अवधी · 𑂃𑂫𑂡𑂲
The word "Awadhi" written in Devanagari script
Native toIndia and Nepal
Native speakers
38.5 million in India (2011)[1][2][3]
500,000 in Nepal (2011)[citation needed]
Early forms
Official status
Official language in
 Fiji (as Fiji Hindi)
Language codes
ISO 639-2awa
ISO 639-3awa
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Awadhi,[a] also known as Audhi,[b] is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh in northern India and in Terai region of western Nepal.[5][6][7] The name Awadh is connected to Ayodhya, the ancient city, which is regarded as the homeland of the Hindu god Rama. It was, along with Braj, used widely as a literary vehicle before being displaced by Hindi in the 19th century.[8]

It is regarded by the Indian government to be a dialect of Hindi, and the area where Awadhi is spoken to be a part of the Hindi-language area owing to their cultural proximity, meanwhile Standard Hindi also serves as the lingua franca[9] of the region. As a result, Hindi, rather than Awadhi, is used for school instruction as well as administrative and official purposes; and its literature falls within the scope of Hindi literature.[10] Some of the most culturally significant works in Indian literature like the Ramcharitmanas have been written in Awadhi.

Alternative names of Awadhi include Baiswāri (after the subregion of Baiswara),[11] as well as the sometimes ambiguous Pūrbī, literally meaning "eastern", and Kōsalī (named after the ancient Kosala Kingdom).[6]

Geographic distribution

In India

Awadhi is predominantly spoken in the Awadh region encompassing central Uttar Pradesh, along with the lower part of the Ganga-Yamuna doab.[6][12] In the west, it is bounded by Western Hindi, specifically Kannauji and Bundeli, while in the east, Bhojpuri from the Bihari group of Eastern Indo-Aryan languages is spoken.[13][14] In the north, it is bounded by the country of Nepal and in the south by Bagheli, which shares a great resemblance with Awadhi.[15]

The following districts of North and Central UP speak Awadhi-

In eastern parts of UP the Awadhi language changes its form to a special dialect called "Eastern Standard Awadhi." This region makes boundary with Bhojpuri speaking districts of Purvanchal. This part include districts of-

In Nepal

The Language Commission of Nepal has recommended Tharu and Awadhi as official language in Lumbini province.[5][16] Awadhi is spoken in two provinces in Nepal:

Outside South Asia

Further information: Fiji Hindi and Caribbean Hindustani

A language influenced by Awadhi (as well as other languages) is also spoken as a lingua franca for Indians in Fiji and is referred to as Fijian Hindi. According to Ethnologue, it is a type of Awadhi influenced by Bhojpuri and is also classified as Eastern-Hindi.[17] Caribbean Hindustani spoken by Indians in Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Guyana is based on Bhojpuri and partly on Awadhi. The Hindustani that is spoken in South Africa[18] and the Bhojpuri spoken in Mauritius[19] is also partly influenced by Awadhi.


Linguistic classification of Awadhi language.

Awadhi is an Indo-European language and belongs to the Indo-Aryan sub-group of the Indo-Iranian language family. Within the Indo-Aryan dialect continuum, it falls under the East-Central zone of languages and is often recognised as Eastern-Hindi. It is generally believed that an older form of Ardhamagadhi, which agreed partly with Sauraseni and partly with Magadhi Prakrit, could be the basis of Awadhi.[20]

The closest relative of Awadhi is the Bagheli language as genealogically both descend from the same 'Half-Magadhi'. Most early Indian linguists regarded Bagheli merely as 'the southern form of Awadhi', but recent studies accept Bagheli as a separate dialect at par with Awadhi and not merely a sub-dialect of it.[21]


See also: List of Awadhi-language poets

Late-medieval and early-modern India

In this period, Awadhi became the vehicle for epic poetry in northern India.[22] Its literature is mainly divided into: bhaktīkāvya (devotional poetry) and premākhyān (romantic tales).


The most important work, probably in any modern Indo-Aryan language, came from the poet-saint Tulsidas in the form of Ramcharitmanas (1575 C.E.) or "The Lake of the Deeds of Rama", written in doha-chaupai metre. Its plot is mostly derivative, either from the original Rāmāyaṇa by Valmiki or from the Adhyātma Rāmāyaṇa, both of which are in Sanskrit.[23] Mahatma Gandhi had acclaimed the Ramcharitmanas as "the greatest book of all devotional literature" while western observers have christened it as "the Bible of Northern India".[24] It is sometimes synonymously referred as 'Tulsidas Ramayana' or simply 'the Ramayana'.[25]

Illustrations to the Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas
(a) Death of Vali: Rama and Lakshmana Wait Out the Monsoon, (b) Rama's Army Crossing the Ocean to Lanka.

Tulsidas's compositions Hanuman Chalisa,[26][27][28] Pārvatī Maṅgala and Jānakī Maṅgala are also written in Awadhi.[29]

The first Hindi vernacular adaptation of the 'Dasam Skandha' of the Bhagavata Purana, the "Haricharit" by Lalachdas, who hailed from Hastigram (present-day Hathgaon near Rae Bareilly), was concluded in 1530 C.E. It circulated widely for a long time and scores of manuscript copies of the text have been found as far as eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, Malwa and Gujarat, all written in the Kaithi script.[32]

Satyavatī (ca. 1501) of Ishvaradas (of Delhi) under the reign of Sikander Lodi and Avadhabilāsa (1700 C.E.) of Laladas were also written in Awadhi.

Awadhi appeared as a major component in the works of Bhakti saints like Kabir, who used a language often described as being a pancmel khicṛī or "a hotch-potch" of several vernaculars.[33][34] The language of Kabir's major work Bijak is primarily Awadhi.[35][36]


Illustrations to Awadhi Sufi texts
Queen Nagamati talks to her parrot, Padmavat, 1750 C.E.
Lovers shoot at a tiger in the jungle. From the mystical Sufi text Madhumalati.

Awadhi also emerged as the favourite literary language of the Eastern Sufis from the last quarter of the 14th century onwards. It became the language of premākhyāns, romantic tales built on the pattern of Persian masnavi, steeped in Sufi mysticism but set in a purely Indian background, with a large number of motifs directly borrowed from Indian lore. The first of such premākhyān in the Awadhi language was Candāyan (1379 C.E.) of Maulana Da'ud.[37] The tradition was carried forward by Jayasi, whose masterpiece, the Padmāvat (1540 C.E.) was composed under the reign of the famous ruler Sher Shah Suri. The Padmavat travelled far and wide, from Arakan to the Deccan, and was eagerly copied and retold in Persian and other languages.[38]

Other prominent works of Jayasi—Kānhāvat,[39] Akhrāvaṭ[29] and Ākhrī Kalām[40] are also written in Awadhi.

I'll tell you about my great town, the ever-beautiful Jais.

In the satyayuga it was a holy place, then it was called the "Town of Gardens."
Then the treta went, and when the dvapara came, there was a great rishi called Bhunjaraja.
88,000 rishis lived here then, and dense ... and eighty-four ponds.
They baked bricks to make solid ghats, and dug eight-four wells.
Here and there they built handsome forts, at night they looked like stars in the sky.
They also put up several orchards with temples on top.

Doha: They sat there doing tapas, all those human avataras.They crossed this world doing homa and japa day and night.

— Jayasi, Kanhavat, ed. Pathak (8), 7–8.[41]

The Awadhi romance Mirigāvatī (ca.1503) or "The Magic Doe", was written by Shaikh 'Qutban' Suhravardi, who was an expert and storyteller attached to the court-in-exile of Sultan Hussain Shah Sharqi of Jaunpur.[42][43] Another romance named Madhumālatī or "Night Flowering Jasmine" by poet Sayyid Manjhan Rajgiri was written in 1545 C.E.[44]

Amir Khusrau (d. 1379 C.E) is also said to have written some compositions in Awadhi.[45]

Modern India

The most significant contributions to the Awadhi literature in the modern period have come from writers like Ramai Kaka (1915–1982 C.E.), Balbhadra Prasad Dikshit better known as ‘Padhees’(1898–1943 C.E.) and Vanshidhar Shukla (1904–1980 C.E.).

‘Krishnayan’ (1942 C.E.) is a major Awadhi epic-poem that Dwarka Prasad Mishra wrote in imprisonment during the Freedom Movement of India. In 2022 Dr. Vidya Vindu Singh has been awarded Padma Shri for her contribution in Awadhi literature.



Awadhi possesses both voiced and voiceless vowels. The voiced vowels are: /ə/, /ʌ/, /aː/, /ɪ/, /iː/, /ʊ/, /uː/, /e/, /eː/, /o/, /oː/.[46] The voiceless vowels, also described as "whispered vowels" are: /i̥/, /ʊ̥/, /e̥/.[47]

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close iː i̥
Near-close ɪ ʊ ʊ̥
Close-mid e eː e̥ o oː
Mid ə
Open-mid ʌ

Vowel combinations

Combination Example Meaning
IPA Transliteration
/ɪaː/ /d͡ʒɪaː/ jiā "elder sister"
/ɪeː/ /d͡ʒɪeː/ jiē "became alive"
/ʌiː/ /nʌiː/ naī "new"
/ʌɪ/ /bʰʌɪ/ bhai "became"
/ʌeː/ /gʌeː/ gaē "(they) went"
/ʌʊ/ /t̪ʌʊ/ tau "then"
/ʌuː/ /gʌuː/ gaū "cow"
/ʊʌ/ /kʊ̃ʌn/ kũan "wells (obl.)"
/ʊiː/ /d̪ʊiː/ duī "two"
/ʊaː/ /bʊaː/ buā "father's sister"
/uːiː/ /ruːiː/ rūī "cotton"
/aːoː/ /aːoː/ āō "come"
/aːeː/ /kʰaːeː/ khāē "eaten"
/aːiː/ /aːiː/ āī "came"
/aːuː/ /naːuː/ nāū "barber"
/eːiː/ /d̪eːiː/ dēī "will give"
/eːʊ/ /d̪eːʊ/ dēu "give"
/oːɪ/ /hoːɪ/ hōi "may be"
/oʊ/ /hoʊ/ hōu "be"
Combination Example Meaning
IPA Transliteration
/ɪeʊ/ /pɪeʊ/ pieu "(you) drank"
/ʊɪaː/ /gʰʊ̃ɪaː/ ghũiā "the root of Arum"
/aːeʊ/ /kʰaːeʊ/ khāeu "(you) ate"
/ʌɪaː/ /bʰʌɪaː/ bhaiā "brother"


Consonant Phonemes of Awadhi Language
Bilabial Dental/
Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal unaspirated m n (ɳ) (ɲ) (ŋ)
voiceless unaspirated p t ʈ k
aspirated ʈʰ tʃʰ
voiced unaspirated b d ɖ ɡ
aspirated ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
Fricative voiceless s h
voiced ɦ
Liquid rhotic unaspirated r ɽ
aspirated ɽʱ
lateral unaspirated l
Approximant ʋ j


Comparative grammar

Awadhi has many features that separate it from the neighbouring Western Hindi and Bihari vernaculars. In Awadhi, nouns are generally both short and long, whereas Western Hindi has generally short while Bihari generally employs longer and long forms. The gender is rigorously maintained in Western Hindi, Awadhi is a little loose yet largely preserved, while Bihari is highly attenuated. Regarding postpositions, Awadhi is distinguished from Western Hindi by the absence of agentive postposition in the former, agreeing with Bihari dialects. The accusative-dative postposition in Awadhi is /kaː/ or /kə/ while Western Hindi has /koː/ or /kɔː/ and Bihari has /keː/. The locative postposition in both Bihari and Western Hindi is /mẽː/ while Awadhi has /maː/. The pronouns in Awadhi have /toːɾ-/, /moːɾ-/ as personal genitives while /teːɾ-/, /meːɾ-/ are used in Western Hindi. The oblique of /ɦəmaːɾ/ is /ɦəmɾeː/ in Awadhi while it is /ɦəmaːɾeː/ in Western Hindi and /ɦəmrən'kæ/ in Bihari.[8]

Another defining characteristic of Awadhi is the affix /-ɪs/ as in /dɪɦɪs/, /maːɾɪs/ etc. The neighbouring Bhojpuri has the distinctive (i) /laː/ enclitic in present tense (ii) /-l/ in past tense (iii) dative postposition /-laː/ which separates it from the Awadhi language.[20]


First Person Pronouns of Awadhi[48][49]
Singular 'I/me/my' Plural 'we/us/our'
Dir. Ag. Obl. Dat. Gen. Dir. Ag. Obl. Dat. Gen.
Modern Standard Hindi mãĩ मैं mãĩ'nē मैंने mujh मुझ mujhē मुझे mērā* मेरा ham हम ham'nē हमने ham हम hamē̃ हमें hamārā* हमारा
Awadhi mai (mãy) मै ma(h)i महि mōr* मोर ham हम ham हम hamai हमै hamār* हमार
(Substitute or other forms in Awadhi) - मो mai'kā मइका, mō'kā मोका ham'kā हमका
Second Person Pronouns of Awadhi[49][50]


Dir. Ag. Obl. Dat. Gen. Hon. Dir. Ag. Obl. Dat. Gen. Hon.
Modern Standard Hindi tū'nē tujh tujhē tērā* tum tum'nē tum tumhē̃ tumhārā* āp–
Awadhi tū, tui (toi), taĩ (tãy) tu(h)i tōr* āpu̥ tum tum tumai, tohaĩ (tohãy) tumār*/tohār* āp–
(Substitute or other forms in Awadhi) tui'kā, tō'kā (tõh'kā) tum'kā - -
^* indicates a form inflectable for gender and number :
  1. mor → mōrā (masculine), mōrī (feminine), mōrē (plural)
  2. hamār → hamrā (masc.), hamrī (fem.), hamrē (pl.)
  3. tōr→ torā (masc.), torī (fem.), torē (pl.)
  4. tumar→ tumrā (masc.), tumrī (fem.), tumrē (pl.)
  5. tohār→ tohrā (masc.), tohrī (fem.), tohrē (pl.)

Word formation

Following are the morphological processes of stem formation in the Awadhi language:


An affix is used to alter the meaning or form of a word. It can be either a prefix or a suffix.


Two or more stems are combined to form one stem.


This process involves the repetition of certain forms. It may be complete, partial, or interrupted.

  1. Complete reduplication: It denotes continuity of action.
    • Example: jāt-jāt for "going on".
  2. Partial reduplication: It denotes similarity of one object to other.
    • Example: hãpaṭ-dãpaṭ for "panting".
  3. Interrupted reduplication: It stresses on the instant condition of the action that follows and expresses abundance of something.
    • Example: khētaī khēt "between the fields"; garmaī garam "the very hot".

In popular culture


The 1961 film Gunga Jumna features Awadhi being spoken by the characters in a neutralised form. In the 2001 film Lagaan, a neutralised form of Awadhi language was used to make it understandable to audiences.[51][52] The 2009 film Dev.D features an Awadhi song, "Paayaliya", composed by Amit Trivedi.[53] In the television series Yudh, Amitabh Bachchan spoke parts of his dialogue in Awadhi, which received critical acclaim from the Hindustan Times.[54] Awadhi is also spoken by the residents of Ayodhya and other minor characters in Ramanand Sagar's 1987 television series Ramayan. It is believed that the tune and lyrics of the song "Rang Barse Bhige Chunar Wali", from the movie Silsila starring Amitabh Bachchan and Rekha, are taken from a Rajasthani and Haryanvi folk bhajan about Meera. However the lyrics are slightly altered into the Awadhi dialect of Hindi to mould the song into appropriate context of the movie script. The Awadhi folk song "Mere Angne Mein Tumhara Kya Kaam Hai" has become popular in Bollywood with a neutralized version of it being in the 1981 film Laawaris starring Amitabh Bachchan, as well as being in the 1970 film Bombay Talkie and the 1975 film Maze Le Lo, it was also released as a single by Neha Kakkar in 2020.[55] Another Awadhi folk song that became popular through Bollywood was "Holi Khele Raghuveera", which was neutralized and sung by Amitabh Bachchan and put into the 2003 film Baghban starring Amitabh Bachchan and Hema Malini. The hit 1994 Bollywood hit film Hum Aapke Hain Koun..! is based on an Awadhi film from 1982 Nadiya Ke Paar, which itself is partly based on the novel Kohbar Ki Shart by Keshav Prasad Mishra.


The genres of folklore sung in Awadh include Sohar, Sariya, Byaah, Suhag, Gaari, Nakta, Banraa (Banna-Banni), Alha, Sawan, Jhula, Hori, Barahmasa, and Kajri.[56]

Sample phrases

The Awadhi language comes with its dialectal variations. For instance, in western regions, the auxiliary /hʌiː/ is used, while in central and eastern parts /ʌhʌiː/ is used.

The following examples were taken from Baburam Saxena's Evolution of Awadhi, and alternative versions are also provided to show dialectal variations.

English Awadhi (IPA) Awadhi (Devanagari)
Who were there? ɦʊãː koː or kəʊn ɾəɦəĩ हुआँ को (कउन) रहें?
alt. ɦʊãː keː or kəʊn ɾəɦəin alt. हुआँ के/कउन रहेन?
This boy is fine in seeing and hearing. ɪʊ lʌɾɪkaː d̪eːkʰʌiː sʊnʌiː ʈʰiːk hʌiː इउ लरिका देखई सुनई म ठीक है।
alt. ɪ lʌɾɪkaː d̪eːkʰʌiː sʊnʌiː ʈʰiːk ʌhʌiː alt. इ लरिका देखई सुनई म ठीक अहै।
(She) said, let (me) eat a little and give a little to this one too. kʌɦɪn laːoː t̪ʰoːɽaː kʰaːɪ leːiː t̪ʰoːɽaː jʌhu d̪ʌɪ d̪eːiː कहिन, लाओ थोड़ा खाई लेई, थोड़ा यहु का दै देई।
alt. kʌɦɪn lyaːvː t̪ʰoːɽaː kʰaːɪ leːiː raːçi keː jʌnhu d̪ʌɪ d̪eːiː alt. कहिन, ल्याव थोड़ा खाई लेई, रचि के एन्हुं के दै देई।
Those who go will be beaten. d͡ʒoː d͡ʒʌɪɦʌĩ soː maːrʊ̥ kʰʌɪɦʌĩ जो जइहैं सो मारउ खइहैं।
alt. d͡ʒèː d͡ʒʌɪɦʌĩ soː maːr kʰʌɪɦʌĩ alt. जे जइहैं सो मार खइहैं।
Do not shoot at the birds. cɪɾʌɪjʌn pʌɾ chʌrːaː cʌlaːoː चिरइयन पर छर्रा न चलाओ।
alt. cɪɾʌɪjʌn peː chʌrːaː jin cʌlaːwː alt. चिरइयन पे छर्रा जिन चलाव।

See also


  1. ^ (Hindi pronunciation: [əʋ.d̪ʱi]; Devanagari: अवधी, Kaithi: 𑂃𑂫𑂡𑂲)
  2. ^ [4] (औधी, 𑂌𑂡𑂲)
  1. ^ "The Slow Death of Awadhi and Bhojpuri".
  2. ^ "Omniglot — Awadhi (अवधी)".
  3. ^ "'Awadhi language is grouped as mother tongue under Hindi' says Minister of State for Home Affairs".
  4. ^ Oldenburg, Veena Talwar. The Making of Colonial Lucknow, 1856–1877. Princeton University Press. p. 5.
  5. ^ a b Meaning, Nepali (12 August 2023). "Origin, Structure, Development, and Situation of Awadhi Language in Nepal - Nepali Meaning". Retrieved 4 February 2024.
  6. ^ a b c Saxena (1971:1)
  7. ^ Grierson (1904:1)
  8. ^ a b Saxena (1971:6)
  9. ^ Kawoosa, Vijdan Mohammad (22 November 2018). "How languages intersect in India". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 15 October 2022.
  10. ^ Masica (1993:9)- A vast central portion of the subcontinent, consisting of the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh, plus the Union Territory of Delhi, is known as the "HINDI area", because the official and general written language, that is to say, that of administration, press, school instruction, and modern literature, is Hindi, sometimes called MODERN STANDARD HINDI, and the whole area is heir to the "Hindi literary tradition" – Hindi being used here in a different and wider sense, to refer to pre-modern literature in Braj and Awadhi, and often to those languages proper to Rajasthan and Bihar as well
  11. ^ Grierson (1904:10)
  12. ^ Grierson (1904:9–10)
  13. ^ Saksena, Baburam (1971). Evolution of Awadhi (a Branch of Hindi). Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-0855-3.
  14. ^ Verbeke, Saartje (22 March 2013). Alignment and Ergativity in New Indo-Aryan Languages. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-029267-1.
  15. ^ Saxena (1971:2–5)
  16. ^ "सरकारी कामकाजको भाषाका आधारहरूको निर्धारण तथा भाषासम्बन्धी सिफारिसहरू (पञ्चवर्षीय प्रतिवेदन- साराांश) २०७८" (PDF). Language Commission. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 September 2021. Retrieved 28 October 2021.
  17. ^ Fiji Hindi at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022) Closed access icon
  18. ^ Mesthrie, Rajend (1995). Language and Social History: Studies in South African Sociolinguistics. New Africa Books. ISBN 978-0-86486-280-8.
  19. ^ "Awadhi language". Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  20. ^ a b Grierson (1904:2)
  21. ^ Mandal, R. B. (1990). Patterns of Regional Geography: Indian perspective. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 127–129. ISBN 978-81-7022-291-0.
  22. ^ Grierson (1904:13)
  23. ^ Saxena (1971:11–12)
  24. ^ Lutgendorf (1991:1)
  25. ^ Lutgendorf (1991:12)—Since the Ramcaritmanas is a text in the Ramayana tradition, for which the Sanskrit epic of Valmiki is the accepted archetype, it is commonly referred to simply as "the Ramayan" and many popular editions bear only this name on their spine and cover, perhaps adding above it in small print: "composed by Goswami Tulsidas".
  26. ^ Padam, Sandeep (21 March 2018). Hanuman Chalisa: Verse by Verse Description (in Hindi). Notion Press. ISBN 978-1-64249-611-6.
  27. ^ Shamim, Dr Rupali Saran Mirza Dr and Amna (14 November 2016). Lucknow Poetica. Idea Publishing. p. 42.
  28. ^ Vishwananda, Paramahamsa Sri Swami (13 March 2018). Sri Hanuman Chalisa: Commentary on the Praises to the Eternal Servant. BoD – Books on Demand. p. 11. ISBN 978-3-96343-015-2.
  29. ^ a b Saxena (1971:12)
  30. ^ Tulasīdāsa (1999:747)
  31. ^ Rao, I. Panduranga (1998). "Review of The Beautiful Verses (Ram-Charit Manas, "Sunder-Kand" and Hanuman Chalisa of Goswami Tulsidas rendered into English verse)". Indian Literature. 41 (1 (183)): 240–241. ISSN 0019-5804. JSTOR 23341337.
  32. ^ Orsini (2014:200)—"That Brahmin kathavachaks were not the only tellers of the story is proved by the first Hindi vernacular adaptation of the Dasam Skandha, the Haricharit in the Chaupai Doha by Lalach Kavi, a Kayastha from "Hastigram" (present-day Hathgaon) near Rae Bareilly, concluded in 1530 (VS1587)."
  33. ^ Vaudeville (1990:260)–The first editor of the Kabir Granthavali, S.S Das, also stresses the composite character of Kabir's language, giving examples in his introduction, of vanis composed in Khariboli (i.e. Standard Hindi), Rajasthani, and Panjabi, besides Awadhi.
  34. ^ Vaudeville (1990:264)–Among the dialects or languages "melted" in the Hindavi language, the most important is Avadhi, mentioned above. The language of Kabir himself an Easterner, retains old Eastern forms, especially the old Avadhi forms.
  35. ^ Vaudeville (1990:260)–Chaturvedi has shown that the same pada may be found with more characteristic Avadhi forms in the Bijak, with more Khari-boli in the Guru Granth and with Braj forms in the Kabir Granthavali.
  36. ^ Vaudeville (1990:259)–According to Grierson, however, there is not a single word typical of the Bhojpuri language in the Bijak. According to him, the basic language of the Bijak is old Avadhi...
  37. ^ Vaudeville (1990:263)
  38. ^ Orsini (2014:213)
  39. ^ Hawley, John Stratton (2015), Orsini, Francesca; Schofield, Katherine Butler (eds.), "Did Surdas Perform the Bhāgavata-purāṇa?", Tellings and Texts, Music, Literature and Performance in North India (1 ed.), Open Book Publishers, p. 212, ISBN 978-1-78374-102-1, JSTOR j.ctt17rw4vj.15, Then there are the Ahirs whose performances of the Krishna story fascinated Malik Muhammad Jayasi, as he tells us in his Kanhavat of 1540;...
  40. ^ Singh, Virendra (2009). "An Avadhi language account of an earthquake in medieval North India circa AD 1500". Current Science. 96: 1648–1649.
  41. ^ Orsini (2014:209)
  42. ^ Kutban (2012:9)
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  47. ^ Greenberg, Joseph Harold; Kemmer, Suzanne (1990). On Language: Selected Writings of Joseph H. Greenberg. Stanford University Press. pp. 85. ISBN 9780804716130. awadhi.
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  50. ^ Saxena (1971:169)
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Further reading