The eight federal districts of Russia

The federal districts (Russian: федера́льные округа́, romanizedfederalnyye okruga) are groupings of the federal subjects of Russia. Federal districts are not mentioned in the nation's constitution, and do not have competences of their own and do not manage regional affairs. They exist solely to monitor consistency between the federal and regional bodies of law, and ensuring governmental control over the civil service, judiciary, and federal agencies, operating in the regions.[1]

List of federal districts

Federal district[2][3] Date
established
Area[4]
(km2)
2021 census HDI (2021)[5] GRDP (2022)[6] Federal
subjects
Administrative
centre
Map of federal district
Population per km2 Total Per capita
North Caucasian 19 January 2010 170,400 10,171,000 60 0.793 3.111 trillion
($45 billion)
₽305,334
($4368)
7 Pyatigorsk
Southern[a] 18 May 2000 427,800 16,746,000[b] 39 0.799 ₽9.816 trillion
($140 billion)
₽588,461
($8419)
8 Rostov-on-Don
Central 18 May 2000 650,200 40,342,000 62 0.845 ₽47.368 trillion
($678 billion)
₽1,176,273
($16829)
18 Moscow
Northwestern 18 May 2000 1,687,000 13,917,000 8 0.833 ₽18.929 trillion
($271 billion)
₽1,362,907
($19499)
11 Saint Petersburg
Volga 18 May 2000 1,037,000 28,943,000 28 0.804 ₽19.664 trillion
($281 billion)
₽683,355
($9777)
14 Nizhny Novgorod
Ural 18 May 2000 1,818,500 12,301,000 7 0.839 ₽20.073 trillion
($287 billion)
₽1,635,678
($23402)
6 Yekaterinburg
Siberian 18 May 2000 4,361,800 16,793,000 4 0.794 ₽13.054 trillion
($187 billion)
₽781,580
($11182)
10 Novosibirsk
Far Eastern 18 May 2000 6,952,600 7,976,000 1 0.808 ₽8.656 trillion
($124 billion)
₽1,090,778
($15606)
11 Vladivostok

Source:[8]

  1. ^ Includes the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol, annexed by Russia in 2014, as well as Donetsk, Kherson, Luhansk, and Zaporizhia oblasts annexed in 2022; recognized as parts of Ukraine by most of the international community.
  2. ^ Population figures from the Crimean Census in 2014.[7] Crimea was annexed by Russia in 2014, after the 2010 Russian Census.

History

The federal districts of Russia were established by President Vladimir Putin in 2000 to facilitate the federal government's task of controlling the then 89 federal subjects across the country.[9]

On 19 January 2010, the new North Caucasian Federal District split from the Southern Federal District.[8]

In March 2014, after the annexation of Crimea, the Crimean Federal District was established.[10] The legality of this annexation is disputed by an overwhelming majority of countries.[11] On 28 July 2016 the Crimean Federal District was abolished and merged into the Southern Federal District in order to improve governance.[12]

In November 2018, Buryatia and Zabaykalsky Krai were removed from the Siberian Federal District and added to the Far Eastern Federal District in accordance with a decree issued by Putin.[13] The Administrative Centre of the Far Eastern Federal District relocated from Khabarovsk to Vladivostok in December 2018.[14]

Presidential plenipotentiary envoys

See also

References

  1. ^ Russell, Martin (October 2015). "Russia's constitutional structure" (PDF). European Parliamentary Research Service. European Parliament. doi:10.2861/664907. ISBN 978-92-823-8022-2. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  2. ^ "Russia: Federal Districts and Major Cities". City Population. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
  3. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved July 20, 2021.
  4. ^ "1.1. ОСНОВНЫЕ СОЦИАЛЬНО-ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ ПОКАЗАТЕЛИ в 2014 г." [MAIN SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS 2014]. Regions of Russia. Socioeconomic indicators - 2015 (in Russian). Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  5. ^ "Subnational Human Development Index (SD-201) (Russian Federation)". Global Data Lab. Radboud University Nijmegen. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
  6. ^ Валовой региональный продукт по субъектам Российской Федерации в 2016-2022 гг., rosstat.gov.ru
  7. ^ "Results of Census: Population of Crimea is 2.284 Million People". Archived from the original on November 4, 2015. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
  8. ^ a b Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No.20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  9. ^ Petrov, Nikolai (March 2002). "Seven Faces of Putin's Russia: Federal Districts as the New Level of State—Territorial Composition". Security Dialogue. 33 (1). SAGE Publishing: 73–91. doi:10.1177/0967010602033001006. JSTOR 26298005. S2CID 153455573.
  10. ^ "В России создан Крымский федеральный округ". RBC. March 21, 2014. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014. Retrieved March 21, 2014.
  11. ^ "NATO Secretary-General: Russia's Annexation of Crimea Is Illegal and Illegitimate". Brookings. March 19, 2014. Retrieved September 29, 2014.
  12. ^ "Крымский федеральный округ включен в состав Южного федерального округа" (in Russian). Interfax. July 28, 2016. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
  13. ^ "Официальныйi интернет-портал правовой информации". publication.pravo.gov.ru. Archived from the original on February 5, 2022. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
  14. ^ "Путин перенес столицу Дальневосточного федерального округа во Владивосток".
  15. ^ a b c "Игорь Холманских уволен с поста полпреда президента в Уральском федеральном округе" (in Russian). Meduza. June 26, 2018. Retrieved June 27, 2018.
  16. ^ "Putin asks Federation Council to relieve Gutsan of office as deputy prosecutor general (Part 2) - Interfax". www.interfax.com. Archived from the original on April 10, 2019. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  17. ^ Ульянова, Жанна; Яна Милюкова (August 31, 2013). Дальнему Востоку подобрали нового управленца (in Russian). Gazeta.ru. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
  18. ^ "Путин назначил Серышева полпредом в Сибирском Федеральном округе" [Putin appointed Seryshev Plenipotentiary in the Siberian Federal District]. Izvestiya (in Russian). October 12, 2021.