|Native to||Russia (in parts of Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia), Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Iraq|
|Region||North Caucasus (Circassia)|
Official language in
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Kabardian (//; Къэбэрдей-Адыгэбзэ locally [qabarˈdeːbza] qabardejbza (help·info); Adyghe: Kъэбэртай-Aдыгабзэ/Kъэбэртайбзэ, romanized: Qəbərtay-Adıgabzə/Qəbərtaybzə), also known as East Circassian, is a Northwest Caucasian language closely related to the Adyghe (West Circassian) language. Circassian nationalists reject the distinction between the two languages and refer to them both as "Circassian".
It is spoken mainly in parts of the North Caucasus republics of Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia (Eastern Circassia), and in Turkey, Jordan and Syria (the extensive post-war diaspora). It has 47 or 48 consonant phonemes, of which 22 or 23 are fricatives, depending upon whether one counts [h] as phonemic, but it has only 3 phonemic vowels. It is one of very few languages to possess a clear phonemic distinction between ejective affricates and ejective fricatives.
The Kabardian language has two major dialects: Kabardian and Besleney. Some linguists argue that Kabardian is only one dialect of an overarching Adyghe or Circassian language, which consists of all of the dialects of Adyghe and Kabardian together, and the Kabardians themselves most often refer to their language using the Kabardian term Adighabze ("Adyghe language"). Several linguists, including Georges Dumézil, have used the terms "eastern Circassian" (Kabardian) and "western Circassian" (Adyghe) to avoid that confusion, but both "Circassian" and "Kabardian" may still be found in linguistic literature. There are several key phonetic and lexical differences that create a reasonably well-defined separation between the eastern and the western Circassian dialects, but the degree to which the two are mutually intelligible has not yet been determined. The matter is also complicated somewhat by the existence of Besleney, which is usually considered a dialect of Kabardian but also shares many features with certain[which?] dialects of Adyghe.
Kabardian is written in a form of Cyrillic and serves as the literary language for Circassians in both Kabardino-Balkaria (where it is usually called the "Kabardian language") and Karachay-Cherkessia (where it is called the "Cherkess language").
Like all other Northwest Caucasian languages, Kabardian is ergative and has an extremely complex verbal system.
Since 2004, the Turkish broadcasting corporation TRT has maintained a half-an-hour programme a week in the Terek dialect of Kabardian.
The phoneme written Л л is pronounced as a voiced alveolar lateral fricative [ɮ] mostly by the Circassians of Kabardino and Cherkessia, but many Kabardians pronounce it as an alveolar lateral approximant [l] in diaspora. The series of labialized alveolar sibilant affricates and fricatives that exist in Adyghe /ʃʷʼ/ /ʒʷ/ /ʃʷ/ /t͡sʷ/ became labiodental consonants /fʼ/ /v/ /f/ /v/ in Kabardian, for example the Kabardian words мафӏэ [maːfʼa] "fire", зэвы [zavə] "narrow", фыз [fəz] "wife" and вакъэ [vaːqa] "shoe" are pronounced as машӏо [maːʃʷʼa], зэжъу [zaʒʷə], шъуз /ʃʷəz/ and цуакъэ [t͡sʷaːqa] in Adyghe. Kabardian has a labialized voiceless velar fricative [xʷ] which correspond to Adyghe [f], for example the Adyghe word "тфы" ([tfə] (help·info) "five" is тху ([txʷə] (help·info)) in Kabardian. In the Beslenei dialect, there exists an alveolar lateral ejective affricate [t͡ɬʼ] which corresponds to [ɬʼ] in literary Kabardian. The Turkish Kabardians (Uzunyayla) and Besleneys have a palatalized voiced velar stop [ɡʲ] and a palatalized velar ejective [kʲʼ] which corresponds to [d͡ʒ] and [t͡ʃʼ] in literary Kabardian.
The glottalization of the ejective stops (but not fricatives) can be quite weak, and has been reported to often be creaky voice, that is, to have laryngealized voicing. Something similar seems to have happened historically in the Veinakh languages.
Kabardian has a vertical vowel system. Although many surface vowels appear, they can be analyzed as consisting of at most the following three phonemic vowels: /ə/, /a/ and /aː/.
The following allophones of the short vowels /ə/, /a/ appear:
|Feature||Description||Not preceding labialized cons.||Preceding labialized cons.|
|[+high, -back]||After laterals, palatalized palatovelars and /j/||[i]||[e]||[y]||[ø]|
|[-round, +back]||After plain velars, pharyngeals, /h/, /ʔ/||[ɨ]||[ɑ]||[ʉ]||[ɒ]|
|[+round, +back]||After labialized palatovelars, uvulars and laryngeals||[u]||[o]||[u]||[o]|
|[-high, -back]||After other consonants||[ə]||[æ]||?||?|
According to Kuipers,
Most of the long vowels appear as automatic variants of a sequence of short vowel and glide, when it occurs in a single syllable:
This leaves only the vowel [aː]. Kuipers claims that this can be analyzed as underlying /ha/ when word-initial, and underlying /ah/ elsewhere, based on the following facts:
Halle finds Kuipers' analysis "exemplary". Gordon and Applebaum note this analysis, but also note that some authors disagree, and as a result prefer to maintain a phoneme /aː/.
In a later section of his monograph, Kuipers also attempts to analyze the two vowels phonemes /ə/ and /a/ out of existence. Halle, however, shows that this analysis is flawed, as it requires the introduction of multiple new phonemes to carry the information formerly encoded by the two vowel phonemes.
The vowel /o/ appears in some loan words; it is often pronounced /aw/.
The diphthong /aw/ is pronounced /oː/ in some dialects. /jə/ may be realised as /iː/, /wə/ as /uː/ and /aj/ as /eː/. This monophthongisation does not occur in all dialects.
The vowels /a, aː/ can have the semi-vowel /j/ in front of it.
The current Cyrillic alphabet is as follows. The preceding Latin alphabet was much like the one for Adyghe.
|Гъу гъу |
[d͡ʒ] or [ɡʲ]
|З з |
|Кхъу кхъу |
[t͡ʃʼ] or [kʲʼ]
[ɮ] or [l]
|О о |
|Ф ф |
|Цӏ цӏ |
|Ь ь |
Main article: Kabardian grammar
Kabardian, like all Northwest Caucasian languages, has a basic agent–object–verb typology, and is characterized by an ergative construction of the sentence.
The following texts are excerpts from the official translations of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Kabardian and Adyghe, along with the original declaration in English.
|Universal Declaration of Human Rights||Цӏыху Хуэфащэхэм Теухуа Дунейпсо Джэпсалъэ||Цӏыф Фэшъуашэхэм Афэгъэхьыгъэ Дунэепстэу Джэпсалъ|
|Article 1||1-нэ пычыгъуэ||1-нэрэ пычыгъу|
|All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.||ЦӀыху псори щхьэхуиту, я щӀыхьымрэ я хуэфащэхэмрэкӀэ зэхуэдэу къалъхур. Акъылрэ зэхэщӀыкӀ гъуазэрэ яӀэщи, зыр зым зэкъуэш зэхащІэ яку дэлъу зэхущытын хуейхэщ.||ЦӀыф пстэури шъхьэфитэу, ялъытэныгъэрэ яфэшъуашэхэмрэкӀэ зэфэдэу къалъфы. Акъылрэ зэхэшӀыкӀ гъуазэрэ яӀэшъы, зыр зым зэкъош зэхашІэ азфагу дэлъэу зэфыщытынхэ фае.|
|Transliteration||C‡yhu Huèfaŝèhèm Teuhua Dunejpso Džèpsalʺè||C‡yf Fèšʺuašèhèm Afègʺèhʹygʺè Dunèepstèu Džèpsalʺ|
|1-nè pyčygʺuè||1-nèrè pyčygʺu|
|C‡yhu psori ŝhʹèhuitu, â ŝ‡yhʹymrè â huèfaŝèhèmrèk‡è zèhuèdèu kʺalʺhur. Akʺylrè zèhèŝʺykʺ gʺuazèrè â‡èŝi, zyr zym zèkʺuèš zèhaŝ‡è âku dèlʺu zèhuŝytyn huejhèŝ.||C‡yf pstèuri šʺhʹèfitèu, âlʺytènygʺèrè âfèšʺuašèhèmrèk‡è zèfèdèu kʺalʺfy. Akʺylrè zèhèš‡yk‡ gʺuazèrè â‡èšʺy, zyr zym zèkʺoš zèhaš‡è azfagu dèlʹèu zèfyŝytynhè fae.|
|Pronunciation||[tsʼəf faʃˠʷaːʃaxɑm aːfaʁaħɨʁa duːnajepstaw]|
|[tsʼəxʷ psoːriː ɕəħɑxʷiːtʷ jaː ɕʼəħɨmra jaː xʷafaːɕaxɑmrakʼa zaxʷoːdaw qaɬxuːr aːqulra zaxɑɕʼəkʼ ʁʷaːzara jaːʔɑʃʲə zər zəm zaqʷaʃ zaxaːɕʼa jaːkʷ daɬʷ zaxʷɕətən xʷʲejxaɕ]|
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