Khabarovsk Krai
Хабаровский край
Coat of arms of Khabarovsk Krai
Coordinates: 54°48′N 136°50′E / 54.800°N 136.833°E / 54.800; 136.833
CountryRussia
Federal districtFar Eastern[1]
Economic regionFar Eastern[2]
Administrative centerKhabarovsk
Government
 • BodyLegislative Duma[3]
 • Governor[3]Dmitry Demeshin (acting)
Area
 • Total787,633 km2 (304,107 sq mi)
 • Rank4th
Population
 • Total1,292,944
 • Estimate 
(2018)[6]
1,328,302
 • Rank34th
 • Density1.6/km2 (4.3/sq mi)
 • Urban
83.4%
 • Rural
16.6%
Time zoneUTC+10 (MSK+7 Edit this on Wikidata[7])
ISO 3166 codeRU-KHA
License plates27
OKTMO ID08000000
Official languagesRussian[8]
Websitehttp://www.khabkrai.ru

Khabarovsk Krai (Russian: Хабаровский край, romanizedKhabarovskiy kray, IPA: [xɐˈbarəfskʲɪj kraj]) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia. It is located in the Russian Far East and is administratively part of the Far Eastern Federal District. The administrative centre of the krai is the city of Khabarovsk, which is home to roughly half of the krai's population and the largest city in the Russian Far East (just ahead of Vladivostok). Khabarovsk Krai is the fourth-largest federal subject by area, and had a population of 1,343,869 as of 2010.[10]

Being dominated by the Siberian High winter cold, the continental climates of the krai see extreme freezing for an area adjacent to the sea near the mid-latitudes, but also warm summers in the interior. The southern region lies mostly in the basin of the lower Amur River, with the mouth of the river located at Nikolaevsk-on-Amur draining into the Strait of Tartary, which separates Khabarovsk Krai from the island of Sakhalin. The north occupies a vast mountainous area along the coastline of the Sea of Okhotsk, a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. Khabarovsk Krai is bordered by Magadan Oblast to the north; Amur Oblast, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, and the Sakha Republic to the west; Primorsky Krai to the south; and Sakhalin Oblast to the east.

The population consists of mostly ethnic Russians, but indigenous people of the area are numerous, such as the Tungusic peoples (Evenks, Negidals, Ulchs, Nanai, Oroch, Udege), Amur Nivkhs, and Ainu.[11]

Geography

Khabarovsk Krai shares its borders with Magadan Oblast in the north; with the Sakha Republic and Amur Oblast in the west; with the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, China (Heilongjiang), and Primorsky Krai in the south; and is limited by the Sea of Okhotsk in the east. In terms of area, it is the fourth-largest federal subject within Russia. Major islands include the Shantar Islands.

Taiga and tundra in the north, swampy forest in the central depression, and deciduous forest in the south are the natural vegetation in the area. The main rivers are the Amur, Amgun, Uda, and Tugur, among others. There are also lakes such as Bokon, Bolon, Chukchagir, Evoron, Kizi, Khummi, Orel, and Udyl, among others.[12]

Khabarovsk Krai has a severely continental climate with its northern areas being subarctic with stronger maritime summer moderation in the north. In its southerly areas, especially inland, annual swings are extremely strong, with Khabarovsk itself having hot, wet, and humid summers which rapidly transform into severely cold and long winters, where temperatures hardly ever go above freezing. This is because of the influence of the East Asian monsoon in summer and the bitterly cold Siberian High in winter. The second-largest city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur has even more violent temperature swings than Khabarovsk, with winter average lows below −30 °C (−22 °F), but in spite of this, avoiding being subarctic because of the significant heat in summer.

The main mountain ranges in the region are the Bureya Range, the Badzhal Range (highest point 2,221 metres (7,287 ft) high, the Gora Ulun), the Yam-Alin, the Dusse-Alin, the Sikhote-Alin, the Dzhugdzhur Mountains, the Kondyor Massif, as well as a small section of the Suntar-Khayata Range, the Yudoma-Maya Highlands, and the Sette-Daban in the western border regions. The highest point is 2,933 metres (9,623 ft) high, Berill Mountain.[13][14]

There are a number of peninsulas along the krai's extensive coast, the main ones being (north to south) the Lisyansky Peninsula, Nurki Peninsula, Tugurskiy Peninsula, and the Tokhareu Peninsula.

The main islands of Khabarovsk Krai (north to south) are Malminskiye Island, the Shantar Islands, Menshikov Island, Reyneke Island (Sea of Okhotsk), Chkalov Island, Baydukov Island, and the Chastye Islands. The island of Sakhalin (Russia's largest) is administered separately as Sakhalin Oblast, along with the Kuril Islands.

The charts below detail climate averages from various locations in the krai. Khabarovsk is set near the Chinese border at a lower latitude far inland, while Komsomolsk-on-Amur being further downstream on the Amur river at a higher latitude. Sovetskaya Gavan and Okhotsk are coastal settlements in the deep south and far north, respectively.

Climate data for Khabarovsk (1991–2020, extremes 1878–2023)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 0.6
(33.1)
6.3
(43.3)
17.0
(62.6)
28.6
(83.5)
31.5
(88.7)
36.4
(97.5)
35.7
(96.3)
35.6
(96.1)
29.8
(85.6)
26.4
(79.5)
15.5
(59.9)
6.6
(43.9)
36.4
(97.5)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −14.9
(5.2)
−9.9
(14.2)
−1.0
(30.2)
10.5
(50.9)
19.2
(66.6)
23.8
(74.8)
26.8
(80.2)
24.9
(76.8)
19.7
(67.5)
10.6
(51.1)
−2.8
(27.0)
−13.6
(7.5)
7.8
(46.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) −19.2
(−2.6)
−14.9
(5.2)
−5.9
(21.4)
4.8
(40.6)
12.9
(55.2)
18.0
(64.4)
21.4
(70.5)
19.9
(67.8)
14.1
(57.4)
5.4
(41.7)
−6.9
(19.6)
−17.4
(0.7)
2.7
(36.9)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −23.1
(−9.6)
−19.6
(−3.3)
−10.7
(12.7)
−0.1
(31.8)
7.3
(45.1)
12.8
(55.0)
16.8
(62.2)
15.7
(60.3)
9.4
(48.9)
1.0
(33.8)
−10.4
(13.3)
−20.9
(−5.6)
−1.8
(28.8)
Record low °C (°F) −40.0
(−40.0)
−35.1
(−31.2)
−28.9
(−20.0)
−15.1
(4.8)
−3.1
(26.4)
2.2
(36.0)
6.8
(44.2)
4.9
(40.8)
−3.3
(26.1)
−15.6
(3.9)
−27.7
(−17.9)
−38.1
(−36.6)
−40.0
(−40.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 13
(0.5)
12
(0.5)
22
(0.9)
37
(1.5)
70
(2.8)
84
(3.3)
137
(5.4)
143
(5.6)
85
(3.3)
48
(1.9)
26
(1.0)
19
(0.7)
696
(27.4)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 14
(5.5)
16
(6.3)
12
(4.7)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
5
(2.0)
10
(3.9)
16
(6.3)
Average rainy days 0 0 1 10 16 15 15 17 15 11 2 0 102
Average snowy days 14 11 11 6 1 0 0 0 0.1 4 12 14 73
Average relative humidity (%) 75 72 68 63 65 74 79 83 78 67 69 73 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 147 181 231 213 242 262 248 217 212 189 159 145 2,446
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[15]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[16]
Climate data for Komsomolsk-on-Amur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 0.7
(33.3)
0.0
(32.0)
13.6
(56.5)
23.9
(75.0)
31.0
(87.8)
33.2
(91.8)
36.2
(97.2)
38.0
(100.4)
30.0
(86.0)
20.5
(68.9)
8.3
(46.9)
1.0
(33.8)
38.0
(100.4)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −19.6
(−3.3)
−13.9
(7.0)
−4.0
(24.8)
7.5
(45.5)
16.1
(61.0)
22.8
(73.0)
25.1
(77.2)
23.4
(74.1)
17.1
(62.8)
7.4
(45.3)
−6.4
(20.5)
−17.2
(1.0)
4.6
(40.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −24.7
(−12.5)
−19.8
(−3.6)
−9.5
(14.9)
2.3
(36.1)
10.4
(50.7)
17.3
(63.1)
20.3
(68.5)
18.5
(65.3)
11.9
(53.4)
2.5
(36.5)
−10.5
(13.1)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−0.6
(30.9)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −30.8
(−23.4)
−27.2
(−17.0)
−17.1
(1.2)
−3.4
(25.9)
3.7
(38.7)
10.8
(51.4)
15.2
(59.4)
13.5
(56.3)
6.4
(43.5)
−2.9
(26.8)
−16.1
(3.0)
−27.4
(−17.3)
−6.6
(20.1)
Record low °C (°F) −47.0
(−52.6)
−42.0
(−43.6)
−33.9
(−29.0)
−20.8
(−5.4)
−7.5
(18.5)
−2.2
(28.0)
0.0
(32.0)
−8.9
(16.0)
−6.0
(21.2)
−22.0
(−7.6)
−34.0
(−29.2)
−42.0
(−43.6)
−47.0
(−52.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 30
(1.2)
19
(0.7)
30
(1.2)
43
(1.7)
63
(2.5)
65
(2.6)
95
(3.7)
110
(4.3)
74
(2.9)
62
(2.4)
49
(1.9)
32
(1.3)
672
(26.4)
Average precipitation days 14 12 13 15 15 13 15 14 14 13 16 15 169
Average rainy days 0 0 1 7 14 13 15 14 14 8 1 0 87
Average snowy days 14 12 13 11 3 0 0 0 0 8 15 15 91
Source 1: climatebase.ru[17]
Source 2: Weatherbase[18]
Climate data for Sovetskaya Gavan (1914–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
12.2
(54.0)
18.9
(66.0)
25.1
(77.2)
31.8
(89.2)
35.1
(95.2)
34.2
(93.6)
35.8
(96.4)
30.2
(86.4)
26.8
(80.2)
16.5
(61.7)
9.4
(48.9)
35.8
(96.4)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −11.4
(11.5)
−8.3
(17.1)
−1.8
(28.8)
5.6
(42.1)
11.6
(52.9)
16.8
(62.2)
20.5
(68.9)
21.9
(71.4)
18.2
(64.8)
10.9
(51.6)
0.0
(32.0)
−8.7
(16.3)
6.3
(43.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −16.8
(1.8)
−14.2
(6.4)
−7.4
(18.7)
1.1
(34.0)
6.6
(43.9)
11.5
(52.7)
15.6
(60.1)
17.4
(63.3)
13.3
(55.9)
6.0
(42.8)
−4.7
(23.5)
−13.5
(7.7)
1.3
(34.3)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −22.2
(−8.0)
−20.1
(−4.2)
−12.9
(8.8)
−3.5
(25.7)
1.5
(34.7)
6.2
(43.2)
10.7
(51.3)
12.9
(55.2)
8.4
(47.1)
1.0
(33.8)
−9.3
(15.3)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−3.8
(25.2)
Record low °C (°F) −40.0
(−40.0)
−38.6
(−37.5)
−30.3
(−22.5)
−26.4
(−15.5)
−9.5
(14.9)
−3.0
(26.6)
2.4
(36.3)
4.0
(39.2)
−1.7
(28.9)
−14.7
(5.5)
−31.3
(−24.3)
−38.4
(−37.1)
−40.0
(−40.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 19.9
(0.78)
20.7
(0.81)
42.9
(1.69)
47.5
(1.87)
73.9
(2.91)
70.1
(2.76)
82.1
(3.23)
109.6
(4.31)
117.2
(4.61)
87.7
(3.45)
43.4
(1.71)
32.7
(1.29)
747.7
(29.42)
Average precipitation days 6.8 7.0 9.6 10.3 13.2 12.9 13.4 14.7 13.1 9.2 6.1 6.6 122.9
Source: [1]
Climate data for Okhotsk (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1891–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.5
(41.9)
2.0
(35.6)
6.4
(43.5)
16.0
(60.8)
26.2
(79.2)
31.3
(88.3)
31.0
(87.8)
32.1
(89.8)
24.8
(76.6)
15.7
(60.3)
6.2
(43.2)
2.8
(37.0)
32.1
(89.8)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −16.8
(1.8)
−14.2
(6.4)
−6.3
(20.7)
0.4
(32.7)
6.2
(43.2)
11.4
(52.5)
15.7
(60.3)
17.1
(62.8)
12.9
(55.2)
2.7
(36.9)
−9.7
(14.5)
−16.4
(2.5)
0.3
(32.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) −19.9
(−3.8)
−18.5
(−1.3)
−12.1
(10.2)
−3.8
(25.2)
2.6
(36.7)
8.1
(46.6)
12.9
(55.2)
13.7
(56.7)
8.9
(48.0)
−1.2
(29.8)
−12.7
(9.1)
−19.0
(−2.2)
−3.4
(25.9)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −22.7
(−8.9)
−22.2
(−8.0)
−17.8
(0.0)
−8.2
(17.2)
−0.2
(31.6)
5.7
(42.3)
10.6
(51.1)
10.6
(51.1)
4.9
(40.8)
−4.6
(23.7)
−15.3
(4.5)
−21.4
(−6.5)
−6.7
(19.9)
Record low °C (°F) −41.3
(−42.3)
−45.7
(−50.3)
−36.9
(−34.4)
−29.2
(−20.6)
−16.0
(3.2)
−2.6
(27.3)
1.7
(35.1)
−0.1
(31.8)
−6.6
(20.1)
−27.5
(−17.5)
−37.4
(−35.3)
−37.7
(−35.9)
−45.7
(−50.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 15
(0.6)
7
(0.3)
16
(0.6)
24
(0.9)
40
(1.6)
55
(2.2)
85
(3.3)
94
(3.7)
92
(3.6)
66
(2.6)
32
(1.3)
14
(0.6)
540
(21.3)
Average rainy days 0.1 0.2 0.3 2 11 16 18 15 16 7 1 0.2 87
Average snowy days 9 9 11 13 10 0.4 0 0 0.3 9 11 8 81
Average relative humidity (%) 63 63 68 77 84 88 89 86 80 70 66 63 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 86 147 241 230 195 200 179 182 172 157 107 54 1,950
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[19]
Source 2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)[20]

History

According to various Chinese and Korean records, the southern part of Khabarovsk Krai was originally occupied by one of the five semi-nomadic Shiwei, the Bo Shiwei tribes, and the Black Water Mohe tribes living, respectively, on the west and the east of the Bureya and the Lesser Khingan ranges.

In 1643, Vassili Poyarkov's boats descended the Amur, returning to Yakutsk by the Sea of Okhotsk and the Aldan River, and in 1649–1650, Yerofey Khabarov occupied the banks of the Amur. The resistance of the Chinese, however, obliged the Cossacks to quit their forts, and by the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689), Russia abandoned its advance into the basin of the river.

Although the Russians were thus deprived of the right to navigate the Amur River, the territorial claim over the lower courses of the river was not settled in the Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689. The area between the Uda River and the Greater Khingan mountain range (i.e. most of Lower Amuria) was left undemarcated and the Sino-Russian border was allowed to fluctuate.[21][22]

Later in the nineteenth century, Nikolay Muravyov conducted an aggressive policy with China by claiming that the lower reaches of the Amur River belonged to Russia. In 1852, a Russian military expedition under Muravyov explored the Amur, and by 1857, a chain of Russian Cossacks and peasants had been settled along the whole course of the river. In 1858, in the Treaty of Aigun, China recognized the Amur River downstream as far as the Ussuri River as the boundary between Russia and the Qing Empire, and granted Russia free access to the Pacific Ocean.[23] The Sino-Russian border was later further delineated in the Treaty of Peking of 1860 when the Ussuri Territory (the Maritime Territory), which was previously a joint possession, became Russian.[24]

Khabarovsk Krai was established on 20 October 1938, when the Far Eastern Krai was split into the Khabarovsk and Primorsky Krais.[9] Kamchatka Oblast, which was originally subordinated to the Far Eastern Krai, fell under the Jurisdiction of Khabarovsk Krai, along with its two National Okrugs, Chukotka and Koryak. In 1947, the northern part of Sakhalin was removed from the Krai to join the southern part and form Sakhalin Oblast. In 1948, parts of its southwestern territories were removed from the Krai to form Amur Oblast. In 1953, Magadan Oblast was established from the northern parts of the Krai and was given jurisdiction over Chukotka National Okrug, which was originally under the jurisdiction of Kamchatka oblast. In 1956, Kamchatka Oblast became its own region and took Koryak National Okrug with it. The Krai took its modern form in 1991, just before the USSR's collapse when the Jewish Autonomous Oblast was created within its territory. On 24 April 1996, Khabarovsk signed a power-sharing agreement with the federal government, granting it autonomy.[25] This agreement would be abolished on 12 August 2002.[26]

Administrative divisions

Main article: Administrative divisions of Khabarovsk Krai

Politics

Khabarovsk Krai Administration building

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Khabarovsk CPSU Committee (who, in reality, had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor, was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

The Charter of Khabarovsk Krai is the fundamental law of the krai. The Legislative Duma of Khabarovsk Krai is the regional standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Duma exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Krai Government, which includes territorial executive bodies, such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Krai Administration supports the activities of the Governor, who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.

On 9 July 2020, the governor of the region, Sergei Furgal, was arrested and flown to Moscow. The 2020 Khabarovsk Krai protests began on 11 July 2020, in support of Furgal.[27]

Economy

Bridge over the Amur River in Khabarovsk

Khabarovsk Krai is the most industrialized territory of the Far East of Russia, producing 30% of the total industrial products in the Far Eastern Economic Region.

Heavy industry

The machine construction industry consists primarily of a highly developed military–industrial complex of large-scale aircraft- and shipbuilding enterprises.[28] The Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association is currently among the krai's most successful enterprises, and for years has been the largest taxpayer of the territory.[28] Other major industries include timber-working and fishing, along with metallurgy in the main cities. Komsomolsk-on-Amur is the iron and steel centre of the Far East; a pipeline from northern Sakhalin supplies the petroleum-refining industry in the city of Khabarovsk. In the Amur basin, there is also some cultivation of wheat and soybeans. The administrative centre, Khabarovsk, is at the junction of the Amur River and the Trans-Siberian Railway.

Mining

The region's mineral resources are relatively underdeveloped. Khabarovsk Krai contains large gold mining operations (Highland Gold, Polus Gold), a major but low-grade copper deposit being explored by IG Integro Group, and a world-class tin district which was a major contributor to the Soviet industrial complex and is currently being revitalised by Far Eastern Tin (Festivalnoye mine) and by Sable Tin Resources Archived March 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, which is developing the Sable Tin Deposit (Sobolinoye), a large high-grade deposit, 25 km from Solnechny town.

Khabarovsk city ponds on Ussuriysky Boulevard

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1926184,700—    
1939657,400+255.9%
1959979,679+49.0%
19701,173,458+19.8%
19791,369,277+16.7%
19891,597,373+16.7%
20021,436,570−10.1%
20101,343,869−6.5%
20211,292,944−3.8%
Source: Census data

Population: 1,292,944 (2021 Census);[29] 1,343,869 (2010 Russian census);[10] 1,436,570 (2002 Census);[30] 1,824,506 (1989 Soviet census).[31]

Ethnic groups

Ethnicities in Khabarovsk Krai in 2021[32]
Ethnicity Population Percentage
Russians 1,047,221 92.9%
Nanai 10,813 1.0%
Ukrainians 7,170 0.6%
Tajiks 4,332 0.4%
Koreans 3,740 0.3%
Evenki 3,709 0.3%
Other Ethnicities 50,780 3.9%
Ethnicity not stated 165,179

Vital statistics for 2022:[33][34]

Total fertility rate (2022):[35]
1.50 children per woman

Life expectancy (2021):[36]
Total — 67.85 years (male — 62.91, female — 72.94)

Settlements

 
 
Largest cities or towns in Khabarovsk Krai
2010 Russian Census
Rank Administrative Division Municipal pop.
Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
Komsomolsk-on-Amur
Komsomolsk-on-Amur
1 Khabarovsk Khabarovsky District 577,441 Amursk
Amursk
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur
2 Komsomolsk-on-Amur Komsomolsky District 263,906
3 Amursk Amursky District 42,970
4 Nikolayevsk-on-Amur Nikolayevsky District 22,752
5 Sovetskaya Gavan Sovetsko-Gavansky District 27,712
6 Bikin Bikinsky District 17,154
7 Vanino Vaninsky District 17,001
8 Vyazemsky Vyazemsky District 14,555
9 Solnechny Solnechny District 13,306
10 Chegdomyn Verkhnebureinsky District 13,048

Religion

Religion in Krai Oblast as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[37][38]
Russian Orthodoxy
26.2%
Other Orthodox
1.3%
Protestantism
0.5%
Other Christians
3.7%
Islam
1.1%
Rodnovery and other native faiths
0.5%
Spiritual but not religious
27.9%
Atheism and irreligion
23.1%
Other and undeclared
15.7%

According to a 2012 survey,[37] 26.2% of the population of Khabarovsk Krai adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 4% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% adhere to other Orthodox churches or are believers in Orthodox Christianity who do not belong to any church, while 1% are adherents of Islam. In addition, 28% of the population declared to be "spiritual but not religious", 23% are atheist, and 16.8% follow other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[37]

Education

There are the following institutions of higher education in Khabarovsk Krai.[39][40]

Sport

Platinum Arena

The city was a host to the 1981 Bandy World Championship as well as to the 2015 Bandy World Championship. For the 2015 games, twenty-one teams originally were expected, which would have been four more than the record-making seventeen from the 2014 tournament, but eventually, only sixteen teams came. The A Division of the 2018 Bandy World Championship was again to be played in Khabarovsk.[42]

Sister relations

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ a b Charter of Khabarovsk Krai, Article 4
  4. ^ "Сведения о наличии и распределении земель в Российской Федерации на 01.01.2019 (в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации)". Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography. Archived from the original on February 9, 2022. Retrieved August 29, 2023.
  5. ^ "Оценка численности постоянного населения по субъектам Российской Федерации". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved September 1, 2022.
  6. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  7. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  8. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  9. ^ a b Decree of October 20, 1938
  10. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  11. ^ Chaussonnet, p.109
  12. ^ Topographic map N-53; M 1: 1,000,00
  13. ^ Khabarovsk Krai Mountains - PeakVisor
  14. ^ Google Earth
  15. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  16. ^ "Habarovsk/Novy (Khabarovsk) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  17. ^ "climatebase.ru (1948-2011)". Retrieved April 28, 2012.
  18. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Russia". Weatherbase. 2012. Retrieved on November 24, 2011.
  19. ^ "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Okhotsk" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Archived from the original on December 3, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  20. ^ "Ohotsk (Okhotsk) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  21. ^ "1689, Nerchinsk – Russia". China's External Relations.
  22. ^ Alexei D. Voskressenski (2002). Russia and China: A Theory of Inter-State Relations. Routledge. pp. 107–108. ISBN 978-0700714957.
  23. ^ "1858, Aigun – Russia". China's External Relations.
  24. ^ Alexei D. Voskressenski (2002). Russia and China: A Theory of Inter-State Relations. Routledge. pp. 112–113. ISBN 978-0700714957.
  25. ^ Solnick, Steven (May 29, 1996). "Asymmetries in Russian Federation Bargaining" (PDF). The National Council for Soviet and East European Research: 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022.
  26. ^ Chuman, Mizuki. "The Rise and Fall of Power-Sharing Treaties Between Center and Regions in Post-Soviet Russia" (PDF). Demokratizatsiya: 146. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022.
  27. ^ "Anger at Kremlin Grows in Latest Massive Russian Far East Protest". The Moscow Times. July 25, 2020.
  28. ^ a b "KNAAPO Komsomolsk na Amure Aviation Industrial Association named after Gagarin - Russian". www.globalsecurity.org.
  29. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Всероссийская перепись населения 2020 года. Том 1 [2020 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1] (XLS) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  30. ^ Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  31. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  32. ^ "Национальный состав населения". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved December 30, 2022.
  33. ^ "Information on the number of registered births, deaths, marriages and divorces for January to December 2022". ROSSTAT. Archived from the original on March 2, 2023. Retrieved February 21, 2023.
  34. ^ "Birth rate, mortality rate, natural increase, marriage rate, divorce rate for January to December 2022". ROSSTAT. Archived from the original on March 2, 2023. Retrieved February 21, 2023.
  35. ^ Суммарный коэффициент рождаемости [Total fertility rate]. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian). Archived from the original (XLSX) on August 10, 2023. Retrieved August 10, 2023.
  36. ^ "Демографический ежегодник России" [The Demographic Yearbook of Russia] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service of Russia (Rosstat). Retrieved June 1, 2022.
  37. ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  38. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  39. ^ The Institutions of Higher Education in Khabarovsk Krai Archived December 28, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ "Independent Russian and Ukrainian Interpreters". RusMoose.com.
  41. ^ "Google Translate". translate.google.co.uk.
  42. ^ "Annual Congress in Sandviken, Sweden on Jan 30 2017 2017-01-28" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 4, 2017. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
  43. ^ Gyeongsangnam-do official website English Archived September 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  44. ^ "Sister cities of the Hyogo Prefecture". Archived from the original on October 29, 2007. Retrieved January 10, 2009.

Sources

Media related to Khabarovsk Krai at Wikimedia Commons