Shughni
Shugnani-Rushani
xuǧnůn ziv/хуг̌ну̊н зив, pomiray/помирай зив/خُغنُوْن زِڤ
Native toTajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, China
EthnicityShughnan
Native speakers
(50,000 Shughni proper, ca. 75,000 all varieties cited 1990)[1]
Dialects
Arabic, Cyrillic, Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3sgh
Glottologshug1248
ELP
Shughni is classified as Vulnerable by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger

Shughni or Khughni (in the local language: хуг̌ну̊н зив tr. khughnön ziv; Tajik: шуғнонӣ, Persian: شغنانی), is one of the Pamir languages of the Southeastern Iranian language group.[2][1] Its distribution is in the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region in Tajikistan, Badakhshan Province in Afghanistan, Chitral district in Pakistan and Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County in China.[2][3]

Shughni-Rushani tends towards SOV word order, distinguishes a masculine and feminine gender in nouns and some adjectives, as well as the 3rd person singular of verbs. Shughni distinguishes between an absolutive and an oblique case in its system of pronouns. Rushani is noted for a typologically unusual 'double-oblique' construction, also called a 'transitive case', in the past tense. Normally Soviet school scientists consider Rushani as a close but independent language to Shughni, while Western school scientists codes Rushani as a dialect of Shughni due to Afghanistan Rushani speakers living in the Sheghnan district of Badakhshan Province.

Dialects

Rushani, Bartangi, Oroshori (Roshorvi), Khufi and Shughni proper are considered to be dialects. However, Bartangi and Khufi are quite distinct and may be separate languages.

Phonology

Vowels

The following are the vowels of Shughni:

Shughni vowels
Front Central Back
Close i u
Near-close ɪ ʊ
Close-mid e ø (ə) o
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a~æ ɑ

Long vowels occur as /, , /.

Consonants

The following are the consonants of Shughni:[4]

Shughni consonants
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Post-
alveolar
Velar Uvular Glottal
plain sibilant
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive/
Affricate
voiceless p t t͡s t͡ʃ k q
voiced b d d͡z d͡ʒ ɡ
Fricative voiceless f θ s ʃ x χ (h)
voiced v ð z ʒ ɣ ʁ
Approximant l j w
Rhotic r

Vocabulary

Chart of Sounds in Shughni
Letter Phoneme English equivalent Usage in Shugni
Latin Cyrillic Latin Orthography Cyrillic Orthography
A/a А а a apple, angry bad, akuniath, aram, anor бад, акуниат̌, арам, анор
Aa/aa А̄ а̄ Harvard, march xhaab, daav, zamunaa, baad ха̄б, да̄в, замуна̄, ба̄д
Ai/ai Ай ай aj bite, fire taiyor, arai, aiyuum, maile тайор, арай, аййӯм, майлэ
B/b Б б b big, able biyor, balad, abor бийор, балад, абор
Ch/ch Ч ч t͡ʃ church, chair chiiz, chiid, choi, chorik чӣз, чӣд, чои, чорик
D/d Д д d dead, dried daak, diidor, murd, dar да̄к, дӣдор, мурд, дар
Dh/dh Д̌ д̌ ð this, mother dhid, dhust, dhud, pidhid, podh д̌ид, д̌уст, д̌уд, пид̌ид, под̌
Dz/dz З̌ з̌ d͡z buds, lads (approximate) dzulik, pindz, wixhidz, majdzuunj з̌улик, пинз̌, в̌ихиз̌, маҷз̌ӯнҷ
E/e Э э ɛ elephant, egg elak, qate, qine, biide элак, қатэ, қинэ, бӣдэ
Ee/ee Ээ ээ déjà vu, soufflé tseem, teez, deer, Apreel цээм, тээз, дээр, Апрээл
Ey/ey Эй эй ɛj aid, ancient peydow, xheydow, пэйдов̌, хэйдов̌
F/f Ф ф f fat, roof fort, famtow, faand, boft форт, фамтов̌, фа̄нд, бофт
G/g Г г g girl, big gaap, gandaa, gardha, yiga га̄п, ганда̄, гард̌а, йига
Gh/gh Г̌ г̌ ɣ sound not used in English ghaats, ghalat, bogh, shagh г̌а̄ц, г̌алат, бог̌, шаг̌
H/h Ҳ ҳ h hat Marginal phoneme[example needed]
I/i И и ɪ big, lift nist, yiwath, khirs, chis нист, йив̌ат̌, х̌ирс, чис
Ii/ii Ӣ ӣ feet, beat tiidow, miidow, shiintow, zhiiwj тӣдов̌, мӣдов̌, шӣнтов̌, жӣв̌ҷ
J/j Ҷ ҷ d͡ʒ jam, barge jumla, jazo, majlis, ajab ҷумла, ҷазо, маҷлис, аҷаб
Jh/jh Ғ ғ ʁ sound not used in English jhinik, saajh, majh, sipajh ғиник, са̄ғ, мағ, сипағ
K/k К к k book, kit kitob, maak, tukmaa, kiinaa китоб, ма̄к, тукма̄, кина̄
Kh/kh Х̌ х̌ x loch, Khorog (only for some speakers) khaat, sakht, bakht, kharid х̌а̄т, сах̌т, бах̌т, х̌арид
L/l Л л l like, feel lap, liing, tambal, balad лап, лӣнг, тамбал, балад
M/m М м m mouse, meet mund, tamand, famtow, shaam мунд, таманд, фамтов̌, ша̄м
N/n Н н n nut, mean naan, qand, fanaa, baandak на̄н, қанд, фана̄, ба̄ндак
O/o О о o pot, shop oyandaa, ofarin, boft, nolaan ойанда̄, офарин, бофт, нола̄н
Oo/oo Оо оо boot, poodle noor, joor, mood, moon ноор, ҷоор, моод, моон
P/p П п p paint, top parwiin, lap, pardhedow, pool парв̌ӣн, лап, пард̌эдов̌, поол
Q/q Қ қ q sound not used in English qamoch, qand, nuqtaa, qiin қамоч, қанд, нуқта̄, қӣн
R/r Р р r rabbit, rob raang, tsarang, roosht, rukhsat ра̄нг, царанг, роошт, рух̌сат
S/s С с s sit, miss sarake, baas, kasal, safar саракэ, ба̄с, касал, сафар
Sh/sh Ш ш ʃ shout, bush shamol, maash, bashand, shogird шамол, ма̄ш, башанд, шогирд
T/t Т т t title, time tavaar, turd, sust, chust тава̄р, турд, суст, чуст
Th/th Т̌ т̌ θ think, moth achath, khobath, aquniath, thiir ачат̌, х̌обат̌, ақуниат̌, тӣр
Ts/ts Ц ц t͡s blitz, fits (approximate) tsavor, buts, tsarang, xhats цавор, буц, царанг, хац
U/u У у u look, should duzd, mund, tuid, buts дузд, мунд, туид, буц
Uu/uu Ӯ ӯ earn, fern luuvd, uun, yuudand, okhoruun лӯвд, ӯн, йӯданд, ох̌орӯн
V/v В в v vet, leave viidow, helav, vaz, virod вӣдов̌, ҳэлав, ваз, вирод
W/w В̌ в̌ w few, wait chiidow, wiintow, boware, wazmin чӣдов̌, в̌ӣнтов̌, бов̌арэ, в̌азмӣн
Xh/xh Х х χ Bach xheidow, xhats, tuxhna, duxhman хэйдов̌, хац, тухна, духман
Y/y Й й j yellow, yet yordam, yelav, oyandaa, boyad йордам, йэлав, ойанда̄, бойад
Z/z З з z zoo, blaze zamiin, bozor, zardak, ziird замӣн, бозор, зардак, зӣрд
Zh/zh Ж ж ʒ pleasure, déjà vu zholaa, zhiiwj, ghazhd, zhow жола̄, жӣв̌ҷ, г̌ажд, жов̌

Orthography

Cyrillic alphabet

The Shughni Cyrillic alphabet is as follows:[citation needed]

А а А̄ а̄ Б б В в В̌ в̌ Г г Ғ ғ Г̌ г̌ Ғ̌ ғ̌ Д д Д̌ д̌
Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з З̌ з̌ И и Ӣ ӣ Й й К к Қ қ Л л
М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Т т Т̌ т̌ У у Ӯ ӯ У̊ у̊
Ф ф Х х Ҳ ҳ Х̌ х̌ Ц ц Ч ч Ҷ ҷ Ш ш Ъ ъ Э э

Literature

References

  1. ^ a b Shughni at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b Karamšoev, Dodchudo K. (1988–99). Šugnansko-russkij slovar. 3 vols. Moskva: Nauka. ISBN 5-02-016991-9 (Vol. 2), ISBN 5-02-018101-3 /ISBN 5-02-017858-6 (Vol. 3)
  3. ^ Windfuhr, Gernot (2013-05-13). Iranian Languages. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-79704-1.
  4. ^ Arno, James C. (2007). "Shughni" (PDF) – via people.umass.edu.