|𑠖𑠵𑠌𑠤𑠮, डोगरी, ڈوگری|
|Native to||India, Pakistan|
|Region||Jammu region, Western Himachal Pradesh, Punjab|
|2.6 million (2011 census)|
|Dogra Akkhar version of Takri script|
Official language in
Dogri (Dogra: 𑠖𑠵𑠌𑠤𑠮; Devanagari: डोगरी; Nastaliq: ڈوگری; IPA: [ɖoːɡɾiː]) is a Northern Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million people in India, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir. It is also spoken in western Himachal Pradesh, and the northern part of Punjab state including Hoshiarpur, Pathankot, Gurdaspur and in Rupnagar to some extent. It is also spoken in Eastern parts of Pakistan Punjab. where it is classified as a Punjabi dialect. In India it is treated as the ethnic language of the Dogras. Dogri is a member of the Western Pahari group of languages. Unusually for an Indo-European language, Dogri is tonal, a trait it shares with other Western Pahari languages and Punjabi. It has several varieties, all with greater than 80% lexical similarity (within Jammu and Kashmir).
Dogri is one of the 22 official languages of India. It was added in the 8th schedule of the constitution in 2003.
|Wiktionary has a category on Dogri language.|
Main article: Dogri script
Dogri was originally written in the Dogra Akkhar script – a modified version of Takri. It is now more commonly written in Devanagari in India.
The Dogra script was standardised from "Parane Ḍogrā Akkhar" (Old Dogra version of Takri script) during the Dogra rule. This script was then called "Namēṁ Ḍogrā Akkhar" (Dogra: 𑠝𑠢𑠳𑠷 𑠖𑠵𑠌𑠤𑠬 𑠀𑠊𑠹𑠋𑠤).
These are rules of writing tones in Dogri using Devanagari Script. They are as follows:-
Some examples are shown below.
|𑠊𑠵𑠫𑠬 𑠪𑠬।||कोड़ा हा।||کوڑا ہا۔||[koːɽaː ɦaː]||Equal||It was a whip.|
|𑠍𑠵𑠫𑠬 𑠪𑠬।||घोड़ा हा।||گھوڑا ہا۔||[kòːɽaː ɦaː]||Falling||It was a horse.|
|𑠊𑠵𑠗𑠺𑠬 𑠪𑠬।||कोढ़ा हा।||کوڑھا ہا۔||[kóːɽaː ɦaː]||Rising||It was bitter.|
|𑠀'𑠥𑠹𑠥||अ'ल्ल||ا'لّ||[ə́lːə]||Rising||Side (as in "that side")|
In the year 1317, Amir Khusro, the famous Urdu and Persian poet, referred to Duger (Dogri) while describing the languages and dialects of India as follows: "Sindhi-o-Lahori-o-Kashmiri-o-Duger."
Intellectuals in the court of Maharaja Ranbir Singh of Jammu and Kashmir described 'Duggar' as a distorted form of the word 'Dwigarta', which means "two troughs", a possible reference to the Mansar and Surinsar lakes.
The linguist George Grierson connected the term 'Duggar' with the Rajasthani word 'Doonger,' which means 'hill,' and 'Dogra' with 'Dongar.' This opinion has lacked support because of the inconsistency of the ostensible changes from Rajasthani to Dogri (essentially the question of how Doonger became Duggar while Donger became Dogra), and been contradicted by some scholars.
Yet another proposal stems from the presence of the word 'Durgara' in the Bhuri Singh Museum (in Chamba, Himachal Pradesh). The word 'Durgara' means 'invincible' in several Northern Indian languages, and could be an allusion to the ruggedness of the Duggar terrain and the historically militarised and autonomous Dogra societies. In Himachal, Dogri is majorly spoken in Hamirpur, Barsar, Una, Chintpurni, Kangra, and Bilaspur regions.
In 1976, the experts attending the Language Session of the 'All India Oriental Conference' held in Dharwad, Karnataka, could not reach consensus on the 'Dwigarta' and 'Durgara' hypotheses, but did manage agreement on a Doonger-Duggar connection. In a subsequent 'All India Oriental Conference' held at Jaipur in 1982, the linguists agreed that the culture, language and history of Rajasthan and Duggar share some similarities. It was also suggested that the words 'Duggar' and 'Dogra' are common in some parts of Rajasthan. Specifically, it was asserted that areas with many forts are called Duggar, and their inhabitants are accordingly known as Dogras. The land of Duggar also has many forts, which may support the opinion above. An article by Dharam Chand Prashant in the literary magazine Shiraza Dogri suggested that "the opinion that the word 'Duggar' is a form of the word 'Duggarh' sounds appropriate."
In modern times, a notable Dogri translation (in the New Dogra script) of the Sanskrit classic mathematical opus Lilavati, by the noted mathematician Bhaskaracharya (b. 1114 AD), was published by the Vidya Vilas Press, Jammu in 1873. As Sanskrit literacy remained confined to a few, the late Maharaja Ranbir Singh had the Lilavati translated into Dogri by Jyotshi Bisheshwar, then principal of Jammu Pathshala.
Dogri has an established tradition of poetry, fiction and dramatic works. Recent poets range from the 18th-century Dogri poet Kavi Dattu (1725–1780) in Raja Ranjit Dev's court to Professor Ram Nath Shastri and Mrs. Padma Sachdev. Kavi Dattu is highly regarded for his Barah Massa (Twelve Months), Kamal Netra (Lotus Eyes), Bhup Bijog and Bir Bilas. Shiraza Dogri is a Dogri literary periodical issued by the Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, which is a notable publisher of modern Dogri literary work, another being the Dogri Sanstha. Popular recent songs include Pala Shpaiya Dogarya, Manney di Mauj and Shhori Deya. The noted Pakistani singer Malika Pukhraj had roots in the Duggar region, and her renditions of several Dogri songs continue to be popular in the region. Some devotional songs, or bhajans, composed by Karan Singh have gained increasing popularity over time, including Kaun Kareyaan Teri Aarti.
Dogri programming features regularly on Radio Kashmir (a division of All India Radio), and Doordarshan (Indian state television) broadcasts in Jammu and Kashmir. However, Dogri does not have a dedicated state television channel yet, unlike Kashmiri (which has the Doordarshan Koshur channel, available on cable and satellite television throughout India).
Official recognition of the language has been gradual, but progressive. On 2 August 1969, the General Council of the Sahitya Academy, Delhi recognized Dogri as an "independent modern literary language" of India, based on the unanimous recommendation of a panel of linguists. (Indian Express, New Delhi, 3 August 1969). Dogri is one of the state languages of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. On 22 December 2003, in a major milestone for the official status of the language, Dogri was recognized as a national language of India in the Indian constitution.
In 2005, a collection of over 100 works of prose and poetry in Dogri published over the last 50 years was made accessible online at the Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL), Mysore. This included works of eminent writer Dhinu Bhai Panth, Professor Madan Mohan Sharma, B.P. Sathai and Ram Nath Shastri.
The following text is from Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
|Dogri (Dogra script)||𑠩𑠬𑠤𑠳 𑠢𑠝𑠯𑠊𑠹𑠋 𑠢𑠴𑠪𑠹𑠢𑠬 𑠙𑠳 𑠪𑠊𑠹𑠊𑠳𑠷 𑠛𑠳 𑠠𑠭𑠧𑠳 𑠏 𑠑𑠝𑠢 𑠚𑠢𑠬𑠷 𑠩𑠯𑠙𑠴𑠷𑠙𑠤 𑠙𑠳 𑠠𑠤𑠵𑠠𑠤 𑠝। 𑠄'𑠝𑠳𑠷𑠌𑠮 𑠙𑠤𑠹𑠊 𑠙𑠳 𑠑𑠢𑠮𑠤 𑠛𑠮 𑠩𑠌𑠬𑠙 𑠢𑠭𑠥𑠮 𑠇 𑠙𑠳 𑠄'𑠝𑠳𑠷𑠌𑠮 𑠁𑠞𑠰𑠷-𑠠𑠭𑠏𑠹𑠏𑠳𑠷 𑠡𑠬𑠃𑠏𑠬𑠤𑠳 𑠛𑠳 𑠡𑠬𑠦 𑠊𑠝𑠹𑠝𑠴 𑠠𑠤𑠙𑠬ऽ 𑠊𑠤𑠝𑠬 𑠏𑠬𑠪𑠭𑠛𑠬 𑠇।|
|Dogri (Devanagari script)||सारे मनुक्ख मैह्मा ते हक्कें दे बिशे च जनम थमां सुतैंतर ते बरोबर न। उ'नेंगी तर्क ते जमीर दी सगात मिली ऐ ते उ'नेंगी आपूं-बिच्चें भाईचारे दे भाव कन्नै बरताऽ करना चाहिदा ऐ।|
|Dogri (Perso-Arabic script)||سارے منکّھ میہما تے ہکّیں دے بشے چ جنم تھماں ستیںتر تے بروبر ن۔ ا'نیںگی ترک تے جمیر دی سگات ملی اے تے ا'نیںگی آپوں-بچّیں بھائیچارے دے بھاو کنّے برتا کرنا چاہدا اے۔|
|Dogri transliteration (ISO 15919)||Sārē manukkh maihmā tē hakkēṁ dē biśē ca janam thamāṁ sutaintar tē barōbar na. U'nēṁgī tark tē jamīr dī sagāt milī ai tē u'nēṁgī āpūṁ-biccēṁ bhāīcārē dē bhāv kannai bartā' karnā cāhidā ai.|
|Dogri IPA||[saːɾeː mənʊkːʰə mɛ́ːmaː t̪eː ə̀kːẽː d̪eː biʃeː ʧə ʤənəm t̪ʰəmãː sut̪ɛːnt̪əɾ t̪eː bəɾoːbəɾ nə ‖ ʊ́nẽːgiː t̪əɾk t̪eː dʒəmiːɾ d̪iː səgaːt̪ mɪliː ɛː t̪eː ʊ́nẽːgiː aːpũːbɪʧːẽː pàːiːʧaːɾeː d̪eː pàːv kənːɛː bəɾt̪aː kəɾnaː ʧaːɪ̀d̪aː ɛː ‖]|
|English translation||All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.|
non-Dogri speakers, also trained phoneticians, tend to hear the difference as one of length only, perceiving the second syllable as stressed
((cite book)): CS1 maint: location (link)
Dogri among other three languages has been included in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution when Lok Sabha unanimously approved an amendment in the Constitution