. 5 February 2014
  386. ^ DJ Rudy Paulenko created this track after being inspired by events on Independence Square on YouTube 4 March 2014
  387. ^ (in Ukrainian) Klitschko at concert "Lapis Trubetskoi" autographed and shook hands, Tablo ID (27 August 2014)
  388. ^ Babylon'13: 35 films about the life of Euromaidan. Ukrayinska Pravda. 24 December 2013
  389. ^ Happy Kyiv Archived 21 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. belsat. 10 February 2014
  390. ^ Group of activists-cinematographers initiated series of films about people of Euromaidan. Ukrayinska Pravda. 5 February 2014
  391. ^ "I vincitori del Terre di Siena International Film Festival" [The winners of the Terre di Siena International Film Festival], Antennaradioesse, 6 October 2014, retrieved 6 October 2014
  392. ^ "Cannes 2014: Maidan review – an unblinking look at Ukraine's history in action". The Guardian. 21 May 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2023.
  393. ^ Rothmuller, Sheryl. "Winter on Fire: Ukraine's Fight for Freedom". Television Academy. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  394. ^ Giannavola, Salvatore (17 June 2016). "Taormina Film Fest: Oliver Stone e Igor Lopatonok presentano Ukraine on Fire". Telefilm Central (in Italian). Retrieved 18 June 2022. Sono queste le keywords del docufilm di Igor Lopatonok e Oliver Stone che nella mattinata di ieri hanno presentato in anteprima nazionale 'Ukraine on Fire'.
  395. ^ M, J (30 June 2016). "Oliver Stone zoekt de waarheid achter Oekraïnecrisis in nieuwe documentaire" [Oliver Stone seeks truth behind Ukraine crisis in new documentary]. Knack Focus (in Dutch). Roularta Media Group. Retrieved 18 June 2022.
  396. ^ "The Long Breakup 2020". Letterboxd. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  397. ^ Revolution through eyes of photograph. Hanna Hrabarska. Ukrayinska Pravda. 11 February 2014
  398. ^ Revolution through eyes of photograph. Irakliy Dzneladze. Ukrayinska Pravda. 7 February 2014
  399. ^ Revolution through eyes of photograph. Vladyslav Musiyenko. Ukrayinska Pravda. 4 February 2014
  400. ^ Epeople: the best project about the faces of Euromaidan. Ukrayinska Pravda. 30 January 2014
  401. ^ Illustrator Sasha Godiayeva. Emotional protest. Ukrayinska Pravda. 5 February 2014
  402. ^ "Painting in the Sky" Obituary, Shambala Times, October 25, 2014
  403. ^ a b Birksted-Breen, Noah (2020). The watershed year of 2014: The 'birth' of Ukrainian New Drama. London: Bloomsbury. pp. 121–140. ISBN 9781788313506.
  404. ^ Dynamo to play Valencia in Cyprus, Euronews (19 February 2014)
  405. ^ Dynamo to play Valencia in Cyprus, UEFA (19 February 2014)
  406. ^ a b Hockey heartache for hosts, Ukraine violence shocks Games, Reuters (19 February 2014)
  407. ^ a b Ukrainian Olympic alpine skier quits Sochi, blames Yanukovych for deaths on EuroMaidan, Kyiv Post (19 February 2014)
  408. ^ Budivelinik, Khimik home games moved, Eurocupbasketball(3 March 2014)
  409. ^ Miller, Christopher (20 February 2019). "'It Was A Tragedy Then. We Have Another Tragedy Now.' Ukrainians Rue Lack Of Justice For Euromaidan Killings". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  410. ^ Putin Vows to Defend Ex-Soviet Allies from ‘Color Revolutions’, Bloomberg News (10 January 2022)
    Putin: We won't allow scenarios of so-called colour revolutions to be played out, (10 January 2022)
  411. ^ a b Допис by Alexey Tarasoff. (27 February 2014). "Хокейні вболівальники Росії під час матчу кричали Слава Україні" [Russian hockey fans shout "Glory to Ukraine" during the match]. (Ukrainian Pravda). Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  412. ^ "Crimean Tatars protest Crimean parliament's refusal to recognize new authorities". 26 February 2014. Archived from the original on 10 March 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  413. ^ "Ukraine Radicals Steer Violence as Nationalist Zeal Grows". Bloomberg News. 11 February 2014.
  414. ^ "UPA: Controversial partisans who inspire Ukraine protesters". New Straits Times. 31 January 2014. Archived from the original on 3 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  415. ^ ""Свободовцы" послали Лукьянченко красно-черный флаг" ["Svobodovtsy" sent a red-black flag to Lukyanchenko]. 18 January 2014. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  416. ^ "4 Reasons Putin Is Already Losing in Ukraine". Time. 3 March 2014.
  417. ^ Янукович: до прийняття рішення про розгін причетні троє. Ukrayinska Pravda. 13 December 2013
  418. ^ За розгін Євромайдану відповідатимуть три високопосадовця – Лукаш. Ukrayinska Pravda. 13 December 2013
  419. ^ У ГПУ заявили, що Клюєв до зачистки Майдану не причетний. Ukrayinska Pravda. 16 December 2013
  420. ^ Янукович прийде на "стіл Кравчука". Ukrayinska Pravda. 13 December 2013
  421. ^ Янукович вже "відсторонив" Сівковича і Попова. Ukrayinska Pravda. 14 December 2013
  422. ^ Руслана після допиту: Виглядає як замовлення проти Попова, Сівковича й "Батьківщини". Ukrayinska Pravda. 17 December 2013
  423. ^ Пшонка визнав, що "Беркут" розігнав Майдан, щоб встановити "йолку". Ukrayinska Pravda. 20 December 2013
  424. ^ Пшонка визнав, що "Беркут" розігнав Майдан, щоб встановити "йолку". Ukrayinska Pravda. 20 December 2013
  425. ^ Після слів Пшонки опозиція хоче, щоб розгін Майдану розслідувала Рада. Ukrayinska Pravda. 20 December 2013
  426. ^ СБУ РОЗСЛІДУЄ ЗАХОПЛЕННЯ ДЕРЖВЛАДИ. Ukrayinska Pravda. 8 December 2013
  427. ^ Пшонка: До спроб скинути владу причетні радикальні угрупування. (tr. "Pshonka: Radical groups are involved in attempts to overthrow the government") Ukrayinska Pravda. 20 December 2013
  428. ^ The Kyiv court arrested two out of 9 who are suspected in the Bankova disorders (Суд Киева арестовал двух из девяти подозреваемых в беспорядках на Банковой). 3 December 2013
  429. ^ Viktoriya Guerra. There is such a crime as to get hit by a baton to the head (Есть такое преступление – получать кийком по голове). 4 December 2013
  430. ^ "Prosecutor General: Maidan Protesters Were Shot from the Guns ofby Berkut Weapons". Ukrayinska Pravda.
  431. ^ "Examination confirms Berkut officers' involvement in execution of Maidan activists, - PGO". Censor.NET. 5 July 2016.
  432. ^ "Traces of the Euromaidan Revolution: Bullets". 20 February 2020.
  433. ^ "Ukrainian prosecutor: the latest examination proved the fault of the Berkut people in the shooting of Maidan activists". Archived from the original on 8 June 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2023.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  434. ^ "Экспертиза подтвердила участие "беркутовцев" в убийствах на Майдане - ГПУ".
  435. ^ "Экспертиза подтвердила участие беркутовцев в убийствах на Майдане – ГПУ".
  436. ^ a b "Maidan trial: Experts tell how they find bullets from Berkut officers' guns | ZMINA". 26 July 2016.
  437. ^ "Про що розповідають кулі з Майдану - Український тиждень". 27 July 2016.