Republic of Adygea
Республика Адыгея
Other transcription(s)
 • AdygheАдыгэ Республик
Anthem: "Anthem of the Republic of Adygea" [2]
Location of Republic of Adygea
Coordinates: 44°39′N 40°00′E / 44.650°N 40.000°E / 44.650; 40.000Coordinates: 44°39′N 40°00′E / 44.650°N 40.000°E / 44.650; 40.000
CountryRussia
Federal district[1]Southern
Economic region[3]North Caucasus
CapitalMaykop[4]
Government
 • TypeState Council (Khase)[5]
 • HeadMurat Kumpilov[5]
Area
 • Total7,792 km2 (3,009 sq mi)
Population
 • TotalIncrease 496,934
 • Rank75th
 • Density63.77/km2 (165.2/sq mi)
 • Urban
49.4%
 • Rural
50.6%
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK[8])
ISO 3166 codeRU-AD
Vehicle registration01
Official language(s)Russian,[9] Adyghe[10]
Websitehttp://www.adygheya.ru/

The Republic of Adygea (/ˌɑːdɪˈɡə/;[11] Russian: Республика Адыгея, romanizedRespublika Adygeya; Adyghe: Адыгэ Республик, Adıgə Respublik), also known as the Adyghe Republic, is a republic of Russia. It is situated in the North Caucasus of Eastern Europe. The republic is a part of the Southern Federal District, and covers an area of 7,600 square kilometers (2,900 sq mi), with a population of roughly 496,934 residents.[7] It is an enclave within Krasnodar Krai and is the fifth-smallest Russian federal subject by area. Maykop is the capital and the largest city of Adygea, home to one-third of the republic's population.

Adygea is one of Russia's ethnic republics, primarily representing the indigenous Circassian people that form 25% of the Republic's population, while Russians form a majority at 60%, and with minority populations of Armenians and Ukrainians. The official languages of Adygea are Russian and Adyghe.

Geography

Adygea lies in Russia's Southern Federal District of Eastern Europe, in the foothills of the Northwestern Caucasus in the Caucasus Mountains System, with plains in the northern areas and mountains in the southern area. Forests (mainly of European beech, oak, and maple) cover almost 40% of its territory.

Rivers

Khodz river headwaters, endemic region
Khodz river headwaters, endemic region

The 870-kilometer (540 mi) long Kuban River is one of the major navigable rivers in the Caucasus region. It forms part of the northern border between the Republic of Adygea and Krasnodar Krai.
Other rivers include:

Lakes

Lago-Naki area in Adygea
Lago-Naki area in Adygea

The republic has no large lakes. However, the several large reservoirs include:

Mountains

Mount Fisht
Mount Fisht

The republic's major mountains and peaks range in height from 2,000–3,238 metres (6,562–10,623 ft), and include:

Natural resources

The republic is rich in oil and natural gas. Other natural resources include gold, silver, tungsten, and iron.

Climate

February 15, 2010 recorded the absolute maximum for the winter months—in the capital, the city of Maykop, the temperature was 23.4 °C (74.1 °F).

History

Map of Adygea
Map of Adygea

The Cherkess (Adyghe) Autonomous Oblast was established within the Russian SFSR on July 27, 1922, on the territories of the Kuban-Black Sea Oblast, primarily settled by the Adyghe people.[13] At that time, Krasnodar was the administrative center. It was renamed Adyghe (Cherkess) Autonomous Oblast on August 24, 1922, soon after its creation. In the first two years of its existence the autonomous oblast was a part of the Russian SFSR, but on October 17, 1924, it was transferred to the jurisdiction of the newly created North Caucasus Krai within the RSFSR.[14]

It was renamed Adyghe Autonomous Oblast (AO) in July 1928. On January 10, 1934, the autonomous oblast became part of the new Azov-Black Sea Krai, which was removed from North Caucasus Krai. Maykop was made the administrative center of the autonomous oblast in 1936. Adyghe AO became part of Krasnodar Krai when it was established on September 13, 1937.

On July 3, 1991, the oblast was elevated to the status of a republic under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation.[15] The first President of the republic was Aslan Dzharimov, elected on 5 January 1992.[16]

Relations between the Adyghe and ethnic Russians in Adygea are currently good. Russians make up two-thirds of the population within Adygea.[17] The current Head of Adygea is Murat Kumpilov.[18]

Politics

Former Head of the Republic of Adygea, Aslan Tkhakushinov, in 2010
Former Head of the Republic of Adygea, Aslan Tkhakushinov, in 2010

The chief executive of the government of the Republic of Adygea is the Head (called "President" until May 2011), who is appointed for a five-year term. Proficiency in the Adyghe language is a prerequisite for the candidate.[19]

The current Head, Murat Kumpilov (since January 27, 2017), succeeded Aslan Tkhakushinov, initially as acting Head of the region. There is also a directly elected State Council (Khase or Xase—not to be confused with the Adyghe Khase, a union of Adyghe who supported Sovmen for a second term), which comprises the Council of Representatives and the Council of the Republic. Both councils are elected every five years and have 27 deputies each.

The Republic sends three representatives to the parliament of the Russian Federation; one to the State Duma and the other two to the Federation Council.

The Constitution of the Republic of Adygea was adopted on May 14, 1995.

Divisions

Administrative divisions of the Republic of Adygea
Administrative divisions of the Republic of Adygea

Main article: List of administrative and municipal divisions of the Republic of Adygea

The Republic of Adygea is administratively divided into seven districts (raions), two cities/towns, and (at a lower administrative level) five urban-type settlements. Municipally, the republic is divided into two urban okrugs, five urban settlements, and 46 rural settlements.

Name Local Name Area in
km2
Population
Census[20] 2010
Population
Estimate[21]
1 Jan 2018
Cities (republican municipal districts)
Maykop Городской округ
Майкоп
58.6 166,540 165,279
Adygeysk Городской округ
Адыгейск
32.4 14,659 15,207
Districts
Giaginsky District Гиагинский м.р. 790.0 31,766 31,394
Koshekhablsky District Кошехабльский м.р. 606.7 30,422 29,726
Krasnogvardeysky District Красногвардейский м.р. 725.5 30,868 31,765
Maykopsky District Майкопский м.р. 3,667.4 58,439 60,107
Takhtamukaysky District Тахтамукайский м.р. 440.0 69,662 82,909
Teuchezhsky District Теучежский м.р. 710.0 20,643 20,802
Shovgenovsky District Шовгеновский м.р. 521.4 16,997 16,187
Adygea Republic Республика Адыгея 7,600.0 439,996 453,376

Demographics

2019 2021
Average: 73.8 years 71.2 years
Male: 69.1 years 66.6 years
Female: 78.4 years 75.8 years

Vital statistics

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service Archived April 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine[27]
Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1970 386,000 5,681 3,307 2,374 14.7 8.6 6.2
1975 396,000 5,900 3,907 1,993 14.9 9.9 5.0
1980 409,000 6,610 4,828 1,782 16.2 11.8 4.4
1985 423,000 6,966 5,283 1,683 16.5 12.5 4.0
1990 436,000 6,171 5,375 796 14.2 12.3 1.8 2.06
1991 439,000 5,912 5,905 7 13.5 13.5 0.0 1.96
1992 444,000 5,306 5,969 - 663 12.0 13.5 -1.5 1.73
1993 447,000 4,774 6,662 -1 888 10.7 14.9 -4.2 1.54
1994 449,000 4,907 6,519 -1 612 10.9 14.5 -3.6 1.59
1995 450,000 4,798 6,475 -1 677 10.7 14.4 -3.7 1.55
1996 450,000 4,625 6,382 -1 757 10.3 14.2 -3.9 1.49
1997 450,000 4,430 6,302 -1 872 9.8 14.0 -4.2 1.42
1998 451,000 4,340 6,245 -1 905 9.6 13.9 -4.2 1.38
1999 450,000 3,879 6,215 -2 336 8.6 13.8 -5.2 1.22
2000 448,000 4,071 6,710 -2 639 9.1 15.0 -5.9 1.27
2001 447,000 4,212 6,566 -2 354 9.4 14.7 -5.3 1.31
2002 447,000 4,540 6,715 -2 175 10.2 15.0 -4.9 1.39
2003 446,000 4,634 6,929 -2 295 10.4 15.6 -5.2 1.40
2004 444,000 4,648 6,645 -1 997 10.5 15.0 -4.5 1.37
2005 443,000 4,550 6,726 -2 176 10.3 15.2 -4.9 1.32
2006 441,000 4,606 6,686 -2 080 10.4 15.2 -4.7 1.33
2007 440,000 5,210 6,454 -1 244 11.8 14.7 -2.8 1.50
2008 440,000 5,601 6,558 - 957 12.7 14.9 -2.2 1.60
2009 439,000 5,513 6,219 - 706 12.5 14.2 -1.6 1.66
2010 439,000 5,721 6,065 - 476 13.0 14.1 -1.1 1.70
2011 441,000 5,511 6,197 - 554 12.5 13.8 -1.3 1.66
2012 444,000 5,700 5,924 - 224 12.9 13.4 -0.5 1.71
2013 445,000 5,568 5,814 - 246 12.5 13.1 -0.6 1.68
2014 448,000 5,699 5,938 - 239 12.7 13.3 -0.6 1.73
2015 450,000 5,613 5,841 - 228 12.5 13.0 -0.5 1.72
2016 453,000 5,451 5,818 - 367 12.1 12.9 -0.8 1.69(e)
2017 453,000 4,758 5,734 - 976 10.5 12.7 -2.2
2019 4,184 5,654 - 1,470 9.1 12.3 -3.2
2020 4,419 6,154 - 1,735 9.5 13.3 -3.8

Ethnic groups

According to the 2021 Census,[28] ethnic Russians make up 64.4% of the republic's total population, while the ethnic Adyghe are 25.7%. Other groups include Armenians (3.3%), Kurds (1.2%), Romani people (0.7%) and Ukrainians (0.6%).

Ethnic
group
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census 2021 Census1
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Russians 29,102 25.6% 171,960 71.1% 200,492 70.4% 276,537 71.7% 285,626 70.6% 293,640 68.0% 288,280 64.5% 270,714 63.6% 287,778 64.4%
Adyghe 50,821 44.8% 55,048 22.8% 65,908 23.2% 81,478 21.1% 86,388 21.4% 95,439 22.1% 108,115 24.2% 109,699 25.8% 114,688 25.7%2
Armenians 738 0.7% 2,348 1.0% 3,013 1.1% 5,217 1.4% 6,359 1.6% 10,460 2.4% 15,268 3.4% 15,561 3.7% 14,810 3.3%
Kurds 2 0.0% 262 0.1% 3,631 0.8% 4,528 1.1% 5,233 1.2%
Romani 1,109 0.3% 1,134 0.3% 1,844 0.4% 2,364 0.6% 2,908 0.7%
Ukrainians 26,405 23.3% 6,130 2.5% 7,988 2.8% 11,214 2.9% 12,078 3.0% 13,755 3.2% 9,091 2.0% 5,856 1.4% 2,810 0.6%
Others 6,415 5.7% 6,313 2.6% 7,289 2.6% 11,198 2.9% 13,939 3.4% 18,752 4.3% 26,355 5.9% 14,093 3.3% 18,403 4.1%
  1. 50,304 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[29]
  2. Including 397 Kabardins and 16,133 Cherkess.

Religions

Maykop Central Mosque
Maykop Central Mosque
Religion in Adygea as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[30][31]
Russian Orthodoxy
35.4%
Other Orthodox
1.4%
Other Christians
3.8%
Islam
23.6%
Spiritual but not religious
19.8%
Atheism and irreligion
8.2%
Other and undeclared
7.8%

According to a 2012 survey which interviewed 56,900 people [30] 35.4% of the population of Adygea adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church 23.6% to Islam, 3% are unaffiliated Christians and 1% are Orthodox Christian believers who don't belong to church or are members of other Orthodox churches. In addition, 19.8% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" 8% is atheist, and 8.6% follows other religions or did not answer to the question.[30]

Education

Adyghe State University and Maykop State Technological University, both in the capital Maykop, are the two major higher education facilities in Adygea.

Economy

Maykop Beer Brewery
Maykop Beer Brewery

Even though it is one of the poorest parts of Russia, the republic has abundant forests and rich soil. The region is famous for producing grain, sunflowers, tea, tobacco, and other produce. Hog and sheep breeding are also developed.

Food, timber, woodworking, pulp and paper, heavy engineering, and metal-working are the most developed industries.

Transportation

There is a small airport in Maykop (ICAO airport code URKM). Several rail lines pass through the republic.

Culture

A man speaking Adyghe.

The Adyghe language (Адыгабзэ) is a member of the Northwest Caucasian language family. Along with Russian, Adyghe is the official language of the republic.

There are 8 state and 23 public museums in the republic. The largest museum is the National Museum of the Republic of Adygea in Maykop.

Notable people

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Law #90
  3. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  4. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Adygea, Article 62
  5. ^ a b Constitution, Article 7.4.
  6. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  7. ^ a b "Оценка численности постоянного населения по субъектам Российской Федерации". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved September 1, 2022.
  8. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  9. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  10. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Adygea, Article 5
  11. ^ "Adygeya at merriam-webster.com". m-w.com. Retrieved September 23, 2009.
  12. ^ Baryshnikova, Gennady; John F. Hoffeckerb; Robin L. Burgess (May 1996). "Palaeontology and Zooarchaeology of Mezmaiskaya Cave (Northwestern Caucasus, Russia)". Journal of Archaeological Science. 23 (3): 313–335. doi:10.1006/jasc.1996.0030. Over 6000 large mammal and numerous small vertebrate remains have been recovered from preliminary excavations at Mezmaiskaya Cave
  13. ^ Azarenkova et al., p. 154
  14. ^ под ред. М. Макфола и Н. Петрова (1998). ""Политический альманах России 1997. Том 2. Социально-политические портреты регионов" (Political Almanac of Russia 1997. Vol. 2. Social and Political Portraits of the Regions), online edition" (PDF) (in Russian). Московский Центр Карнеги. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 30, 2007. Retrieved April 17, 2007.
  15. ^ Official website of the Republic of Adygea. Основные сведения Archived July 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  16. ^ Richmond, Walter (2008). The Northwest Caucasus: Past, Present, Future. Routledge. p. 146. ISBN 978-1134002498.
  17. ^ ВПН-2010 (in Russian). Gks.ru. Archived from the original on March 15, 2013. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
  18. ^ "Russian Elections: United Russia Winning Most Votes – Al-Manar TV Lebanon".
  19. ^ Казенин, Константин (2009). "Тихие" конфликты на Северном Кавказе (in Russian). Moscow: Regnum. p. 17. ISBN 978-5-91150-030-6.
  20. ^ State Committee of the Russian Federation on Statistics.
  21. ^ "Federal State Statistics Service data". www.gks.ru. Archived from the original on July 26, 2018. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  22. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  23. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  24. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  25. ^ "Демографический ежегодник России" [The Demographic Yearbook of Russia] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service of Russia (Rosstat). Retrieved June 28, 2022.
  26. ^ "Ожидаемая продолжительность жизни при рождении" [Life expectancy at birth]. Unified Interdepartmental Information and Statistical System of Russia (in Russian). Archived from the original on February 20, 2022. Retrieved June 28, 2022.
  27. ^ Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики (in Russian). Gks.ru. May 8, 2010. Archived from the original on December 24, 2018. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
  28. ^ "Национальный состав населения". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved December 30, 2022.
  29. ^ "ВПН-2010". rosstat.gov.ru.
  30. ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  31. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.

Sources