Omsk Oblast
Омская область
Anthem: Anthem of Omsk Oblast
Coordinates: 56°13′N 73°16′E / 56.217°N 73.267°E / 56.217; 73.267
Federal districtSiberian[1]
Economic regionWest Siberian[2]
Administrative centerOmsk
 • BodyLegislative Assembly
 • GovernorVitaliy Khotsenko (acting)[3]
 • Total141,140 km2 (54,490 sq mi)
 • Rank28th
 • Total1,858,798
 • Estimate 
 • Rank25th
 • Density13/km2 (34/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Rural
Time zoneUTC+6 (MSK+3 Edit this on Wikidata[7])
ISO 3166 codeRU-OMS
License plates55
OKTMO ID52000000
Official languagesRussian[8]

Omsk Oblast (Russian: О́мская о́бласть, romanizedOmskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in southwestern Siberia. The oblast has an area of 139,700 square kilometers (53,900 sq mi). Its population is 1,977,665 (2010 Census)[9] with the majority, 1.12 million, living in Omsk, the administrative center.

One of the Omsk streets

The oblast borders Tyumen Oblast in the north and west, Novosibirsk Oblast and Tomsk Oblast in the east, and Kazakhstan in the south.


Omsk Oblast shares borders with Kazakhstan (North Kazakhstan Region and Pavlodar Region) to the south, Tyumen Oblast in the west and Novosibirsk Oblast and Tomsk Oblast in the east. It is included in the Siberian Federal District.

The territory stretches for 600 km (370 mi) from north to south and 300 km (190 mi) from west to east. The main water artery is the Irtysh River and its tributaries the Ishim, Om, Osha, and Tara Rivers. The region is located in the West Siberian Plain, consisting of mostly flat terrain. In the south is the Ishim Plain, gradually turning into steppe, forest and swampy taiga to the north. The soil is sandy and silty.[10] Along the Irtysh River, in t. N. Irtysh region, there is an "oasis" microclimate, with a wooded landscape and gullies. There, the most fertile land in the region can be found. The Omsk region contains many lakes, the largest of which are Tenis-Saltaim, Ik, Ebeyty, Ulzhay and Tobol-Kushly.

The highest elevation in the Omsk region - about 150 m (490 ft) Upland village, the lowest elevation is the water's edge on the Irtysh - 41 metres (135 ft), near the village of Little Beach.[clarification needed]

The property is located in Omsk region 28 specially protected natural territories of regional destinations. Including parks in Bolshereche and Omsk ("Bird's harbor").[clarification needed]


The oblast has a classic continental climate, with cold, snowy winters and hot, dry summers. Average January temperatures range from −42 to −30 °C (−44 to −22 °F). Average July temperatures range from 25 to 28 °C (77 to 82 °F) and can reach up to 35 °C (95 °F) and even 40 °C (104 °F). Annual rainfall averages 300–400 mm (12–16 in). Sunny days predominate.

The southern plains have notably longer and warmer summers and a delayed onset of freezing temperatures. They are also significantly drier than the northern forests, receiving only 250–300 mm (9.8–11.8 in) precipitation annually. Winters, however, are as severe on the plains as they are further north. Spring rains are rare, but late spring freezes are not. The early part of the summer is frequently dominated by hot, dry southern winds.


As of 1 February 2016, on the territory of the Omsk region, there are 35 areas that have the status of protected areas (PAs), regional and local importance.


Prehistory and the Middle Ages

Archeological findings indicate that the present day territory of the oblast has been inhabited for the last 14,000 years. Neolithic societies in the area lived by fishing and hunting. About three thousand years ago, pastoralism began to take hold. Ust'-Ishim man, the remains of a man that lived 45,000 years ago, was discovered in Omsk Oblast.

Various Turkic states dominated the area throughout the Medieval era. The most notable of these were the Western Turkic Khaganate and the Siberian Khanate. Siberian Tatars, Mongols, Khanty and Mansi tribes, along with others, inhabited the territory.

Exploration of Siberia

The Russian history of Omsk began with the 1584 arrival of a Cossack force under the command of ataman Yermak Timofeyevich, who defeated local rulers and established nominal Russian control of the area. To support further expansion tsars Feodor I and Boris Godunov initiated the construction of fortified settlements and military outposts in the south of Siberia in order to defend their subjects from raiding nomadic tribesmen and to exert authority over local populations, specifically over the tribute-paying Siberian Tatars of The Baraba Lands. The first permanent Russian settlement in the region, the city of Tara, was founded in 1594, soon it began to play an important part in fur trade that connected Russia with Central Asia and China.

In 1716 a fortress was constructed at the confluence of the Om and Irtysh rivers on the orders of sublieutenant Ivan Bugholtz. The fortress would form the nucleus for the development of the future city of Omsk. By the second half of the 18th century, Omsk fortress was the largest building of any kind in the eastern part of Russia.

As Russian settlements continued to spread through the Yenisei, Tobol and Irtysh watersheds in the course of the 18th century, so did the development of the Omsk and the surrounding region. In 1753 a customs post was established to tax goods brought into the city by the ever-increasing trade with Kazakh tribesmen. In 1764, when the Siberian provinces of Russia were organized into two governorates with centers in Irkutsk and Tobolsk, the city of Tara and the fortress of Omsk were assigned to the latter. In 1780, on the orders of Catherine the Great the fortress was transferred to Kolyvan Oblast. By this time Omsk had grown to the size of a small city, however, from 1797 to 1804 it did not possess its own uyezd.

Russian Empire

In 1804, the territories surrounding Omsk were organized into the Omsk Okrug. The city rose to prominence when Siberia was once again reorganized in 1822, Omsk became the administrative center of the General Governorate of Eastern Siberia rising above the old center of Siberia, Tobolsk. The new governorate was divided into oblasts around the cities of Omsk, Petropavlovsk, Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenogrsk populated by Russian colonists and okrugs populated by Kazakh nomads. In subsequent reforms the name of the Oblast was changed repeatedly to The Oblast of The Siberian Kyrgyz (1854), Akmolinsk Oblast (1868), and Omsk Oblast (1917) before finally reverting to the Omsk Governorate in 1918. The authority of the oblast followed further expansion of the empire to Central Asia and included significant parts of modern-day Kazakhstan.

In the 19th century, Omsk, given its strong system of frontier fortresses, became notorious as a premier destination for political exiles and prisoners from the European part of the Russian Empire. Decembrists, Polish rebels, French prisoners of war and political activists of every stripe found their way to Siberia. Among them was Fyodor Dostoyevsky, who spent four years (1850–1854) at the Omsk prison.[11]

The early nineteenth century also saw the growth of industry in the city and in the rest of the Irtysh basin. The Siberian Cossack Army was headquartered in Omsk after 1808 and contributed to the development of the city, by the beginning of the 20th century the Cossacks were a dominant component in the society of both the city of Omsk and the surrounding lands, having reached a population of 174 thousand and holding title to five million hectares of agricultural land. The 18th and 19th centuries also saw the influx of a significant number of German immigrants both from Russia's Volga Regions and from abroad.

Soviet years

In 1925 the Omsk governorate was dissolved into the newly formed Siberian Krai and again reorganized, this time as an Oblast by order of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee on 7 December 1934. Parts of the Ob-Irtysh Oblast and the West Siberian Krai as well as the southern part of Chelyabinsk Oblast were given over to Omsk. In 1943, Kurgan Oblast created from the western portion of the Chelyabinsk Oblast also got a number of Omsk territories. In 1944, the northern part of the Omsk Oblast along with the districts previously transferred to Kurgan became newly established Tyumen Oblast that included Khanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets autonomous okrugs.

The 1950s saw the creation of the petroleum processing industry, as well as the development of various high-technology facilities that came to define the economy of the Oblast for the remainder of the century.

Post-Soviet era

With the dissolution of the Soviet Union the oblast became part of the newly independent Russian Federation. The independence of Kazakhstan gave Omsk an international border to the south, while continued federal policy aiming to rectify the effects of Stalin era population transfers led to the creation of a national German district in an area with a significant, although not a majority, German population around the town of Azovo. On 19 May 1996 Omsk Oblast signed a power-sharing agreement with the federal government, granting it autonomy.[12] This agreement would be abolished on 21 December 2001.[13]


During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Omsk CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

The politics in the oblast is governed by the Charter of Omsk Oblast. The laws within the authority of the oblast are passed by the Legislative Assembly of Omsk Oblast which is the legislative (representative) body. The highest executive body is the Omsk Oblast Administration. It also includes the executive bodies of the subdivisions such as districts, and is responsible for the daily administration. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the head of the oblast and acts as guarantor of the observance of the Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.

As of 18 January 2019, the departmental register of registered non-profit organizations of the Office of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation for the Omsk Oblast contains information on 2537 non-profit organizations, including 1332 public associations (national associations - 60, regional branches of political parties - 46, trade unions - 328, children's and youth public associations - 55), 308 religious organizations, 30 Cossack societies, and 20 public associations of Cossacks. For example, in the Omsk Oblast there are regional branches of the political parties United Russia, A Just Russia, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, and others.[14]

Administrative divisions

Main article: Administrative divisions of Omsk Oblast


As of 2008, Omsk Oblast is the 23rd largest economy in Russia, with a gross regional product of 10.2 billion dollars.

The economy of Omsk Oblast is heavily industrial, with well developed, and growing, service and financial sectors. Agriculture represents a smaller, but still significant, portion of the economy.

Economic activity is concentrated in Omsk, with over sixty-six thousand private enterprises registered, ranging from small-scale retailers to billion-dollar manufacturing.[15]

Omsk was ranked by Forbes as the 6th-best city in Russia for business in 2008, an improvement over its 20th-place ranking the previous year.[16]

The oblast and city governments have made efforts to improve the business climate and foster small enterprise through various incentives and government programs designed to ease the bureaucratic red-tape, a notorious feature of Russian business life, and to generate cooperation within the business community.[17]

The bulk of industrial output, as of 2009, is concentrated in food and tobacco processing ($900 million), hydrocarbon processing ($6.7 billion), chemical manufacturing ($500 m), plastics manufacturing ($200 m) and the manufacture of electrical components ($280 m). The remainder of the economy is dominated by the retail sector and agriculture.

The largest industrial enterprises include the aerospace manufacturer Polyot, the Omsk Aggregate Plant, the agricultural manufacturer Sibzavod, Omsk Baranov Motorworks, and Omsktransmash, which manufactures the T-80 main battle tank. Additionally, Omsk Rubber, the Technical Hydrocarbon Plant, Omsk-Polymer and Omsk Hydrocarbon Processing Plant, represent the petroleum and hydrocarbon industry. Omsk Hydrocarbon is one of the most important oil refineries in Russia.[18]

The oblast operates four thermal power plants, which makes it largely self-sufficient from the standpoint of energy generation.

Agricultural production is concentrated in the Isil'rul'skii District and produces wheat, barley, flax, sunflower, potato, various fruits and vegetables as well as meat, poultry and dairy products.

The food processing sector includes several breweries, a distillery and numerous food packaging enterprises.


Historical population
Source: Census data

Population: 1,858,798 (2021 Census);[19] 1,977,665 (2010 Census);[9] 2,692,251 (2002 Census);[20] 2,782,005 (1989 Census).[21]

Vital statistics for 2022:[22][23]

Total fertility rate (2022):[24]
1.52 children per woman

Life expectancy (2021):[25]
Total — 69.02 years (male — 64.48, female — 73.45)

According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition was:[9]

According to Russia's 2002 Census, Omsk Oblast has one of the lowest birth rates in Siberia. However, birth rates remain higher than the average in heavily German districts - Azovsky Nemetsky National District (24% German), Moskalensky, Poltavsky (22% Ukrainian & 11% German) and Isilkulsky (8% German), even as significant emigration to Germany acts to reduce the overall birth rate.[27] In 2009, the lowest death rate was recorded for Azovsky German National Raion (9.4 per 1000) and the highest birth rate was recorded for Moskalenskom (17.0 per 1000), Isilkulskom (15.2), Maryanovsky (15.8), Pavlogradski (15.8), Tevrizskom (16.6), Ust-Ishim (15.4) and Sherbakulskom (16.2). Regions with the highest population growth were Moskalensky area (5.5 ppm), Azovsky German National Raion (4.8 ppm), Sherbakulsky (3.8 ppm) and Pavlogradskij (3.2 ppm).[28]

Raion (2007) Pop Births Deaths NG BR DR NGR
Omsk Oblast 2,020,000 23,627 29,578 -5,951 11.7 14.6 -0.29%
Omsk 1,130,000 11,857 15,599 -3,742 10.5 13.8 -0.33%
Azovsky Nemetsky National District 22,500 327 245 82 14.5 10.9 0.36%
Bolsherechensky District 32,400 393 519 -126 12.1 16 -0.39%
Bolsheukovsky District 8,800 125 160 -35 14.2 18.1 -0.39%
Gorkovsky 23,400 295 366 -71 12.6 15.7 -0.31%
Znamensky 13,400 195 213 -18 14.6 15.9 -0.13%
Isilkulsky 46,700 681 715 -34 14.6 15.3 -0.07%
Kalachinsky 44,700 506 754 -248 11.3 16.9 -0.56%
Kolosovsky 14,900 184 240 -56 12.4 16.1 -0.37%
Kormilovsky 25,800 352 447 -95 13.6 17.3 -0.37%
Krutinsky 20,000 248 343 -95 12.4 17.1 -0.47%
Lyubinsky 41,900 590 750 -160 14.1 17.9 -0.38%
Maryanovsky 27,300 423 444 -21 15.5 16.3 -0.08%
Moskalensky 32,200 505 460 45 15.7 14.3 0.14%
Muromtsevsky 26,100 271 542 -271 10.4 20.8 -1.04%
Nazyvayevsky 28,500 350 465 -115 12.3 16.3 -0.40%
Nizhneomsky 18,600 247 277 -30 13.3 14.9 -0.16%
Novovarshavsky 26,700 336 325 11 12.6 12.2 0.04%
Odessky 18,200 260 231 29 14.3 12.7 0.16%
Okoneshnikovsky 16,700 194 247 -53 11.6 14.8 -0.32%
Omsky 91,800 1,146 1,326 -180 12.5 14.4 -0.19%
Pavlogradsky 20,600 292 292 0 14.2 14.2 0.00%
Poltavsky 24,000 328 320 8 13.7 13.3 0.04%
Russko-Polyansky 22,800 314 344 -30 13.7 15.1 -0.14%
Sargatsky 21,800 279 364 -85 12.8 16.7 -0.39%
Sedelnikovsky 11,900 153 205 -52 12.9 17.3 -0.44%
Tavrichesky 39,200 519 579 -60 13.2 14.8 -0.16%
Tarsky 48,000 585 839 -254 12.2 17.5 -0.53%
Tevrizsky 17,200 270 305 -35 15.6 17.7 -0.21%
Tyukalinsky 29,500 357 472 -115 12.1 16 -0.39%
Ust-Ishimsky 15,200 192 289 -97 12.6 18.9 -0.63%
Cherlaksky 34,700 506 562 -56 14.6 16.2 -0.16%
Sherbakulsky 24,500 347 339 8 14.2 13.8 0.04%

Ethnic Russian birth rate in the province is significantly lower than that of the ethnic Kazakhs (by 50%) and that of ethnic Germans (by 20%), according to the 2002 Census.


Religion in Omsk Oblast as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[29][30]
Russian Orthodoxy
Other Christians
Rodnovery and other native faiths
Spiritual but not religious
Atheism and irreligion
Other and undeclared

According to a 2012 survey[29] 35.7% of the population of Omsk Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 2% adheres to Islam, 1% to the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery), 0.5% to the Catholic Church. In addition, 39% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 13% is atheist, and 5.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[29]

Notable people

Sister relationships

See also


  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ "Vladimir Putin appointed Acting Governor of the Omsk Region Vitaly Khotsenko, head of the government of the annexed "DPR"". Novaya Gazeta Europe (in Russian). 29 March 2023. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  4. ^ "Сведения о наличии и распределении земель в Российской Федерации на 01.01.2019 (в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации)". Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography. Archived from the original on 9 February 2022. Retrieved 29 August 2023.
  5. ^ "Оценка численности постоянного населения по субъектам Российской Федерации". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  6. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  7. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  8. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  9. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  10. ^ Ишимская степь; Great Soviet Encyclopedia in 30 vols. — Ch. ed. A.M. Prokhorov. - 3rd ed. - M. Soviet Encyclopedia, 1969-1978. (in Russian)
  11. ^ "История Омской области". Archived from the original on 22 November 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  12. ^ "Newsline - May 20, 1996 Yeltsin Promises to Maintain Stability, Plays Regional Card". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 20 May 1996. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  13. ^ Chuman, Mizuki. "The Rise and Fall of Power-Sharing Treaties Between Center and Regions in Post-Soviet Russia" (PDF). Demokratizatsiya: 146. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
  14. ^ "Список общественных объединений, имеющих право участвовать в выборах - Управление Министерства юстиции Российской Федерации по Омской области" [List of public associations eligible to participate in elections - Office of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation for the Omsk Region]. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  15. ^ Отчёт о работе администрации города Омска в 2005—2009 годах
  16. ^ "Журнал "Forbes" - 30 лучших городов для бизнеса — 2010" (in Russian). 27 May 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
  17. ^ Галина Балашенко «Заниматься бизнесом станет проще» // «Домашняя газета» № 22 (065), 9 июня 2010 года
  18. ^ Russian Regional Economic and Business Atlas Volume 2: Strategic Investment and Business Information ISBN 978-1-577-51030-7 p. 131
  19. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Всероссийская перепись населения 2020 года. Том 1 [2020 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1] (XLS) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  20. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  21. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  22. ^ "Information on the number of registered births, deaths, marriages and divorces for January to December 2022". ROSSTAT. Archived from the original on 2 March 2023. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  23. ^ "Birth rate, mortality rate, natural increase, marriage rate, divorce rate for January to December 2022". ROSSTAT. Archived from the original on 2 March 2023. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  24. ^ Суммарный коэффициент рождаемости [Total fertility rate]. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian). Archived from the original (XLSX) on 10 August 2023. Retrieved 10 August 2023.
  25. ^ "Демографический ежегодник России" [The Demographic Yearbook of Russia] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service of Russia (Rosstat). Retrieved 1 June 2022.
  26. ^ "Перепись-2010: русских становится больше". 19 December 2011. Archived from the original on 7 January 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  27. ^ "Демография Омской области". Archived from the original on 19 February 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  28. ^ "Демография Омской области". Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  29. ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  30. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27 August 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2017. Archived.
  31. ^ Hungary Russia sister city relationships