This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Kangri language" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (July 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Kangri
कांगड़ी
Kangr.png
Kangri written in Takri
Native toIndia
RegionHimachal Pradesh, Punjab
Native speakers
(1.7 million cited 1996)
Takri,
Devanagari
Language codes
ISO 639-3xnr
Glottologkang1280

Kangri (Takri: 𑚊𑚭𑚫𑚌𑚪𑚯) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in northern India, predominantly in the Kangra, Una and few parts of Hamirpur of Himachal Pradesh as well as in some parts of the Gurdaspur, Rupnagar and Hoshiarpur districts of Punjab.[1] It is associated with the people of the Kangra Valley. The total number of speakers has been estimated at 1.7 million (as of 1996),[1] while those who reported their first language as Kangri in the 2011 census were 1.17 million[2] (compared with 1.12 million in 2001).[3]

Like most of IA languages, Kangri does form a dialect continuum with its neighbouring languages. This includes the Pahari varieties spoken to the east Mandeali and Kullui, north to Chambeali, Gaddi & Bhateali & south-east to Kahluri. Besides it also share continuum north-west to Jammu Dogri and in south and west to Punjabi.[4] It is currently classified under Western Pahari branch.

Kangri Language is on International Dashboard of Current UD Languages since May 2021. Only ten Indian languages are there on this dashboard and Kangri is one of them. Google has also introduced Kangri keyboard for typing now.

Script

The native script of the language is Takri Script but now people write Kangri Language in Devanagari script.

Specimen in Kangri language
Specimen in Kangri language

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Post-alv./
Palatal
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n (ɳ)
Plosive/
Affricate
voiceless p t ʈ k
aspirated ʈʰ tʃʰ
voiced b d ɖ ɡ
Fricative s ɦ
Lateral l ɭ
Tap ɾ ɽ, ɽ̃
Approximant (j)

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close
Near-close ɪ ʊ
Mid e ə o
Open-mid ɔ
Open æ ɑː

Tone

Kangri is a tonal language like Punjabi or Dogri but the assignment of tones differs in Kangri when compared to them.[6]

Most of the surrounding language varieties (including Kangri) lack voiced, aspirated obstruents (J. C. Sharma 2002, Masica 1993). Hindi cognate words which have a voiced, aspirated obstruent (or /h/) become tonal in these languages. Another difference to note between Kangri and Punjabi/Dogri is that these forms surface as voiced consonants in Kangri, but voiceless consonants in Punjabi/Dogri. That is, Kangri has lost the aspiration (in gaining tone), but Punjabi/Dogri has lost both aspiration and voicing. It is likely that these are separate innovations which originated in the West (Punjab or Jammu & Kashmir) and have spread outwards. The loss of aspiration (and gaining of tone) has been fully realized in all three languages, but the loss of voicing has not yet reached Kangri.[7]

Grammar

Pronouns

1st Person Singular : मैं /mæ̃/

1st Person Plural : असाँ,अहाँ /əsãː, əhãː/

Status

The language is commonly clubbed as Pahari or Himachali. Some Dogri and Punjabi linguists have referred Kangri as part of their language due to similarities and decent mutual intelligibility between them.[8][9][need quotation to verify] This is generally observed only in bordering lects due to dialect continuum present among many IA languages. Kangri writers & poets have been making submissions to Pahari language's cause under Himachal Pradesh Academy of Arts, Culture & Languages (HPAACL).[10] The language has no official status. According to the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), the language is of definitely endangered category, i.e. many Kangri children are not learning Kangri as their mother tongue any longer.

The demand for the inclusion of 'Western Pahari' under the Eight Schedule of the Constitution, which is supposed to represent multiple Pahari languages of Himachal Pradesh, had been made in the year 2010 by the state's Vidhan Sabha.[11] There has been no positive progress on this matter since then even when small organisations are taking it upon themselves to save the language.[12] Due to political interest, the language is currently recorded as a dialect of Hindi, even when having a poor mutual intelligibility with it.

References

  1. ^ a b Simons, Gary F; Fennig, Charles D, eds. (2017). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (20th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International.
  2. ^ "2011 Census tables: C-16, population by mother tongue". Census of India Website. Retrieved 4 November 2018. The precise figure is 1,117,342
  3. ^ "Census of India: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues –2001". censusindia.gov.in. The precise number is 1,122,843.
  4. ^ "Kangri - The Language Of Himachal Pradesh". www.indiamapped.com. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  5. ^ Eaton, Robert D. (2008)
  6. ^ Eaton, Robert D. (8 August 2008). "Kangri in Context: An Areal Perspective". hdl:10106/945.
  7. ^ Eaton, Robert D. (8 August 2008). "Kangri in Context: An Areal Perspective". hdl:10106/945.
  8. ^ Guptā, Vīṇā (1986). Ḍogarī bhāshā, udbhava aura vikāsa (in Hindi). Je. eṇḍa Ke. Akādamī āpha Ārṭa, Kalcara, eṇḍa Laiṅgvejiza.
  9. ^ Nirmohī, Śiva (1992). Ḍuggara kā bhāshāyī paricaya Jammū prānta ke sandarbha meṃ (in Hindi). Narendra Pabliśiṅga Hāusa.
  10. ^ Katha Sarvari II (in Hindi). 1977.
  11. ^ "Pahari Inclusion". Zee News.
  12. ^ "Pahari Inclusion". The Statesman.

Further reading