Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug–Yugra
Ханты-Мансийский автономный округ — Югра
Other transcription(s)
 • KhantyХӑнты-Мансийской Aвтономной Округ
 • MansiХанты-Мансийский Aвтономный Oкруг
Coat of arms of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug–Yugra
Anthem: Anthem of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug
Coordinates: 62°15′N 70°10′E / 62.250°N 70.167°E / 62.250; 70.167
CountryRussia
Federal districtUrals[1]
Economic regionWest Siberian[2]
Administrative centerKhanty-Mansiysk
Government
 • BodyDuma
 • GovernorRuslan Kukharuk (acting)
Area
 • Total534,801 km2 (206,488 sq mi)
 • Rank9th
Population
 • Total1,711,480
 • Rank27th
 • Density3.2/km2 (8.3/sq mi)
 • Urban
92.0%
 • Rural
8.0%
Time zoneUTC+5 (MSK+2 Edit this on Wikidata[5])
ISO 3166 codeRU-KHM
License plates86, 186
OKTMO ID71800000
Official languagesRussian[6]
Recognised languagesKhanty • Mansi[citation needed]
Websitehttp://www.admhmao.ru/

Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug–Yugra[a], commonly shortened to Khantia-Mansia, is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug of Tyumen Oblast). It has a population of 1,532,243 as of the 2010 Census.[4] Its administrative center is located at Khanty-Mansiysk.

The peoples native to the region are the Khanty and the Mansi, known collectively as Ob-Ugric peoples, but today the two groups only constitute 2.5% of the region's population. The local languages, Khanty and Mansi, are part of the Ugric branch of the Finno-Ugric language family, and enjoy a special status in the autonomous okrug. Russian remains the only official language.

In 2012, the majority (51%)[7] of the oil produced in Russia came from Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, giving the region great economic importance in Russia and the world. It borders Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug to the north, Komi Republic to the northwest, Sverdlovsk Oblast to the west, Tyumen Oblast to the south, Tomsk Oblast to the south and southeast and Krasnoyarsk Krai in the east.

History

The okrug was established on December 10, 1930, as Ostyak-Vogul National Okrug (Остя́ко-Вогу́льский национа́льный о́круг). In October 1940, it was renamed the Khanty-Mansi National Okrug. In 1977, along with other national okrugs of the Russian SFSR, it became an autonomous okrug (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug). In 2003, the word "Yugra" was appended to the official name.[8]

Geography

Map of Khantia-Mansia

The okrug occupies the central part of the West Siberian Plain.

Principal rivers include the Ob and its tributaries Irtysh and Vatinsky Yogan. There are numerous lakes in the okrug, the largest ones are Numto, Tormemtor, Leushinsky Tuman and Tursuntsky Tuman, among others.[9]

The northeasterly line of equal latitude and longitude traverses the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug.

Administrative divisions

Main article: Administrative divisions of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug

Demographics

Population: 1,674,676 (2020);[10] 1,532,243 (2010 Russian census);[4] 1,432,817 (2002 Census);[11] 1,268,439 (1989 Soviet census).[12]

Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug has an area of 523,100 km2, but the area is sparsely populated. The administrative center is Khanty-Mansiysk, but the largest cities are Surgut, Nizhnevartovsk, and Nefteyugansk.

Settlements

 
 
Largest cities or towns in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug
2010 Russian Census
Rank Administrative Division Municipal pop.
Surgut
Surgut
Nizhnevartovsk
Nizhnevartovsk
1 Surgut City of okrug significance of Surgut 380,632
2 Nizhnevartovsk City of okrug significance of Nizhnevartovsk 277,668
3 Nefteyugansk City of okrug significance of Nefteyugansk 127,255
4 Khanty-Mansiysk Town of okrug significance of Khanty-Mansiysk 101,466
5 Kogalym Town of okrug significance of Kogalym 67,727
6 Nyagan Town of okrug significance of Nyagan 58,565
7 Megion Town of okrug significance of Megion 46,643
8 Langepas Town of okrug significance of Langepas 44,646
9 Raduzhny Town of okrug significance of Raduzhny 43,666
10 Pyt-Yakh Town of okrug significance of Pyt-Yakh 39,570
Historical population
YearPop.±%
193992,932—    
1959123,926+33.4%
1970271,157+118.8%
1979569,139+109.9%
19891,268,439+122.9%
20021,432,817+13.0%
20101,532,243+6.9%
20211,711,480+11.7%
Source: Census data

Ethnic groups

The Indigenous population (Khanty, Mansi, Komi, and Nenets) is only 2.8% of the total population in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug. The exploitation of natural gas in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug has attracted immigrants from all over the former Soviet Union. The 2021 Census counted 17 ethnic groups of more than five thousand persons each. The ethnic composition is as follows:

Population of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug:[13]

Ethnic Group Population %
Russian 888,660 70.3%
Tatar 79,727 6.3%
Ukrainian 41,596 3.3%
Bashkir 29,717 2.4%
Tajik 21,791 1.7%
Azeri 21,259 1.7%
Khanty 19,568 1.5%
Lezgin 15,268 1.2%
Kumyk 13,669 1.1%
Uzbek 12,361 1.0%
Mansi 11,065 0.9%
Nogai 9,990 0.8%
Chuvash 7,786 0.6%
Chechen 7,085 0.6%
Belarusian 6,156 0.5%
Kyrgyz 5,562 0.4%
Moldovan 5,297 0.4%
Other 48,194 3.8%

Historical population figures are shown below:

Ethnic
group
1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census1 2021 Census
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Khanty 12,238 13.1% 11,435 9.2% 12,222 4.5% 11,219 2.0% 11,892 0.9% 17,128 1.2% 19,068 1.3% 19,568 1.6%
Mansi 5,768 6.2% 5,644 4.6% 6,684 2.5% 6,156 1.1% 6,562 0.5% 9,894 0.7% 10,977 0.8% 11,065 0.9%
Nenets 852 0.9% 815 0.7% 940 0.3% 1,003 0.2% 1,144 0.1% 1,290 0.1% 1,438 0.1% 1,381 0.1%
Komi 2,436 2.6% 2,803 2.3% 3,150 1.2% 3,105 0.5% 3,000 0.2% 3,081 0.2% 2,364 0.2% 2,618 0.2%
Russians 67,616 72.5% 89,813 72.5% 208,500 76.9% 423,792 74.3% 850,297 66.3% 946,590 66.1% 973,978 68.1% 888,660 70.3%
Ukrainians 1,111 1.2% 4,363 3.5% 9,986 3.7% 45,484 8.0% 148,317 11.6% 123,238 8.6% 91,323 6.4% 41,596 3.3%
Tatars 2,227 2.4% 2,938 2.4% 14,046 5.2% 36,898 6.5% 97,689 7.6% 107,637 7.5% 108,899 7.6% 79,727 6.3%
Others 1,026 1.1% 6,115 4.9% 15,629 5.8% 43,106 7.6% 163,495 12.7% 223,959 15.6% 173,536 15.5% 219,465 17.3%
1 102,138 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[14]

Vital statistics

Life expectancy at birth in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug

Source:[15]

Average population (× 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1970 281 5 959 2 025 3 934 21.2 7.2 14.0
1975 415 9 450 2 572 6 878 22.8 6.2 16.6
1980 649 13 901 4 116 9 785 21.4 6.3 15.1
1985 1 041 25 130 4 863 20 267 24.1 4.7 19.5
1990 1 274 21 812 5 354 16 458 17.1 4.2 12.9
1991 1 276 19 060 5 884 13 176 14.9 4.6 10.3
1992 1 270 15 849 7 132 8 717 12.5 5.6 6.9
1993 1 274 14 531 9 401 5 130 11.4 7.4 4.0 1,59
1994 1 286 15 120 9 937 5 183 11.8 7.7 4.0 1,59
1995 1 298 14 418 10 041 4 377 11.1 7.7 3.4 1,46
1996 1 310 14 469 9 508 4 961 11.0 7.3 3.8 1,39
1997 1 330 14 640 8 497 6 143 11.0 6.4 4.6 1,34
1998 1 351 15 600 8 164 7 436 11.5 6.0 5.5 1,39
1999 1 359 14 728 8 476 6 252 10.8 6.2 4.6 1,29
2000 1 372 15 579 9 426 6 153 11.4 6.9 4.5 1,34
2001 1 398 17 130 9 863 7 267 12.3 7.1 5.2 1,43
2002 1 426 19 051 9 829 9 222 13.4 6.9 6.5 1,54
2003 1 445 19 883 10 000 9 883 13.8 6.9 6.8 1,58
2004 1 456 20 377 9 828 10 549 14.0 6.8 7.2 1,59
2005 1 466 19 958 10 415 9 543 13.6 7.1 6.5 1,54
2006 1 476 20 366 10 077 10 289 13.8 6.8 7.0 1,56
2007 1 487 21 887 10 093 11 794 14.7 6.8 7.9 1,66
2008 1 500 23 197 10 215 12 982 15.5 6.8 8.7 1,74
2009 1 513 23 840 10 107 13 733 15.8 6.7 9.1 1,77
2010 1 527 25 089 10 447 14 642 16.4 6.8 9.6 1,84
2011 1 543 25 335 10 072 14 642 16.4 6.5 9.9 1,86
2012 1 558 27 686 9 949 17 737 17.6 6.3 11.3 2,02

Religion

Orthodox Church of the Resurrection in Khanty-Mansiysk. Orthodox Christianity is the main religion in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug.
Religion in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[16][17]
Russian Orthodoxy
38.1%
Other Christians
5.5%
Islam
11%
Rodnovery and other native faiths
0.9%
Spiritual but not religious
23.1%
Atheism and irreligion
11%
Other and undeclared
10.4%

According to a 2012 survey[16] 38.1% of the population of Yugra adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 5% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% of the population adheres to the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery) or to Khanty-Mansi native faith. Muslims (mostly Tatars) constitute 11% of the population. In addition, 23% of the population declares to be spiritual but not religious, 11% is atheist, and 10.9% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[16] According to recent reports Jehovah's Witnesses have been subjected to torture and detention in Surgut.[18]

Transport

In Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, the primary transport of goods is by water and railway transport; 29% is transported by road, and 2% by aviation. The total length of railway tracks is 1,106 km. The length of roads is more than 18,000 km.

See also

References

  1. ^ Russian and Mansi: Ханты-Мансийский автономный округ — Югра, Khanty-Mansiyskiy avtonomnyy okrug — Yugra; Khanty: Хӑнты-Мансийской Aвтономной Округ
  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ "Сведения о наличии и распределении земель в Российской Федерации на 01.01.2019 (в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации)". Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography. Archived from the original on February 9, 2022. Retrieved August 29, 2023.
  4. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  5. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  6. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  7. ^ В Ханты-Мансийском автономном округе добыта 10-миллиардная тонна нефти
  8. ^ "Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of July 25, 2003 No. 841" (in Russian). Official website of the President of Russia.
  9. ^ Google Earth
  10. ^ 2020 Russian Subjects Population
  11. ^ Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  12. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  13. ^ "Russian Census of 2021". (in Russian)
  14. ^ Перепись-2010: русских становится больше Archived December 25, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. Perepis-2010.ru (2011-12-19). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  15. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service
  16. ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  17. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  18. ^ "7 Jehovah's Witnesses Brutally Tortured in Russia, Spokesman Says". February 20, 2019.