Southern Pashto
South Western Pashto, South Eastern Pashto
Native toAfghanistan
EthnicityPashtuns (Pax̌tūn)
Native speakers
16,893,700 (2017)[1]
Arabic (Pashto alphabet)
Official status
Regulated byAcademy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Language codes
ISO 639-3pbt

Southern Pashto (Pashto: جنوبي/سهيلي پښتو‎) comprises the South Western (Pashto: سهيل لوېديزه پښتو‎) and South Eastern (سهيل ختيځه پښتو‎) dialects.[2]

Southern Comparison غوږ Ear South Western [Kandahar] (0:00) Pashto pronunciation: [/ɣwaʐ/] South Eastern [Quetta] (0:01) /ɣwaʒ/ Problems playing these files? See media help.

South Western

Kandahārí Pashtó (Pashto: کندهارۍ پښتو‎), also known as, Southwestern Pashto,[3] is a Pashto dialect, spoken in southern and western Afghanistan, including the city of Kandahar.

Kandahari Pashto is spoken in Kandahar, Helmand, Ghazni, most of Urozgan, Farah, and Nimruz, southeastern Ghor, the districts of Murghab, Ghormach, Muqur, and Jawand in Badghis, and parts of Zabul, Paktika, and Herat provinces of Afghanistan. It is also spoken in parts of the provinces of Razavi Khorasan and South Khorasan in Iran, where they numbered roughly 120,000 (in 1993).[4]

It is one of the most archaic varieties of Pashto: the Kandahari dialect retains archaic retroflex sibilants, /ʂ/ and /ʐ/ (in other dialects, they have shifted to ʃ/x and ʒ/g). Kandahari also has the affricates /t͡s/ and /d͡z/.[5]

Lexical Variation

According to the "Pashto Dialectal Dictionary (Pashto: پښتو لهجوي قاموس‎)" published by the Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan the following is noted in Kandahar province:[6]

Standard

معياري

myārí

Meaning

مانا

mānā́

Ghorak

[Tribe: Popalzai]

Spin Boldak

[Tribe: Achakzai]

Maruf

[Tribe: Alizai]

Arghandab

[Tribe: Alikozai]

Panjwayi

[Tribe: Sakzai]

Kandahar

[Tribe: Nurzai]

آباد/ ودان

ābā́d/wadā́n

populated ابات

abā́t

ابات

abā́t

ابات

abā́t

ابات

abā́t

ابات

abā́t

ابات

abā́t

اپلتې

apláte

absurdity چټيات

čaṭyā́t

چټيات

čaṭyā́t

اپلتې

apláte

ګډې وډې

gaḍé waḍé

ګډې وډې

gaḍé waḍé

ګډې وډې

gaḍé waḍé

اتکړۍ

atkaṛə́i

handcuffs زولنې

zawlané

زولنې

zawlané

زولنې

zawlané

زولنې

zolané

زولنې

zolané

زولنې

zolané

اخېړ

axéṛ

plaster

[clay mixed with straw]

ګل

gә́l

ګل

gә́l

ګل

gә́l

کاګل

kāgә́l

کاګل

kāgә́l

کاګل

kāgә́l

mother ادې

adé

ادې

adé

دادا

dādā́

مور

mor

مور

mor

مور

mor

enimity دښمني

doṣ̌maní

تربورګلوي

tarburgalwí

تربورګلوي

tarburgalwí

دښمني

doṣ̌maní

دښمني

doṣ̌maní

دښمني

doṣ̌maní

ارت

art

wide پېراخه

perāxá

غټ

ğaṭ

پراخ

prāx

پيراخ

pirā́x

پيراخ

pirā́x

پيراخ

pirā́x

اوبدل

obdә́l

to weave ودل

wadә́l

ودل

wadә́l

اودل

odә́l

ودل

wadál

ودل

wadál

ودل

wadál

اوړۀ

oṛә́

flour اوړۀ

oṛә́

اوړۀ

oṛә́

اوړۀ

oṛә́

وړۀ

waṛә́

وړۀ

waṛә́

وړۀ

waṛә́

South Eastern

In the South Eastern dialect, /ʂ/ and /ʐ/ in South Western change to ʃ and ʒ. Whilst /t͡s/ and /d͡z/ are generally pronounced.[7]

Dialect ښ ږ څ ځ ژ
Kandahar [ʂ] [ʐ] [t͡s] [d͡z] [ʒ]
Quetta [ʃ] [ʒ] [t͡s] [d͡z] [ʒ, z]

In all 3rd-person pronouns 'h' is not articulated. And distinction in 'he' and 'she' pronouns is not noted.

Personal pronoun Kandahar Quetta Meaning
زه I
ته tə, less often təi tə, less often təi you (singular)
هغه hağə ağə he
هغه hağe ağə she
موږ/مونږ mʊẓ̌ mʊž/məž we
تاسو/تاسې tāse/tāsī tāse/tāsī you (plural)
هغوی hağwi/hağūi ağwi/ağūi they

Kākaṛi

Kākaṛi is classed as Southeastern dialect.[8] The following has been noted:[9]

Kākaṛi Literary Pashto Grammar Meaning
بم

bam

به مې

bə me

bə: future / past habitual marker

me: Weak Oblique 1st Pronoun

Example:[10]

ای د سترګو ديد بم سره کله کږي

āi də stə́rgo did bam sará kə́la káži

Oh when will my eyes' [do his] viewing

امۍ

amə́i

ګډا

gaḍā́

Direct Singular Feminine Noun dance
راله

rā́la

راغله

rā́ğla

come: Aorist Past 3rd Person Feminine Singular [She] came
سي

si

چې

če

that: Particle that

Sherani

According to Josef Elfenbein, Sherani Pashto can be classed either as South Western or South Eastern.[11] Word choice can be distinct:[12]

Dialect Meaning Notes
Southern Sherani ګانده مزدک له راسه

gā́nda mazdə́k lə rāsá

Come to the mosque tomorrow Kandahari uses

the Arabic borrowings:

سبا [from صباح] and

مسجد . Whereas Sherani uses

more pure Pashto: ګانده and

مزدک

Kandahari سبا مسجد له راسه

sabā́ masjéd lə rāsá

Northern [Yusupzai] سبا جومات ته راشه

sabā́ jumā́t tə rāšá

In comparison to

the two Southern dialects,

ته is used instead of له

and the form of the verb to-be:

شول is used instead of سول

Marwat-Bettani

In Marwat-Bettani the following is noted:[13]

Marwat Words مېړګی [pony] (0:02) /meɽ.ɡaˈɪ/ بغور [cheek] (0:02) /ba.ɣwəˈr/ Problems playing these files? See media help.
Dialect[7] ښ ږ څ ځ ژ ش[14]
Marwat [ʃ] [ʒ] [t͡ʃ] [d͡ʒ] [z] [ʃ],[s]

Compare the words

Standard Kandahar Marwat Marwat Meaning
رېبځ /re.bəˈd͡z/ رېبځ About this sound/rebə'd͡ʒ/  broom
ږمنځ About this sound/ʐmuŋd͡z/  ږمنځ About this sound/ʒməŋd͡ʒ/  comb
ژامه /ʒɑˈ.ma/ زامبه About this sound/zɑˈm.ba/  jaw
مټينګى /maʈinɡaˈi/ مټونګى About this sound/ma.ʈun.ɡaˈɪ/  bastard
پروړه /proˈ.ɽa/ پروړې About this sound/proˈ.ɽe/  straw
دروزه /d̪ruˈ.za/ دروزې About this sound/d̪ruˈ.ze/  haulm

Comparison with Karlāṇi varieties

Marwatwala agrees with other Karlāṇi varieties in the phonetic change in ښ as [ʃ]. [15]

Example:

Yusupzai Marwatwāla Meaning
ښار ښار city
xār šār
ښادي ښودي happiness
xādí šodí

Rendition of ش

It is noted by Yousuf Khan Jazab, in Marwatwala ش can be rendered as [s].[14]

Example:

Kandahāri Karlāṇi Marwatwāla Meaning
اوربشې

/or.bəˈ.ʃe/

orbә́še

اربشې اربسې barley
/ar.bəˈ.ʃe/ /ar.bəˈ.se/
arbә́še arbә́se
سول

/swəl/

swəl

شول سلل to become

[past tense,verbaliser]

/ʃwəl/ /sləl/
šwәl sləl
شخړه

/ʃxaˈ.ɽa/

šxáṛa

سخړه quarrel, strife
/ʃxəˈ.ɽa/
sxә́ṛa

References

  1. ^ Southern Pashto at Ethnologue (24th ed., 2021)
  2. ^ "Glottolog 4.3 - Southern Pashto". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2020-10-16.
  3. ^ Prods Oktor Skjærvø, P.O. 1989. Pashto. In "Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum", R. Schmitt (ed.), 384-410.
  4. ^ "Iran".
  5. ^ MacKenzie, D. N. "A Standard Pashto". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 22: 231–235.
  6. ^ بها, اکمل (2019). پښتو لهجوي قاموس. څلورم ټوک. د علومو اکډمي د ژبو او ادبياتو مرکز. pp. ۱–۹۸.
  7. ^ a b Hallberg, Daniel G. 1992. Pashto, Waneci, Ormuri. Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 4.
  8. ^ Kaye, Alan S. (1997-06-30). Phonologies of Asia and Africa: (including the Caucasus). Eisenbrauns. p. 740. ISBN 978-1-57506-019-4.
  9. ^ کاکړ, سيال (2012). زريني پانګي. افغان څېړنيز مرکزٜ کوټه.
  10. ^ کاکړ, سيال (2012). زريني پانګي. افغان څېړنيز مرکزٜ کوټه. p. 56.
  11. ^ Kaye, Alan S.; Daniels, Peter T. (1997). Phonologies of Asia and Africa: (including the Caucasus). Eisenbrauns. p. 740. ISBN 978-1-57506-017-0.
  12. ^ Habibi, A. H. "پښتو لهجې" (PDF). Alama Habibi.
  13. ^ Rensch, Calvin Ross (1992). Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan: Pashto, Waneci, Ormuri. National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University. pp. 79–145.
  14. ^ a b Khan Jazab, Yousaf (2017). An Ethno-linguisitic Study of the Karlani Varieities of Pashto. Pashto Academy, University of Peshawar. p. 71.
  15. ^ Jazab, Yousaf Khan. An Ethno-Linguistic Study of the Karlanri Varieties of Pashto. Pashto Academy, University of Peshawar. pp. 70–71.