Republic of Karelia
|• Karelian||Karjalan tašavalta|
|• Vepsian||Karjalan tazovaldkund|
|• Finnish||Karjalan tasavalta|
|• Livvi||Karjalan tazavaldu|
|Anthem: Anthem of the Republic of Karelia|
|• Body||Legislative Assembly|
|• Head||Artur Parfenchikov|
|• Total||172,400 km2 (66,600 sq mi)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||3.1/km2 (8.0/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK )|
|ISO 3166 code||RU-KR|
|Recognised languages||Karelian, Veps, Finnish|
The Republic of Karelia,[a] Karjala or Karelia (Russian: Каре́лия, Ка́рьяла; Karelian: Karjala), is one of the republics of the Russian Federation situated in the northwest of the country. The republic is a part of the Northwestern Federal District, and covers an area of 172,400 square kilometres (66,600 square miles), with a population of 533,121 residents. Its capital is Petrozavodsk.
The modern Karelian Republic was founded as an autonomous republic within the Russian SFSR by the Resolution of the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK) on 27 June 1923 and by the Decree of the VTsIK and the Council of People's Commissars of 25 July 1923, from the Karelian Labour Commune. From 1940 to 1956, it was known as the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic, one of the republics of the Soviet Union. In 1956, it was once again made an autonomous republic and remained part of Russia following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.
"Karelia" derives from the name of the ethnic group—Karelians. The name "Karjala" has unknown origins, however, it is theorised that it may come from the Proto-Finnish word karja, meaning "herd", which was borrowed from the Proto-Germanic harjaz ("army"); the ending -la means "earth".
The republic is in the northwestern part of Russia, between the White and Baltic Seas. The White Sea has a shoreline of 630 kilometers (390 mi). It has an area of 172,400 km2 (66,600 sq mi). It shares internal borders with Murmansk Oblast (north), Arkhangelsk Oblast (east/south-east), Vologda Oblast (south-east/south), and Leningrad Oblast (south/south-west), and it also borders Finland (Kainuu, Lapland, North Karelia, Northern Ostrobothnia, and South Karelia); the borders measure 723 km. The main bodies of water next to Karelia are the White Sea (an inlet of the Barents Sea) to the north-east and Lake Onega and Lake Ladoga both shared with neighboring Oblasts to the south. Its highest point is the Nuorunen peak at 576 m (1,890 ft).
As a part of the Fennoscandian Shield's ancient Karelian craton, most of the Republic of Karelia's surficial geology is Archaean or Paleoproterozoic, dated up to 3.4 billion years in the Vodlozero block. This area is the largest contiguous Archaean outcrop in Europe and one of the largest in the world.
Since deglaciation, the rate of post-glacial rebound in the Republic of Karelia has varied. Since the White Sea connected to the World's oceans uplift along the southern coast of Kandalaksha Gulf has totaled 90 m.[clarification needed] In the interval 9,500–5,000 years ago the uplift rate was 9–13 mm/yr. Before the Atlantic period, uplift rate had decreased to 5–5.5 mm/yr, to then rise briefly before arriving at the present uplift rate is 4 mm/yr.
There are about 27,000 rivers in Karelia. Major rivers include:
There are 60,000 lakes in Karelia. The republic's lakes and swamps contain about 2,000 km³ of high-quality fresh water. Lake Ladoga (Finnish: Laatokka) and Lake Onega (Ääninen) are the largest lakes in Europe. Other lakes include:
The lakes Ladoga and Onega are located in the south of the republic.
White Sea coast:
In Lake Onega:
In Lake Ladoga:
The majority of the republic's territory (148,000 km2 (57,000 sq mi), or 85%) is composed of state forest stock. The total growing stock of timber resources in the forests of all categories and ages is 807 million m³. The mature and over-mature tree stock amounts to 411.8 million m³, of which 375.2 million m³ is coniferous.
Fifty useful minerals are found in Karelia, located in more than 400 deposits and ore-bearing layers. Natural resources of the republic include iron ore, diamonds, vanadium, molybdenum, and others.
The Republic of Karelia is located in the Atlantic continental climate zone. The average temperature in January is −8.0 °C (17.6 °F) and +16.4 °C (61.5 °F) in July. Average annual precipitation is 500–700 mm.
Main article: Administrative divisions of the Republic of Karelia
The Republic of Karelia includes 18 administrative-territorial units, including:
There are 818 settlements in the Republic of Karelia, including:
In 2006, the implementation of municipal reform began in the republic.
Main article: History of Karelia
The Karelian people and culture developed during the Viking Age in the region to the west of Lake Ladoga. Karelians were first mentioned in Swedish sagas around the 10th century. Russians first mentioned Karelians in 1143, they called Karelians "Korela".
Sweden's interest in Karelia began a centuries-long struggle with Novgorod (later Russia) that resulted in numerous border changes following the many wars fought between the two, the most famous of which is the Pillage of Sigtuna of 1187. In 1137 the oldest documented settlement was established, the modern-day city of Olonets (Aunus). Karelians converted to Orthodox Christianity in 1227. The Karelians' alliance with Novgorod developed into domination by the latter in the 13th century, when Karelia became a part of Novgorod under the name of Obonezhie pyatina as an autonomy. Later Karelia had anti-Novgorod revolts in the 13th and 14th centuries. Later Karelia became a part of Muscovy when Novgorod was annexed in the second half of the 15th century.
During the Great Northern War (1700–1712) the modern-day capital of Karelia, the city of Petrozavodsk was founded as a cannon factory by Peter the Great.
On September 9(21) 1801 Olonets Governorate was created by order of Alexander I.
After the whole of the Finland was acquired by the Russians in the 1808-1809 war, the Grand Duchy of Finland was established, to which part of the Karelia known as "Old Finland" were transferred by the will of the Tsar.
In 1906, the Union of White Sea Karelians (Vienan karjalaisten liito) was created. The Union's main goal was to improve the life of the common Karelians and additionaly develop their own national identity. The union was temporarely dissolved in 1911 after series of repressions done by the local government.
In 1917, the Murmansk Railroad was built, leading to the Karelian lands becoming a lot more strategically important. This has led much of intelligentsia to believe that the Russian tourism and Immigration into the region would rise, leading to further assimilation of the Karelians to the Russian culture.
During the Finnish and the Russian Civil Wars the local peasantry rebelled against the new Soviet State due its Prodrazverstka policy, causing several squards of the "Whiteguard" to cross into the Karelian lands, where then was organized a government that later swiftly declared independence from Russian Soviet Federative Republic, creating the Uhtua Republic. Later in 1920 Finnish forces occupied Olonets, creating another puppet government, which then merged with the other Karelian state into the United Karelian Government. The regions were reclaimed by the Red Army later the same year, the Tartu peace was signed and the Karelian United Government was dissolved.
As many other ethnically non-Russian states within RSFSR , the Karelia would receive autonomy within RSFSR, establishing the Karelian Labour Commune on June 8 of 1920, which enjoyed a large de-facto autonomy aprooved by Lenin in early 1921.
In 1921, an uprising was started by the Forest Guerrillas in an attempt to gain control over Karelia yet again, but it was defeated by the Soviets shortly after.
During the years of its existence, the Commune was actively educating the people, opening the schools and libraries as of the Likbez policy were open and maintained. The Commune was later expanded in 1923 by transferring the Kolezhemskaya, Lapinskaya, Navodnitskaya and many other posads from Archangelsk Gubernia.
In 1923, the Karelian Labour Commune becomes the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic due its de-facto large autonomy, with the government of the region directly managing the local economy without having to pay its taxes to the RSFSR's state budget. The formal increase of the autonomy was first vetoed by People's Commissar for Nationalities of the RSFSR, but it was later accepted by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
After the LIkbez policy was fulfilled, the Republic now shifted its goal from educating the people to expanding the production and electrifying the Republic according to the GOERLO plan. The first steps were the creation of Mevezegorsky and Pudozsky tree-cutting factories, the Kondopoga Paper Factory, the launch of the Kem and the Uhta Hydroelectrostations.
In the 1930s, the goal yet again shifted, now to improving the cultural and physical development and well-being of the locals by creation of many free Clinics and Hospitals, "Houses of Physical Culture", Theaters, ETC.
Many of the Finns who fled to Karelia were, as the part of The Great Purge of 1937, detained and most likely shot, with the Karelian ethnic Finns' population dropping to 21%. Karelia has one of the biggest burial sites of Stalinist purges in Russia – Sandarmoh, where possibly thousands of victims were executed.
Main article: Winter War
During the Winter War, a Soviet puppet government was created in occupied territories. The Finnish Democratic Republic was to incorporate most of Finland's pre-war territories plus some western parts of the KASSR. Some members of the FDP government were also members of the KASSR government.
After the Moscow Peace Treaty territories of the Karelian Isthmus were transferred to the newly created Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic. After the evacuation of Finnish Karelia, the new territories were left unpopulated, so migrants from Belarus, Ukraine, Russia, and other Soviet republics moved in. To this day, this area has one of the lowest percentages of Karelian and Finnish populations in the Republic.
After the beginning of World War II, mass rallies were held on the territory of the republic, at which the inhabitants of Karelia declared their readiness to stand up for the defense of the Soviet Union. Workers of the Onega Tractor Plant wrote “We will work only in such a way as to fully meet the needs of our Red Army. We will double, triple our forces and crush, destroy the German fascists".
On 24 June 1941, after the German army crossed Zapadnaya Dvina, Finnish president Risto Ryti announced declaration of war on the Soviet Union. The Finnish army crossed the Soviet border on 1 July.
Soon after the evacuation of border regions began, On July 3, a republican evacuation commission was created. At its first meeting, it was decided to evacuate children under 14 out of Petrozavodsk. The same decision also refers to the evacuation of 150 families of leading party and Soviet workers in Karelia. Those residents who could work had to remain in the harvest and defense work.
By September the Finnish army already reached Petrozavodsk and captured Olonets. Petrozavodsk offensive began on 20 September. To protect the city, the 7th Army under the command of General K.A. Meretskov was directly subordinated to the Headquarters of the Supreme Commander.
On September 30, the position of the defenders of the city deteriorated sharply. The Finnish army managed to break through Soviet defenses and cut the highway to Kondopoga in the area of the Sulazhgorsky brick factory. In the south Finns came close to the city outskirts. On October 1, due to the threat of encirclement, an order was received from the command to withdraw the main units defending the city.
The fighting near Petrozavodsk allowed the authorities to evacuate most of the civilian population and a significant part of the production capacities. In total, more than 500 thousand people were evacuated from the republic to the east. Petrozavodsk University was temporarily relocated to Syktyvkar.
After the capture of Petrozavodsk, the capital of Soviet Karelia was transferred first to Medvezhyegorsk, then to Belomorsk. Less than 90 thousand people remained in the occupied territory, half of which are representatives of the Finno-Ugric peoples: Karelians, Vepsians, and Finns. The Finnish administration has officially recognized them as a "kindred" population. The rest received the status of "unrelated" people. Most of them have been put into concentration camps, along with communists and people who could not speak Finnish or karelian.
Former prisoners of the camps recalled that the staff often treated them more harshly than was supposed to according to the instructions. According to them, the Finns in the presence of children shot prisoners, and beat women, children, and the elderly. One of the prisoners told the Finnish historian Helga Seppel that before leaving Petrozavodsk, the invaders shot several young people for unknown reasons.
During the occupation, Petrozavodsk was renamed to Äänislinna.
Only a few territories of the KFSSR managed to escape the Finnish occupation: the Belomorsky, Loukhsky, Kemsky, Pudozhsky regions, as well as part of the Medvezhiegorsky, Tungudsky and Ukhta regions. By 1942, about 70 thousand people lived here.
After the end of the Siege of Leningrad Soviet army was ordered to liberate Karelia.
On 21 June 1944 Svir-Petrozavodsk operation started. On 27 June the Finnish army left Petrozavodsk. By August the Soviet army reached pre-war borders.
Then the Soviet army got pushed back again and had to end the war with the help of pressure from its allies in the Moscow Armistice.
After the end of World War II, the Karelian Isthmus was incorporated into the Leningrad Oblast and the city of Alakurtti was transferred to Murmansk Oblast.
After normalization of diplomatic relations between USSR and Finland the status of the Karelo-Finnish SSR was changed back to the Karelian ASSR in 1956. After this Karelian, Veps, and Finnish languages began a decline in usage due to the lack of any support from the state and lack of education.
The transformation of the KFSSR into the Karelian ASSR was supposed to show that the USSR did not have aggressive goals against Finland.
In 1978 Korean airlines Boeing 707-321B was shot down over Murmansk oblast and landed near Louhi.
The highest executive authority in the Republic of Karelia is the Head of the Republic. The acting Head of the Republic is Artur Parfenchikov, who was elected in February 2017 and later re-elected in 2022.
The parliament of the Republic of Karelia is the Legislative Assembly comprising fifty deputies elected for a four-year term.
The Constitution of the Republic of Karelia was adopted on 12 February 2001.
The Legislative Assembly of the Republic of Karelia is a permanent representative and the only legislative body of state power in the Republic of Karelia. Since 2016, it consists of 36 deputies elected by the inhabitants of the republic according to a mixed electoral system: 18 deputies according to party lists (proportional system), and 18 in single-member districts (majority system) based on universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. The term of office of deputies of one convocation is five years.
The 7th convocation was elected in September 2021 and will last until 2026. Of the 36 deputies, 22 are from United Russia, 4 from the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, 2 from the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, 4 from A Just Russia, 2 from Yabloko, 1 from New People, and 1 from the Party of Pensioners. Elissan Shandalovich (United Russia) was elected Chairman. Igor Zubarev (United Russia) was elected representative of the Legislative Assembly in the Federation Council.
Executive power is exercised by:
The Head of the Republic is elected by the republic's inhabitants on the basis of universal, equal, and direct suffrage by secret ballot. The term of office is 5 years and one person cannot hold office for more than two consecutive terms.
The current head of the republic is Artur Parfenchikov (appointed by President Vladimir Putin on 15 February 2017; on 10 September 2017, he was elected in the elections from the United Russia party). Alexander Rakitin has been appointed as the representative in the Federation Council.
Like every federal subject, Karelia has two representatives in the Federation Council: one from the legislative assembly and one from the republic's government.
|Representative||Branch of power||Appointed by||Title (at the time of promotion)||Term of office||Position in the Federation Council|
|Igor Zubarev||legislative||27 deputies of the legislative assembly of the 7th convocation,||Deputy of the Legislative Assembly of Karelia of the 7th convocation, United Russia; member of the Federation Council in 2016-2021||5 years, from 6 October 2021 to September 2026||member of the committee on agrarian and food policy and environmental management|
|Vladimir Chizhov||executive||Artur Parfenchikov||Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the European Union||5 years, from 27 September 2022 to September 2027||First Deputy Chairman of the Defense and Security Committee|
As of 1 March 2010, seven Russian political parties had their branches in the Republic of Karelia: United Russia, Communist Party of the Russian Federation, Patriots of Russia, A Just Russia, Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, Yabloko, and Right Cause. The socio-political movement of the Russian People's Democratic Union also has its own branch.
Population: 533,121 (2021 Census); 643,548 (2010 Census); 645,205 (2002 Census); 791,317 (1989 Census).
Largest cities or towns in the Republic of Karelia
2010 Russian Census
|4||Kostomuksha||Town of republic significance of Kostomuksha||28,436|
|5||Sortavala||Town of republic significance of Sortavala||19,235|
|Average population (×1,000)||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1,000)||Crude death rate (per 1,000)||Natural change (per 1,000)||Fertility rates|
According to the 2021 Census, ethnic Russians make up 86.4% of the republic's population, ethnic Karelians 5.5%. Other groups include Belarusians (2.0%), Ukrainians (1.2%), Finns (0.7%), Vepsians (0.5%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.
|1926 census||1939 census||1959 census||1970 census||1979 census||1989 census||2002 census||2010 census||2021 census1|
|1 61,498 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.|
Currently Russian is the only official language of the republic. Karelian, Veps, and Finnish have been officially recognized languages of the republic since 2004, and they are de jure supported by the government. In early 2000s Karelian and Veps language nests were created in Petrozavodsk, Kalevala, Tuksa and Sheltozero, but were later shut down. Now native languages of Karelia have little support from the government.
Finnish was the second official language of Karelia from the creation of the Karelian Labour Commune up until the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Thereafter there were suggestions to raise Karelian as the second official language, but they were repeatedly turned down.
The Karelians have traditionally been Eastern Orthodox. Lutheranism was brought to Karelia during Sweden's conquest of Karelia and was common in regions that then belonged to Finland. Nowadays Lutherans can be found in most big settlements but they remain a minority.
Catholics have one parish in Petrozavodsk.
The Petrozavodsk Jewish Religious Community was registered in 1997.
Karelian Muslims were organized into Karelian muftiate in 2001.
According to a 2012 survey, 27% of the population of Karelia adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 2% are unaffiliated Christians, and 1% are members of Protestant churches. In addition, 44% of the population declared to be "spiritual but not religious", 18% is atheist, and 8% follow other religions or did not answer the question.
Karelia's economy is based on forestry, mining, tourism, agriculture, fishing and the paper industry.
Despite being 0,4% of Russia's population, 65–70% of all Russian trout is grown in the Republic, 26% of iron ore pellets, 20% of paper, 12% of wood pulp and cellulose.
Karelia's gross regional product (GRP) in 2007 was 109.5 billion rubles. The Karelian economy's GRP in 2010 was estimated at 127733.8 million rubles. Karelia's GRP in 2021 was 176 billion rubles. This amounts to 291,841 rubles per capita, which is lower than national average.
The largest companies in the region include Karelsky Okatysh ($1319755601 of revenue in 2021), Segezha Pulp and Paper Mill ($86897488 of revenue in 2021), OAO Kondopoga ($20366599 of revenue in 2021).
In the structure of the gross regional product in 2017, the main types of economic activity were:mining – 17.6%; manufacturing industries – 16.9%; transportation and storage – 11.8%; wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles – 9.8%; public administration and military security; social security – 8.7%.
A fast fiber-optic cable link connecting Finnish Kuhmo and Karelian Kostomuksha was built in 2007, providing fast telecommunications.
The forest and wood processing sector dominates industrial activity in Karelia. A large number of small enterprises carry out timber logging whereas pulp and paper production is concentrated in five large enterprises, which produce about a quarter of Russia's total output of paper. Three largest companies in the pulp and paper sector in 2021 were: OAO Kondopoga (sales of $369314325), Segezha Pulp and Paper Mill ($221317040) and RK-Grand (Pitkäranta Pulp Factory) ($78750849).
The timber industry complex of Karelia produces 28% of the republic's industrial output.
Karelia is a region with a lot of natural resources, from gold to metals.
In 2007, extractive industries (including extraction of metal ores) amounted to 30% of the republic's industrial output. There are about 53 mining companies in Karelia, employing more than 10,000 people. One of the most important companies in the sector is AO Karelian Pellet, which is the 5th largest of Russia's 25 mining and ore dressing enterprises involved in ore extraction and iron ore concentrate production. Other large companies in the sector were OAO Karelnerud, Mosavtorod State Unitary Enterprise, and Pitkjaranta Mining Directorate State Unitary Enterprise.
As of 2021, there were 29 powerplants, of them 21 were hydroplants and 8 thermal power plants.
Due to Karelia's climate, only 1,2% of the land is used for farming. Most of the farmland is located on podzol.
20 agricultural organizations employing 2.3 thousand people. Animal husbandry is the leading branch of agriculture in the Republic, the main areas of which are dairy cattle breeding, pig breeding, broiler poultry farming, and fur farming.
Annually agricultural enterprises of the region produce up to 59 thousand tons of milk. Based on its natural and climatic conditions, the plant growing industry is focused on the production of feed for livestock, the bulk of potatoes and vegetables are grown in small forms of management.
Fishing enterprises of Karelia produced 91.9 thousand tons of aquatic biological resources in 2021.
In the Barents Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, 89.9 thousand tons of aquatic biological resources were caught, of them 34.6 thousand tons of cod and haddock, 34.1 thousand tons of blue whiting, 18 thousand tons of mackerel and 1.1 thousand tons of northern shrimp. 306 tons of fish were caught in the White Sea and 612 tons of kelp and fucus were harvested. The catch of freshwater fish amounted to 1.1 thousand tons.
Karelia is popular for international and domestic tourism.
Traditional, active, cultural and ecological types of tourism are popular among tourists.
Karelia attracts ecotourists with its nature and wilderness and low population density. During the summer water tourism is also popular among many tourists.
Cultural tourism is also a big part of Karelia's tourism economy. The region attracts many tourists with its wooden architecture, local culture, and traditions.
Karelia also has the first Russian health resort – Martial Waters (1719).
The economy of Karelia is export-orientated. By the volume of exports per capita, Karelia is among the leading regions of Russia. More than 50% of manufactured products (and up to 100% in several industries) are exported.
The Republic's main export partners in 2001 were Finland (32% of total exports), Germany (7%), Netherlands (7%), and the United Kingdom (6%). Main export products were lumber (over 50%), iron ore pellets (13–15%) paper and cardboard (6–9%) and sawn timber with (5–7%). Many of Karelia's companies have received investments from Finland.
Karelia is a strategically important railroad region due to the fact that it connects Murmansk with the rest of Russia by Kirov Railway, which was electrified in 2005.
There are also railways connections with Finland in Värtsilä and Kostomuksha, but they are not electrified.
Most of Karelia's railway lines are served by the Petrozavodsk branch of the Oktyabrskaya Railway, which is one of the largest budget-forming enterprises of the Republic.
All Karelian district capitals are connected by railroad, except for the Kalevalsky district and Prionezhsky district.
In total, Karelia has 1915 km of railways.
Water communications connect Karelia with the Barents, Baltic, Black, White and Caspian Seas.
Whitea sea-Baltic Canal was built in the 1930s to connect the Baltic and White seas. The 227 km long canal was built by the prisoners. Even though it has 19 locks, the canal cannot pass vessels with a draft of more than 5 meters. The canal is a part of the Volgo-Baltic Waterway.
There are also river ports on the coast of the White Sea, there were plans to upgrade them to ocean ports but they were deemed too expensive.
Automobile highway R-21 "Kola" crosses Karelia and connects Murmansk Region and Murmansk seaport with St. Petersburg and Moscow.
E105 European highway also goes through Karelia.
Other highways connect with Finland in Louhsky district Värtsilä and Kostomuksha.
Many of Karelian roads are still unimproved.
Petrozavodsk Airport is the only working airport in Karelia as of 2022.
There are other airports, such as Kalevala or Kostomuksha, but they are not used or used by firefighters.
See also: Finnish mythology
See also: Runic song
See also: Kalevala
Karelia is very culturally diverse region that was influenced by Finno-Ugric, Slavic and Scandinavian cultures. The main unifying factor in the formation of the culture of the region was the Orthodox religion.
A lot is being done in the Republic of Karelia today to support the interests of more than 100 nationalities inhabiting it, including Karelians, Veps and Finns. More than 60 national public associations have been registered: unions, congresses, popular movements, autonomies, friendship societies, cultural societies. There is a regional target program «Karelia — the Territory of Consent», a republican target program «State support of Karelian, Vepsian and Finnish languages», a public council has been established to coordinate the implementation of these programs.
Karelia is sometimes called "the songlands", as Karelian poems constitute most of the Karelo-Finnish epic Kalevala and many of Russian Bylinas were documented in Pudozh.
The written literature of Karelia was formed at the beginning of the 20th century. In the 1930s Karelian and Veps languages gained a writing system, but during the Stalinist repressions many books in veps and Karelian were burned and cultural figures were deported.
After the creation of the Karelian Labour Commune many American and Canadian finns moved to Karelia and began creating new literature. Many Karelians could understand Finnish so some authors, such as one of the most famous Karelian writers Antti Timonen, started to write in Finnish.
Writers of the Republic of Karelia are united in public organizations:
Karelian art history begun with Petroglyphs, which were created around 6,500 years ago. They became a UNESCO World Heritage Site, listed in 2021.
Icon painters were the first professional artists of Karelia.
Karelia has become a source of inspiration for many famous artists of the 19th–20th century such as: Ivan Shishkin, Arkhip Kuindzhi, and N. K. Roerich.
The formation of professional painting in Karelia is associated with the name of the People's Artist of the KFSSR V. N. Popov (1869-1945). In 1934, the Union of Artists of the Autonomous Karelian SSR was established, the first chairman of which was elected Yu. O. Rautanen, since 2010 — the Karelian branch of the «Union of Artists of Russia». As part of the Karelian department, there is an «Association of Young artists and Art historians».
The most important contribution to the development of painting and plastic arts in general was made by the works of: A. I. Morozov, A. I. Katseblin, A. Starodubtsev, S. Terentyev, K. L. Butorov, A.V. Semyashkin, S. H. Yuntunen, B. N. Pomortsev, G. A. Stronk, L. F. Lankinen, F. E. Nieminen, E. K. Pekhova, T. G. Yufa, M. S. Yufa, V. S. Chekmasova, M. M. Mecheva, A. P. Kharitonov, K. A. Gogoleva, O. P. Borodkin, K. L. Butorova, A. I. Avdysheva, E. A. Akulova, L. G. Davidyan, V. M. Ivanenko, O. S. Yuntunen, photojournalists G. A. Ankudinov, S. A. Maisterman, V. V. Troshev, bone carvers V. M. Balandin and Yu . E . Pyatakov, set designers V. O. Polyakov, H. G. Skaldina, V. A. Skorik, goldsmith G. V. Grigorieva.
Ivan Shishkin, In the wild north... (1891)
Arkhip Kuindzhi, Ladoga (1873)
N. K. Roerich Pomors. Evening (1907)
Karelia is famous for its wooden architecture. Karelian architecture developed under the strong influence of Novgorod architecture. Examples of Karelian architecture are collected in the Kizhi Pogost Museum.
Later Karelian architecture was influenced by Finns, especially after the creation of the Karelian Labour Commune.
In 1939, on the initiative of architects K. Y. Gutin, B. N. Litinsky and A.M. Mitrofanov, the Karelian branch of the «Union of Architects of the USSR» was established, since 2000 — the «Union of Architects of the Republic of Karelia». At various times, well-known republican architects were elected leaders of the Union: A. L. Lukashin, T. V. Kovalevskaya, A. R. Solomonov, F. I. Rekhmukov, V. P. Orfinsky, V. I. Antokhin, E. V. Voskresensky, A. A. Savelyev, E. B. Frolov.
A significant contribution to the development of architectural and urban planning activities in the republic was made by G. A. Lobko, G. A. Pashkov, N. I. Mazur, M. A. Shirokov, S. V. Lavrov, V. N. Tykvenko, E. F. Andreev, N. V. Kuspak, I. I. Berger, N. V. Voskobovich, V. P. Kiselev, L. I. Kiuru, V. A. Kuznetsov, A. A. Nizovtsev, N. A. Savin, V. A. Samokhvalov, A. A. Borshchevsky, V. V. Bugashev, S. M. Icikson, V. N. Shevlyakov, A. P. Pertyakov, L. Yu. Karma.
Kantele is the most famous traditional Karelian musical instrument. In Kalevala the mage Väinämöinen makes the first kantele from the jawbone of a giant pike and a few hairs from Hiisi's stallion.
In 1933, the Karelian State Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra was founded. In different years, the orchestra belonged to the Karelian Radio and Television, the Ministry of Culture of Karelia. Since 1997, the orchestra has been working as part of the Karelian State Philharmonic.
In 1935, the Karelian Folk Segozer Choir (Padans), the Karelian Folk Olonets Choir «Karjalan koivu» («Karelian birch») was founded.
In 1936, the National Song and Dance Ensemble of Karelia «Kantele», the Veps Folk Choir, the Karelian Folk Petrovsky Choir were founded.
The Pomeranian Folk Choir (Medvezhyegorsk) was founded in 1937, and the Karelian Folk Vedlozersky Choir (Vedlozero) was founded in 1938.
In 1937, the Union of Karelian Composers was founded. In different years, the Union was headed by famous Karelian composers: R. S. Parchment, L. V. Vishkarev, K. E. Rautio, G.-R. N. Sinisalo, A. S. Beloborodov. Responsible secretaries were elected V. P. Sinisalo, G. I. Lapchinsky, A. I. Holland, E. N. Patlaenko, N. I. Samsonov. The musicology section was led by T. V. Krasnopolskaya, N. Yu. Grodno, V. I. Nilova. A great contribution to the development of professional musical creativity in Karelia was made by composers G. A. Vavilov, P. B. Kozinsky, V. A. Konchakov, S. G. Leonchik, A. L. Repnikov, R. F. Zelinsky, V. K. Koshelev, B. D. Napreev, V. V. Sergeenko, A. P. Smirnova, I. A. Subbotin, V. N. Ugryumov; musicologists I. N. Baranova, O. A. Bochkareva, Yu. G. Kon.
In 1938, the Petrozavodsk Music College (now the Petrozavodsk Music College named after K. E. Rautio) was opened.
In 1939, the Symphony Orchestra of the Karelo-Finnish State Philharmonic was founded.
In 1967, the Petrozavodsk branch of the Leningrad State Conservatory (now the Petrozavodsk Glazunov State Conservatory) was opened.
In 1973, Honored Artist of the Republic of Karelia L. P. Budanov founded the Karelia-Brass ensemble.
Throughout the years, many Karelian, Russian, Veps, Finnish and Pomor choirs were created, such as the Karelian choir "Oma pajo" in 1990, which is still active.
There are more than twenty children's music schools in the republic, including:
Musical groups: Sattuma family ensemble, Leo Sevets, Santtu Karhu & Talvisovat, Myllärit, Drolls Early Music Ensemble, WaTaGa.
«Kizhi» State Historical, Architectural and Ethnographic Museum-Reserve
National Museum of the Republic of Karelia
Museum of Fine Arts of the Republic of Karelia
Lonin Museum of Veps Ethnography
Church of the Apostle Peter in Marcial Waters
Musical Theater of the Republic of Karelia
National Theater of the Republic of Karelia
State Puppet Theater of the Republic of Karelia
Drama Theater of the Republic of Karelia "Creative Workshop"
Non-state author's theater "Ad Liberum"
In 1957, the Karelian branch of the Union of Journalists of the USSR (now the Karelian branch of the Union of Journalists of Russia) was organized. In different years, the union was headed by F. A. Trofimov, A. I. Shtykov, K. V. Gnetnev, V. N. Kiryasov, V. A. Tolsky, N. N. Meshkova, A.M. Tsygankov. In 1960-1990, the creative work of the best republican journalists was awarded the annual prize named after K. S. Eremeev. Currently, every year on the eve of the Day of the Russian Journalist, the Union of Journalists of Karelia awards two special prizes: «For skill and dignity» and «For openness to the press».
The Legislative Assembly, the Government and the «Periodika» publishing house produce four newspapers in national languages:
together with the regional organization Union of Karelian People:
Newspapers are published in the districts of Karelia: «Kostomuksha News», «Prionezhye», «Olonia», «Novaya Kondopoga», «Belomorskaya Tribune», «Ladoga-Sortavala», «Kalevala News», «Pudozhsky Vestnik», «Suoyarvsky Vestnik», «Circumpolar», «Soviet White Sea», «Novaya Ladoga», «MuezerskLes», «Call», «Our life», «Trust», «Dialogue».
Nine radio stations are located in Petrozavodsk:
Three radio stations broadcast in Kostomuksha:
On April 29, 1959, the television center and the Petrozavodsk Television Studio came into operation.
Regional TV companies:
The TV channel GTRK Karelia has daily news releases «Viestit — Karjala» in Finnish.
According to a sociological study of the regional media market conducted in October 2013, the largest share of the media of the Republic of Karelia in terms of the number of published materials belongs to online publications — 77.3%.
Along with Russian holidays, Karelia has its official public holidays as well as unofficial holidays.
|April 18||Day of firefighters of the Republic of Karelia||День пожарной охраны Республики Карелия||Holiday celebrating Karelian fire defense became official in 1998.|
|May 31||Day of cultural workers of the Republic of Karelia||День работника культуры Республики Карелия||Holiday celebrating Karelian workers in the culture industry, became official in 2000|
|Summer (Official June 8)||Republic of Karelia day (Republic Day)||День Республики Карелия||Holiday celebrating creation of the Karelian Labour commune, became official in 1999|
|September 16||Day of formation of the trade union movement in Karelia||День образования профсоюзного движения в Карелии||Holiday celebrating Karelian trade unions and worker's rights, became official in 2011|
|September 30||Day of the liberation of Karelia from fascist invaders||День освобождения Карелии от фашистских захватчиков||Holiday celebrating liberation from Finnish occupation during WW2|
|Date||Name||Karelian name||Russian name||Remarks|
|January 7 to January 18||Winter religious Holidays||Vierissänkesk, Sv’atkat, Sunduma||Зимние святки||Celebrations after Christmas|
|January 19||Baptism||Vieristä, Vieristy, Vederis||Крещение||Prelude to Maslenitsa|
|May 6||Saint George's Day||Jyrin päivä, Jyrrinpäivy, Kevät Jyrgi||Егорьев день|
|May 22||Nikola Veshny||Pyhä Miikkula, Miikkulan päivä, Miikkulanpäivy, Mikula||Никола Вешний||Day celebrating Saint Nicholas|
|End of July||Bowl of Ukko||Ukon vakka||Чаша Укко||Ancient pre-Christian agricultural holiday|
|July 7||Ivan's Day||Iivnanpäivä, Iivananpäivy, Ivananpäivä||Иванов день||Holiday celebrating summer solstice|
|From the end of Ivan's day before Saint Peter's day||Summer religious holidays||Kezäsv’atkat, Kesäsvätkat||Летние святки||Prelude to Saint-Peter's day|
|July 12||Saint Peter's day||Petrunpäivä, Pedrunpäivy, Pedrunpäivä||Петров день||Celebrations before harvest|
|August 2||Elijah's day||Il’l’anpäivä, Il’l’anpäiväy||Ильин день|
|August 31||Frol's Day||Frolan päivä||Фролов день||Local holidas of livestock protection|
|End of October||Kekri||Kekri, Kegri||Кегри||Ancient autumn festival|
|December 25||Christmas||Rostuo||Католическое Рождество||Western Christmas is celebrated by Karelian Finns|
|All of Karelia||April||Day of Karelian and Vepsian writing||День карельской и вепсской письменности||Cultural holiday of karelians and vepsians|
|February||Kalevala Day||День Калевалы||Day celebrating national epic Kalevala|
|February||International Mother Language Day||Международный день родного языка|
|Autumn||Kegri||Кегри||Gained government support in 2022|
|Belomorskyi||November||Holiday of Pomors of the Karelian coast "Nikola Zimniy"||Праздник поморов Карельского берега «Никола Зимний»||Pomor holiday|
|Kalevalskyi||June||International holiday of Ukhta Karelians||Международный праздник Ухтинских карел||North Karelian holiday|
|Kemskyi||August||Indian Summer in the Kem Pomorye||Бабье лето в Кемском поморье||Pomor holiday|
|Day of the Dead Poduzhemsky villages||День погибших подужемских деревень||Day remembering abandoned villages of North Karelia|
|May||Holiday of men's craft "Oars on the water"||Праздник мужских ремесле «Весла на воду»|
|Louhskyi||June||Interregional holiday "Hello, Kestenga!"||Межрегиональный праздник «Здравствуй, Кестеньга!»||North Karelian holiday|
|August||Holiday "Fairytale ship Korguev"||Праздник «Сказочный корабль Коргуева»||Holiyday in Chupa|
|August||Holiday "Old Woman Louhi's Day"||Праздник «День старухи Лоухи»||Holiday celebrating Kalevala|
|August||Kanšallenen puku ompelos||Каншалленен пуку омпелуш||Holiday in Sofporog|
|Muyezerskyi||March||Interdistrict cultural and sports festival "Winter fun"||Межрайонный культурно-спортивный праздник «Зимние забавы»||Holiday in Muyezersky|
|Karelian-Finnish friendship holiday of the village of Ondozero and the village of Yolyolä (Finland)||Карело-финский праздник дружбы села Ондозеро и деревни Ёлёля (Финляндия)|
|Olonetskyi||May||Ecological festival "Olonets – goose capital"||Экологический фестиваль «Олония-гусиная столица»||Holiday in Olonets|
|December||Olonets Father Frost Games||Олонецкие Игры Дедов Морозов||Holiyday challening people pretending to be Ded Moroz or Talviukko|
|Petrozavodsk||February||Международный зимний фестиваль «Гиперборея»||International winter festival "Hyperborea"||Ice sculpture festival|
|Prionezhskyi||Prionezhsky song wreath||Прионежский песенный венок|
|Elonpuu (Tree of life)||Древо жизни||Veps holiday|
|Pryazhinskyi||March||"Kulyan kižat"||«Кюлян кижат»||Holiday in Vedlozero|
|Holiday of Karelian culture||Праздник карельской культуры||Holiday in Kinerma|
|Pudozhskyi||June||Interregional holiday "Dawns of Pudozh"||Межрегиональный праздник «Зори Пудожья»||Holiday in Pudozh|
|June||Holiday of Russian epic culture "In the land of the epic"||Праздник русской эпической культуры «В краю былинной»||Holiday in Semenovo|
|Segezshky||June||Ethnocultural holiday "Voitsk festivities"||Этнокультурный праздник «Воицкие гуляния»||Holiday in Nadvoitsy|
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