Republic of Adygea
|• Adyghe||Адыгэ Республик|
|Anthem: "Anthem of the Republic of Adygea"|
|Economic region||North Caucasus|
|• Body||State Council (Khase)|
|• Head||Murat Kumpilov|
|• Total||7,792 km2 (3,009 sq mi)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||56/km2 (150/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK )|
|ISO 3166 code||RU-AD|
|Official languages||Russian; Adyghe|
|Part of a series on the|
List of notable Circassians
Destroyed or barely existing
Religion in Circassia
|Languages and dialects|
The Republic of Adygea (//; Russian: Республика Адыгея, romanized: Respublika Adygeya; Adyghe: Адыгэ Республик, Adıgə Respublik), also known as the Adyghe Republic, is a republic of Russia. It is situated in the North Caucasus of Eastern Europe. The republic is a part of the Southern Federal District, and covers an area of 7,600 square kilometers (2,900 sq mi), with a population of roughly 450,000 residents. It is an enclave within Krasnodar Krai and is the fifth-smallest Russian federal subject by area. Maykop is the capital and the largest city of Adygea, home to one-third of the republic's population.
Adygea is one of Russia's ethnic republics, primarily representing the indigenous Circassian people that form 25% of the Republic's population, while Russians form a majority at 60%, and with minority populations of Armenians and Ukrainians. The official languages of Adygea are Russian and Adyghe.
Adygea lies in Russia's Southern Federal District of Eastern Europe, in the foothills of the Northwestern Caucasus in the Caucasus Mountains System, with plains in the northern areas and mountains in the southern area. Forests (mainly of European beech, oak, and maple) cover almost 40% of its territory.
The 870-kilometer (540 mi) long Kuban River is one of the major navigable rivers in the Caucasus region. It forms part of the northern border between the Republic of Adygea and Krasnodar Krai.
Other rivers include:
The republic has no large lakes. However, the several large reservoirs include:
The republic's major mountains and peaks range in height from 2,000–3,238 metres (6,562–10,623 ft), and include:
The republic is rich in oil and natural gas. Other natural resources include gold, silver, tungsten, and iron.
February 15, 2010 recorded the absolute maximum for the winter months—in the capital, the city of Maykop, the temperature was 23.4 °C (74.1 °F).
The Cherkess (Adyghe) Autonomous Oblast was established within the Russian SFSR on July 27, 1922, on the territories of the Kuban-Black Sea Oblast, primarily settled by the Adyghe people. At that time, Krasnodar was the administrative center. It was renamed Adyghe (Cherkess) Autonomous Oblast on August 24, 1922, soon after its creation. In the first two years of its existence the autonomous oblast was a part of the Russian SFSR, but on October 17, 1924, it was transferred to the jurisdiction of the newly created North Caucasus Krai within the RSFSR.
It was renamed Adyghe Autonomous Oblast (AO) in July 1928. On January 10, 1934, the autonomous oblast became part of the new Azov-Black Sea Krai, which was removed from North Caucasus Krai. Maykop was made the administrative center of the autonomous oblast in 1936. Adyghe AO became part of Krasnodar Krai when it was established on September 13, 1937.
On July 3, 1991, the oblast was elevated to the status of a republic under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. The first President of the republic was Aslan Dzharimov, elected on 5 January 1992.
Relations between the Adyghe and ethnic Russians in Adygea are currently good. Russians make up two-thirds of the population within Adygea. The current Head of Adygea is Murat Kumpilov.
The Republic of Adygea is administratively divided into seven districts (raions), two cities/towns, and (at a lower administrative level) five urban-type settlements. Municipally, the republic is divided into two urban okrugs, five urban settlements, and 46 rural settlements.
|Name||Local Name||Area in
1 Jan 2018
|Cities (republican municipal districts)|
|Giaginsky District||Гиагинский м.р.||790.0||31,766||31,394|
|Koshekhablsky District||Кошехабльский м.р.||606.7||30,422||29,726|
|Krasnogvardeysky District||Красногвардейский м.р.||725.5||30,868||31,765|
|Maykopsky District||Майкопский м.р.||3,667.4||58,439||60,107|
|Takhtamukaysky District||Тахтамукайский м.р.||440.0||69,662||82,909|
|Teuchezhsky District||Теучежский м.р.||710.0||20,643||20,802|
|Shovgenovsky District||Шовгеновский м.р.||521.4||16,997||16,187|
|Adygea Republic||Республика Адыгея||7,600.0||439,996||453,376|
|Average population||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death rate (per 1000)||Natural change (per 1000)||Fertility rates|
According to the 2010 Census, ethnic Russians make up 63.6% of the republic's total population, while the ethnic Adyghe are 25.8%. Other groups include Armenians (3.7%), Ukrainians (1.4%), Kurds (1.1%) and Tatars (0.6%).
|1926 Census||1939 Census||1959 Census||1970 Census||1979 Census||1989 Census||2002 Census||2010 Census1|
|1 14,610 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.|
According to a 2012 survey which interviewed 56,900 people, 35.4% of the population of Adygea adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 12.6% to Islam, 3% are unaffiliated Christians and 1% are Orthodox Christian believers who don't belong to church or are members of other Orthodox churches. In addition, 30% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 9% is atheist, and 8.6% follows other religions or did not answer to the question.
The chief executive of the government of the Republic of Adygea is the Head (called "President" until May 2011), who is appointed for a five-year term. Proficiency in the Adyghe language is a prerequisite for the candidate.
The current Head, Murat Kumpilov (since January 27, 2017), succeeded Aslan Tkhakushinov, initially as acting Head of the region. There is also a directly elected State Council (Khase or Xase—not to be confused with the Adyghe Khase, a union of Adyghe who supported Sovmen for a second term), which comprises the Council of Representatives and the Council of the Republic. Both councils are elected every five years and have 27 deputies each.
The Republic sends three representatives to the parliament of the Russian Federation; one to the State Duma and the other two to the Federation Council.
The Constitution of the Republic of Adygea was adopted on May 14, 1995.
Even though it is one of the poorest parts of Russia, the republic has abundant forests and rich soil. The region is famous for producing grain, sunflowers, tea, tobacco, and other produce. Hog and sheep breeding are also developed.
Food, timber, woodworking, pulp and paper, heavy engineering, and metal-working are the most developed industries.
There is a small airport in Maykop (ICAO airport code URKM). Several rail lines pass through the republic.
The Adyghe language (Адыгабзэ) is a member of the Northwest Caucasian language family. Along with Russian, Adyghe is the official language of the republic.
There are 8 state and 23 public museums in the republic. The largest museum is the National Museum of the Republic of Adygea in Maykop.
Adyghe State University and Maykop State Technological University, both in the capital Maykop, are the two major higher education facilities in Adygea.
Over 6000 large mammal and numerous small vertebrate remains have been recovered from preliminary excavations at Mezmaiskaya Cave
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