Tolışə zıvon
Tолышә зывон
تؤلشه زوؤن
Talysh written in Nastaliq script (تؤلشه زوؤن), Latin script (Tolışə zıvon), and Cyrillic script (Tолышә зывон)
Native toIran
RegionWestern and Southwestern Caspian Sea coastal strip
Native speakers
Arabic script (Persian alphabet) in Iran
Latin script in Azerbaijan
Cyrillic script in Russia
Official status
Regulated byAcademy of Persian Language and Literature[citation needed]
Language codes
ISO 639-3tly
Talysh language is classified as Vulnerable by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger
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Talysh (تؤلشه زوؤن, Tolışə Zıvon, Tолышә зывон)[3][4] is a Northwestern Iranian language spoken in the northern regions of the Iranian provinces of Gilan and Ardabil and the southern regions of the Republic of Azerbaijan by around 500,000-800,000 people. Talysh language is closely related to the Tati language. It includes many dialects usually divided into three main clusters: Northern (in Azerbaijan and Iran), Central (Iran) and Southern (Iran). Talysh is partially, but not fully, intelligible with Persian. Talysh is classified as "vulnerable" by UNESCO's Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger.[5]


The origin of the name Talysh is not clear but is likely to be quite old. The name of the people appears in early Arabic sources as Al-Taylasân and in Persian as Tâlišân and Tavâliš, which are plural forms of Tâliš. Northern Talysh (in the Republic of Azerbaijan) was historically known as Tâlish-i Guštâsbi. Talysh has always been mentioned with Gilan or Muqan. Writing in the 1330s AD, Hamdallah Mostowfi calls the language of Gushtaspi (covering the Caspian border region between Gilan to Shirvan) a Pahlavi language connected to the language of Gilan.[6] Although there are no confirmed records, the language called in Iranian linguistics as Azari can be the antecedent of both Talysh and Tati. Miller's (1953) hypothesis that the Âzari of Ardabil, as appears in the quatrains of Shaikh Safi, was a form of Talysh was confirmed by Henning (1954).[7][8] In western literature the people and the language are sometimes referred to as Talishi, Taleshi or Tolashi. Generally speaking, written documents about Taleshi are rare.

The first information about the Talysh language in Russian can be found in Volume X of Strachevsky's "Encyclopedic Dictionary" ("Справочный энциклопедический словарь"), published in St. Petersburg in 1848.  The work says:

"The Talysh dialect is one of the six main dialects of Persian. It is used in the Talysh khanate and is probably the homeland of that language. Due to its grammatical and lexicographic forms, this language is noticeably different from other dialects.  Except for the addition of the plural suffix "un", it is peculiar and is not derived from any Pahlavi or any other language. This language puts all relative pronouns before the noun, and the pronouns themselves are original in it.[9]

The second information about the Talysh language is provided by Ilya Berezin, a professor at Kazan University, in Russian, but not in Russian, but in French.  In 1853, Berezin's book on Persian grammar was published in Kazan.  In the same year, his book "Recherches sur les dialectes persans" was published in Kazan.  Experts still refer to this work as the first work of Russian Iranians in the field of Iranian dialectology.  He used the "Talysh" songs given in A. Khodzko's work.  IN Berezin's work consists of two parts - a grammatical essay and songs from A. Khodzko's work.  IN Berezin writes that he conducted his research on Iranian dialects on the basis of materials he personally collected and studied, but does not write anywhere with whom, when and in what area he collected them.  In the work, Talysh words are distorted.  IN Berezin writes about the quartets taken from the work of A. Khodzko:

"Here I present to the reader a new translation of the Talysh, Gilan and Mazandaran songs and accompany them with critical notes; the Talysh texts, if not in Khodzko, were restored by me on the basis of his transcription."  However, the author writes that "grammatical rules are not strictly observed in the Talysh language, as the verb's news form is usually confused almost all the time, i.e. instead of the aorist preterit, the future  time in the present tense, etc.  is used. "  Going even further, he writes: "In the Talysh language, the verb is the most difficult, the most confusing and the most dubious part."[10]


In the north of Iran, there are six cities where Talysh is spoken: Masal, Rezvanshar, Talesh, Fuman, Shaft, and Masuleh (in these cities some people speak Gilaki and Turkish as well). The only towns where Talysh is spoken exclusively are the townships of Masal and Masuleh. In other cities, in addition to Talysh, people speak Gilaki and Azerbaijani. In Azerbaijan there are eight cities where Talysh is spoken[citation needed]: Astara (98%), Lerik (90%), Lenkoran (90%), Masalli (36%).[citation needed][clarification needed]

Talysh has been under the influence of Gilaki, Azeri Turkic, and Persian. In the south (Taleshdula, Masal, Shanderman, and Fumanat) the Talysh and Gilaks live side by side; however, there is less evidence that a Talysh family replaces Gilaki with its own language. In this region, the relation is more of a contribution to each other's language. In the north of Gilan, on the other hand, Azeri Turkic has replaced Talysh in cities like Astara after the migration of Turkic speakers to the region decades ago. However, the people around Lavandvil and its mountainous regions have retained Talysh. Behzad Behzadi, the author of "Azerbaijani Persian Dictionary" remarks that: "The inhabitants of Astara are Talyshis and in fifty years ago (about 1953) that I remember the elders of our family spoke in that language and the great majority of dwellers also conversed in Talyshi. In the surrounding villages, a few were familiar with Turkic".[11] From around Lisar up to Hashtpar, Azeri and Talysh live side by side, with the latter mostly spoken in small villages. To the south of Asalem, the influence of Azeri is negligible and the tendency is towards Persian along with Talysh in cities. In the Azerbaijan republic, Talysh is less under the influence of Azeri and Russian than Talysh in Iran is affected by Persian.[12] Central Talysh has been considered the purest of all Talysh dialects.[8]

Classification and related languages

Talysh belongs to the Northwestern Iranian branch of Indo-European languages. The living language most closely related to Talysh is Tati. The Tati group of dialects is spoken across the Talysh range in the southwest[clarification needed] (Kajal and Shahrud) and south (Tarom).[8] This Tatic family should not be confused with another Tat family which is more related to Persian. Talysh also shares many features and structures with Zazaki, now spoken in Turkey, and the Caspian languages and Semnani of Iran.


Map depicting areas where Talysh dialects are spoken

The division of Talysh into three clusters is based on lexical, phonological and grammatical factors.[13] Northern Talysh distinguishes itself from Central and Southern Talysh not only geographically but culturally and linguistically as well. Speakers of Northern Talysh are found almost exclusively in the Republic of Azerbaijan but can also be found in the neighbouring regions of Iran, in the Province of Gilan. The varieties of Talysh spoken in the Republic of Azerbaijan are best described as speech varieties rather than dialects. Four speech varieties are generally identified on the basis of phonetic and lexical differences. These are labeled according to the four major political districts in the Talysh region: Astara, Lankaran, Lerik, and Masalli. The differences between the varieties are minimal at the phonetic [14] and lexical level.[3] Mamedov (1971) suggests a more useful dialectal distinction is one between the varieties spoken in the mountains and those spoken in the plains. The morphosyntax of Northern Talysh is characterized by a complicated split system which is based on the Northwest Iranian type of accusativity/ergativity dichotomy: it shows accusative features with present-stem-based transitive constructions, whereas past-stem-based constructions tend towards an ergative behavior.[15] In distant regions like Lavandevil and Masuleh, the dialects differ to such a degree that conversations begin to be difficult.[12] In Iran, the northern dialect is in danger of extinction.

The major dialects of Talysh
Northern (in Azerbaijan Republic and in Iran (Ardabil and Gilan provinces) from Anbaran to Lavandevil) including: Central (in Iran (Gilan province) from Haviq to Taleshdula/Rezvanshahr district) Including: Southern (in Iran from Khushabar to Fumanat) including:
Astara, Lankaran, Lerik, Masalli, Karaganrud/Khotbesara, Lavandevil Taleshdula, Asalem, Tularud Khushabar, Shanderman, Masuleh, Masal, Siahmazgar

Some Northern dialects' differences

The northern dialect has some salient differences from the central and southern dialects, e.g.:[12]

Taleshdulaei Example Lankarani Example Meaning
â âvaina u uvai:na mirror
dâr du tree
a za â zârd yellow
u/o morjena â mârjena ant
x xetē h h to sleep
j gij ž giž confused

Alignment variation

The durative marker "ba" in Taleshdulaei changes to "da" in Lankarani and shifts in between the stem and person suffixes:

ba-žē-mun → žē-da-mun

Such a diversification exists in each dialect too, as in the case of Masali[16]


The following is the Northern Talysh dialect:


Labial Alveolar Post-
Velar Glottal
voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ x h
voiced v z ʒ ɣ
Nasal m n
Trill r
Approximant l j


Front Central Back
High i ~ ɪ (ɨ) u
Mid e ə o ~ ɔ
Low a ~ æ ɑ


Main article: Talysh alphabet

The vowel system in Talysh is more extended than in standard Persian. The prominent differences are the front vowel ü in central and northern dialects and the central vowel ə.[8] In 1929, a Latin-based alphabet was created for Talysh in the Soviet Union. However, in 1938 it was changed to Cyrillic-based, but it did not gain extensive usage for a variety of reasons. An orthography based on Azeri Latin is used in Azerbaijan,[4] and also in Iranian sources, for example on the IRIB's ParsToday website.[18] The Perso-Arabic script is also used in Iran, although publications in the language are rare and are mostly volumes of poetry.[19] The following tables contain the vowels and consonants used in Talysh. The sounds of the letters on every row, pronounced in each language, may not correspond fully.


IPA 1929–1938 ISO 9 Perso-Arabic script KNAB (199x(2.0)) Cyrillic Other Romanization Example(s)
ɑː a a آ, ا a а â âv
a ~ æ a َ, اَ ǝ ә a, ä asta
ə ә - ِ, اِ or َ, اَ ə ə e, a esa
e e ِ, اِ e е e nemek
o ~ ɔ o o ا, ُ, و o о o šalvo
u u u او, و u у u udmi
ʏ u - او, و ü у ü salü, kü, düri, Imrü
ɪ ~ i ъ y ای, ی ı ы i bila
i i ای, ی i и i, ị neči, xist
Notes: ISO 9 standardization is dated 1995. 2.0 KNAB romanization is based on the Azeri Latin.[20]


IPA Perso-Arabic script Romanization Example(s)
ɑːɪ آی, ای âi, ây bâyl, dây
au اَو aw dawlat
æɪ اَی ai, ay ayvona, ayr
ou اُو ow, au kow
اِی ey, ei, ay, ai keybânu
æːə اَ ah zuah, soahvona, buah, yuahnd, kuah, kuahj
eːə اِ eh âdueh, sueh, danue'eh
ɔʏ اُی oy doym, doymlavar


IPA 1929–1938 ISO 9 Perso-Arabic script KNAB (199x(2.0)) Cyrillic Other Romanization Example(s)
p p p پ p п p pitâr
b в b ب b б b bejâr
t t t ت, ط t т t tiž
d d d د d д d debla
k k k ک k к k kel
ɡ g g گ g г g gaf
ɣ ƣ ġ غ ğ ғ gh ghuša
q q ق q ҝ q qarz
c, ç č چ ç ч ch, č, c čâki
j ĉ ج c ҹ j, ĵ jâr
f f f ف f ф f fel
v v v و v в v vaj
s s s س, ص, ث s с s savz
z z z ز, ذ, ض, ظ z з z zeng
ʃ ş š ش ş ш sh šav
ʒ ƶ ž ژ j ж zh ža
x x h خ x x kh xâsta
h h ه, ح h һ h haka
m m m م m м m muža
n n n ن n н n nân
l l l ل l л l lar
- - - - - - xâlâ, avâla, dalâ, domlavar, dalaza
ɾ r r ر r р r raz
j y j ی y ј y, j yânza
Notes: ISO 9 standardization is dated 1995. 2.0 KNAB romanization is based on the Azeri Latin.[20]

Differences from Persian

The general phonological differences of some Talysh dialects with respect to standard Persian are as follows:[12]

Talysh sound Talysh example word Corresponding Persian sound Persian example word Translation
u duna â dâne seed
i insân initial e ensân human being
e tarâze u terâzu balance (the apparatus)
e xerâk o xorâk food
a in compound words mâng-a-tâv mah-tâb moonlight
v âv b âb water
f sif b sib apple
x xâsta h âheste slow
t tert d tord brittle
j mija ž može eyelash
m šamba n šanbe Saturday
mēra medial h mohre bead
ku final h kuh mountain


Talysh has a subject–object–verb word order. In some situations the case marker, 'i' or 'e' attaches to the accusative noun phrase. There is no definite article, and the indefinite one is "i". The plural is marked by the suffixes "un", "ēn" and also "yēn" for nouns ending with vowels. In contrast to Persian, modifiers are preceded by nouns, for example: "maryami kitav" (Mary's book) and "kava daryâ" (livid sea). Like most other Iranian dialects there are two categories of inflexion, subject and object cases. The "present stem" is used for the imperfect and the "past stem" for the present in the verbal system. That differentiates Talysh from most other Western Iranian dialects. In the present tense, verbal affixes cause a rearranging of the elements of conjugation in some dialects like Tâlešdulâbi, e.g. for expressing the negation of b-a-dašt-im (I sew), "ni" is used in the following form: ni-m-a-dašt (I don't sew)."m" is first person singular marker, "a" denotes duration and "dašt" is the past stem.


Talysh is a null-subject language, so nominal pronouns (e.g. I, he, she) are optional. For first person singular, both "az" and "men" are used. Person suffixes are not added to stems for "men".[12] Examples:

There are three prefixes in Talysh and Tati added to normal forms making possessive pronouns. They are: "če / ča" and "eš / še".


The following Person Suffixes are used in different dialects and for different verbs.[12]

Person Suffixes
Singular Plural
1st person -em, -ema, -emē, -ima, -um, -m -am, -emun(a), -emun(ē), -imuna, -imun
2nd person -i, -er(a), -eyē, -išaو -š -a, -erun(a), -eyunē, -iruna, -iyun
3rd person -e, -eš(a), -eš(ē), -a, -ē, -u -en, -ešun(a), -ešun(ē), -ina, -un


The past stem is inflected by removing the infinitive marker (ē), however the present stem and jussive mood are not so simple in many cases and are irregular. For some verbs, present and past stems are identical. The "be" imperative marker is not added situationally.[21] The following tables show the conjugations for first-person singular of "sew" in some dialects of the three dialectical categories:[12]

Stems and imperative mood
Stems and Imperative mood
Northern (Lavandavili) Central (Taleshdulaei) Southern (Khushabari) Tati (Kelori)
Infinitive dut-ē dašt-ē dēšt-ē dut-an
Past stem dut dašt dēšt dut
Present stem dut dērz dērz duj
Imperative be-dut be-dērz be-dērz be-duj
Active voice
Active Voice
Form Tense Northern
Infinitive - dut-ē dašt-ē dēšt-ē dut-an
Indicative Present dute-da-m ba-dašt-im dērz-em duj-em
Past dut-emē dašt-em dēšt-em bedut-em
Perfect dut-amē dašt-ama dēšt-ama dute-mē
Past imperfective dute-aymē adērz-ima dērz-ima duj-isēym
Past perfect dut-am bē dašt-am-ba dēšt-am-ba dut-am-bē
Future pima dut-ē pima dašt-ē pima dēšt-ē xâm dut-an
Present progressive dute da-m kâr-im dašt-ē kâra dērz-em kerâ duj-em
Past progressive dut dab-im kârb-im dašt-ē kârb-im dēšt-ē kerâ duj-isēym
Subjunctive Present be-dut-em be-dērz-em be-dērz-em be-duj-em
Past dut-am-bu dašt-am-bâ dēšt-am-bu dut-am-bâ
Conditional Past dut-am ban ba-dērz-im be-dērz-im be-duj-im
Passive voice
Passive Voice
Form Tense Northern
Infinitive - dut-ē dašt-ē dēšt-ē dut-an
Indicative Present duta bē dam dašta babim dēšta bum duta bum
Preterite duta bēm dašta bima dēšta bima bedujisim
Imperfective preterite duta be-am be dašta abima dēšta bistēm duta bisim
Perfect duta beam dašta baima dērzistaima dujisim
Pluperfect duta beam bē dērzista bim dērzista bim dujisa bim
Present progressive duta bē dam kâra dašta babima kšra dēšta bum kerâ duta bum
Preterite progressive duta bēdabim kâra dašta abima kâra dēšta bistēymun kerâ duta bisim
Subjunctive Present duta bebum dašta bebum dēšta bebum duta bebum
Preterite duta beabum dašta babâm dēšta babâm dujisa biya-bâm

Nouns and adpositions

There are four "cases" in Talysh, the nominative (unmarked), the genitive, the (definite) accusative and ergative.

The nominative case (characterized by null morpheme on nouns) encodes the subject; the predicate; the indefinite direct object in a nominative clause; definite direct object in an ergative clause; the vowel-final main noun in a noun phrase with another noun modifying it; and, finally, the nominal element in an adpositional phrases with certain adpositions. The examples below are from Pirejko 1976[3]

PRST:present stem REFL:reflexive pronoun










Nənə ıştə zoə pe-də

mother REFL son love.VN-LOC

'The mother loves her son'






Əv rəis-e

3SG boss-PRED

'S/he is a boss'












Az vıl bı-çın-ım bo tını

1SG flower FUT-pick.PRST-FUT for 2SG.ERG

'I will pick a flower for you'










Əy çımı dəftər dıry-əşe

3SG.ERG 1SG.POSS notebook tear.apart.PP-3SG.PFV.TR

'S/he tore apart my notebook'






hovə şol

sister scarf

'sister's scarf'





bə şəhr

to city

'to the city'

The ergative case, on the other hand, has the following functions: indicating the subject of an ergative phrase; definite direct object (in this function, ergative case takes the form of -ni after vowel-final stems); nominal modifier in a noun phrase; the nominal element in adpositional phrases with most adpositions.










Ağıl-i sef şo do-şe

child-ERG apple ? throw.PP-3SG.PFV.ERG

'the child threw the apple'











Im kəpot-i se-də-m bə həvə-yo

DEM dress-ERG buy.VN-LOC-1SG for sister-BEN

'I'm buying this dress for (my) sister'











Iştə zoə-ni voğan-də bə məktəb

REFL son-ERG send.VN-LOC to school

'S/he is sending his/her son to the school'






jen-i dəs

woman-ERG hand

'a hand's woman'








muallimi-i ton-i-ku omə-m

teacher-ERG side-ERG-ABL come.1SG.PP-PFV.NOM

'I approached the teacher'

The accusative form is often used to express the simple indirect object in addition to the direct object. These "cases" are in origin actually just particles, similar to Persian prepositions like "râ".

Case markers and prepositions
Case Marker Example(s) Persian English
Nominative - sepa ve davaxa. Sag xeyli hâfhâf kard. The dog barked much.
Accusative -i gerd-i âda ba men Hame bede be man. Give them all to me!
-e âv-e-m barda Âb bordam. I took the water.
Ablative -kâ, -ku (from) ba-i-kâ-r če bapi Az u ce mixâhi? What do you want from him?
-ka, -anda (in) âstâra-ka tâleši gaf bažēn Dar Âstârâ Tâleši gab (harf) mizanand. They talk Talyshi in Astara.
-na (with) âtaši-na mezâ maka âtaš bâzi nakon. Don't play with fire!
-râ, -ru (for) me-râ kâr baka te-râ yâd bigē Barâye man kâr bekon Barâye xodat yâd begir. Work for me, learn for yourself.
-ken (of) ha-ken hēsta ča (čečiya) Az ân, ce bejâ mânde? (Hamân ke hast, cist?) What is of which is left?
ba (to) ba em denyâ del mabēnd Be in donyâ del maband. Don't take the world dear to your heart!
Ergative -i a palang-i do lorzon-i (Aorist) Ân palang deraxt râ larzând. That leopard shook the tree.


English Zazaki Kurmanji Kurdish Central (Taleshdulaei) Southern (Khushabari / Shandermani) Tati (Kelori / Geluzani) Talysh Persian
big gird, pîl gir, mezin ? yâl yâl pilla bozorg, gat, (yal, pil)
boy, son laj / laz / lac law (boy), kur (son) zoa, zua zôa, zue zu'a, zoa Pesar
bride veyve bûk vayü vayu gēša, veyb vayu, vēi arus
cat pisîng, xone (tomcat) pisîk, kitik kete, pišik, piš peču peču, pešu, piši pešu gorbe, piši
cry (v) bermayen girîn bamē beramestē beramē beramesan geristan
daughter, girl (little) kêna/keyna, çêna [22] keç (girl), dot (daughter) kina, kela kilu, kela kina, kel(l)a kille, kilik doxtar
day roc, roz, roj roj rüž, ruj ruz ruz, roz ruz ruz
eat (v) werden xwarin hardē hardē hardē hardan xordan
egg hak hêk uva, muqna, uya âgla merqona xâ, merqowna toxme morq
eye çim çav čâš čaš, čam čēm čašm čašm
father pî, pêr, bawk, babî [23] bav dada, piya, biya dada ? pedar
fear (v) tersayen tirsîn purnē, târsē târsinē, tarsestē tarsē tarsesan tarsidan
flag ala [24] ala filak parčam ? ? parčam, derafš
food nan, werd xwarin xerâk xerâk xerâk xuruk xorâk
go (v) şîyen çûn šē šē šē šiyan raftan (šodan)
house keye, çeye [25][26] xanî ka ka ka ka xâne
language; tongue ziwan, zon ziman zivon zun zavon zuân zabân
moon aşme heyv / hîv mâng, uvešim mâng mang mung, meng mâh
mother maye, mare, dayîke, dadî [27] mak, dayik mua, mu, nana nana ? mâ, dēdē, nana mâdar, nane
mouth fek dev qav, gav ga, gav, ga(f) qar gar dahân, kak
night şew şev šav şaw šav šav šab
north zime, vakur [28] bakur kubasu šimâl ? ? šemâl
high berz bilind, berz [29] berz berz berj berenj boland
say (v) vatene gotin votē vâtē vâtē vâtan goftan
sister waye xwîşk, xwang huva, hova, ho xâlâ, xolo xâv, xâ xâhar
small qic, qij, wirdî biçûk, qicik ruk, gada ruk ruk velle, xš kučak
sunset rocawan, rojawan [30] rojava šânga maqrib ? ? maqreb
sunshine tije,[31] zerq tîroj, tav/hetav şefhaši âftâv ? ? âftâb
water aw, awk av uv, ôv âv âv âv âb
woman, wife cinî jin žēn žēn, žen yen, žen zanle, zan zan
yesterday vizêr duh/diho zina zir, izer zir, zer zir diruz, di


  1. ^ "Talysh". Ethnologue. Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  2. ^ شباهت‌ها و تفاوت‌های تالشی، گیلکي و مازندرانی , Jahad Daneshgahi. (in Persian)
  3. ^ a b c Pirejko, L. A., 1976. Talyšsko-russkij slovar (Talyshi-Russian Dictionary), Moscow.
  4. ^ a b Məmmədov, Novruzəli; Ağayev, Şahrza (1996). Əlifba — Tolışi əlifba. Baku: Maarif.
  5. ^ "Talysh". UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in danger. UNESCO. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  6. ^ مستوفی، حمدالله: «نزهةالقلوب، به كوشش محمد دبیرسیاقی، انتشارات طهوری، ۱۳۳۶. Mostawafi, Hamdallah, 1336 AP / 1957 AD. Nozhat al-Qolub. Edit by Muhammad Dabir Sayyaqi. Tahuri publishers. (in Persian)
  7. ^ Henning, W. B. 1954. The Ancient Language of Azerbaijan. Transactions of the Philological Society, London. p 157-177. [1]
  8. ^ a b c d Asatrian, G. and H. Borjian, 2005. Talish: people and language: The state of research. Iran and the Caucasus 9/1, p 43-72
  9. ^ "НЭБ - Национальная электронная библиотека".
  10. ^ Грамматика персидского языка, составленная И. Березиным, профессором Казанского университета. - Казань : тип. Ун-та, 1853. - XVI, 480 с.; 23.
  11. ^ Behzadi, B, 1382 AP / 2003 AD. Farhange Azarbâyjani-Fârsi (Torki), p. 10. Publication: Farhange Moâser. ISBN 964-5545-82-X
    In Persian: حقیقت تاریخی این است که آذربایجانی، ایرانی است و به زبان ترکی تکلم می‌کند. اینکه چگونه این زبان در بین مردم رایج شد، بحثی است که فرصت دیگر می‌خواهد. شاهد مثال زیر می‌تواند برای همه‌‌‌‌‌ این گفتگوها پاسخ شایسته باشد. اهالی آستارا طالش هستند و تا پنجاه سال پیش که نگارنده به خاطر دارد پیران خانواده ما به این زبان تکلم می‌کردند و اکثریت عظیم اهالی نیز به زبان طالشی صحبت میکردند. در دهات اطراف شاید تعداد انگشت‌شماری ترکی بلد بودند.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Abdoli, A. 1380 AP / 2001 AD. Farhange Tatbiqiye Tâleši-Tâti-Âzari (Comparative dictionary of Talyshi-Tati-Azari), p 31-35, Publication:Tehran, "šerkate Sahâmiye Entešâr" (in Persian).
  13. ^ Stilo, D. 1981. The Tati Group in the Sociolinguistic Context of Northwestern Iran. Iranian Studies XIV
  14. ^ Mamedov, N., 1971. Šuvinskij governs talyšskogo yazyka (Talyshi dialect of Shuvi), PhD dissertation, Baku. (in Russian)
  15. ^ Schulze, W., 2000. Northern Talysh. Publisher: Lincom Europa. ISBN 3-89586-681-4 [2]
  16. ^ De Caro, G. Alignment variation in Southern Tāleši (Māsāl area). School of Oriental and African Studies / Hans Rausing Endangered Languages Project. [3]
  17. ^ Schulze, Wolfgang (2000). Northern Talysh. Languages of the World/Materials, 380: München: Lincom. p. 9.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location (link)
  18. ^ "Əsasə səyfə". Parstoday (in Talysh). Retrieved 2020-07-25.
  19. ^ Paul, Daniel (2011). A Comparative Dialectal Description of Iranian Taleshi. University of Manchester. p. 324.
  20. ^ a b Pedersen, T. T.. Transliteration of Non-Roman Scripts, Talyshi transliteration
  21. ^ Masali, K. 1386 AP / 2007 AD. Sâxte fe'l dar zabâne Tâleši (Guyeše Mâsâl) (Conjugations in Talyshi language (Masali dialect)). "Archived copy" (PDF) (in Persian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-06. Retrieved 2008-11-04.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  22. ^ "Encamên lêgerînê".
  23. ^ "Encamên lêgerînê".
  24. ^ "Encamên lêgerînê".
  25. ^ "Keye kelimesinin anlamı".
  26. ^ "Çeye kelimesinin anlamı".
  27. ^ "Encamên lêgerînê".
  28. ^ "Encamên lêgerînê".
  29. ^ "Encamên lêgerînê".
  30. ^ "Encamên lêgerînê".
  31. ^ "Tîje kelimesinin anlamı".

Further reading