Native toArunachal Pradesh
Native speakers
unknown (2006)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3nef

Nefamese or Arunamese is a pidgin of Arunachal Pradesh (formerly NEFA), India. Its classification is unclear; Ethnologue states that it is based on the Assamese language, but also that it is most closely related to the Sino-Tibetan Gallong like the Assamese language formed out by the mixture of languages like Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman, Tai and Indo-European family of languages.

Nefamese emerged in eastern Arunachal Pradesh as a lingua franca among the Nyishi, Adi, Apatanai, Khampti, Hill Miri, Idu Mishimi, Nocte, Wancho, Tagin, Mompa, Zakhring, and Bugun peoples, among others—between them and with other Indigenous Assamese people and other Indigenous groups of Northeast India. The language is threatened by, and has perhaps somewhat been replaced by, the use of Hindi.


Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative s ʃ h
Nasal m n ŋ
Approximant w r, l j
Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e ə o

See also


  1. ^ Arunamese/Nefamese at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b Bhuyan, Nupur Chandra (2012). "The Phonological aspects of Nefamese" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2024.

Further reading