The federal districts (Russian: федера́льные округа́, federalnyye okruga) are groupings of the federal subjects of Russia. Federal districts are not mentioned in the nation's constitution, and do not have competences of their own and do not manage regional affairs. They exist solely to monitor consistency between the federal and regional bodies of law, and ensuring governmental control over the civil service, judiciary, and federal agencies, operating in the regions.
|2010 census||HDI (2019)||Gross regional product (2020)||Federal
|Map of Federal District|
|Population||per km2||GRP||GRP per capita|
|Central||18 May 2000||650,200||38,438,600||59.1||0.847||₽33.637 trillion
|Northwestern||18 May 2000||1,687,000||13,583,800||8.1||0.835||₽10.644 trillion
|Southern[a]||18 May 2000||427,800||16,141,100[b]||37.7||0.801||₽6.710 trillion
|North Caucasian||19 January 2010||170,400||9,496,800||55.7||0.795||₽2.404 trillion
|Volga||18 May 2000||1,037,000||29,900,400||28.8||0.806||₽13.669 trillion
|Ural||18 May 2000||1,818,500||12,082,700||6.6||0.842||₽11.675 trillion
|Siberian||18 May 2000||4,361,800||17,178,298||3.9||0.796||₽9.027 trillion
|Far Eastern||18 May 2000||6,952,600||8,371,257||1.2||0.810||₽6.044 trillion
The federal districts of Russia were established by President Vladimir Putin in 2000 to facilitate the federal government's task of controlling the then 89 federal subjects across the country.
On 19 January 2010, the new North Caucasian Federal District split from the Southern Federal District.
In March 2014, after the annexation of Crimea, the Crimean Federal District was established. The legality of this annexation is disputed by an overwhelming majority of countries. On 28 July 2016 the Crimean Federal District was abolished and merged into the Southern Federal District in order to improve governance.
In November 2018, Buryatia and Zabaykalsky Krai were removed from the Siberian Federal District and added to the Far Eastern Federal District in accordance with a decree issued by Putin. The Administrative Centre of the Far Eastern Federal District relocated from Khabarovsk to Vladivostok in December 2018.
In 2022, the Administrative Centre of the Volga Federal District will relocate from Nizhny Novgorod to Samara within a few years. In the Northwestern Federal District, Murmansk Oblast will be merged into the Republic of Karelia, also within a few years.