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Hindustani, also known as Hindi-Urdu, is the vernacular form of two standardized registers used as official languages in India and Pakistan, namely Hindi and Urdu. It comprises several closely related dialects in the northern, central and northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent but is mainly based on Khariboli of the Delhi region. As an Indo-Aryan language, Hindustani has a core base that traces back to Sanskrit but as a widely-spoken lingua franca, it has a large lexicon of loanwords,[1][2] acquired through centuries of foreign rule and ethnic diversity.

Standard Hindi derives much of its formal and technical vocabulary from Sanskrit while standard Urdu derives much of its formal and technical vocabulary from Persian and Arabic. Standard Hindi and Urdu are used primarily in public addresses and radio or TV news, while the everyday spoken language is one of the several varieties of Hindustani, whose vocabulary contains words drawn from Persian, Arabic, and Sanskrit. In addition, spoken Hindustani includes words from English and the Dravidian languages, as well as several others.

Hindustani developed over several centuries throughout much of the northern subcontinent including the areas that comprise modern-day India, Pakistan, and Nepal. In the same way that the core vocabulary of English evolved from Old English (Anglo-Saxon) but assimilated many words borrowed from French and other languages (whose pronunciations often changed naturally so as to become easier for speakers of English to pronounce), what may be called Hindustani can be said to have evolved from Sanskrit while borrowing many Persian and Arabic words over the years, and changing the pronunciations (and often even the meanings) of these words to make them easier for Hindustani speakers to pronounce. Many Persian words entered the Hindustani lexicon due to the influence of the Mughal rulers of north India, who followed a very Persianised culture and also spoke Persian. Many Arabic words entered Hindustani via Persian, which had previously been assimilated into the Persian language due to the influence of Arabs in the area. The dialect of Persian spoken by the Mughal ruling elite was known as 'Dari', which is the dialect of Persian spoken in modern-day Afghanistan. Therefore, Hindustani is the naturally developed common language of north India. This article will deal with the separate categories of Hindustani words and some of the common words found in the Hindustani language.

Categorization

Hindustani words, apart from loans, basically derive from two linguistic categories:

According to the traditional categorization in Hindi (also found in other Indo-Aryan languages except Urdu) the loanwords are classed as tatsam (Hindi: तत्सम "as it is, same as therein") for Sanskrit loans and vides͟hī (Hindi: विदेशी "foreign, non-native") for non-Sanskrit loans,[5] such as those from Persian or English, respectively contrasting with tadbhava and deśaja words.

The most common words in Hindustani are tadbhavas.[citation needed]

Examples of derivations

Second person pronouns

In Hindustani, the pronoun āp (आप آپ) "[one]self", originally used as a third person honorific plural, denotes respect or formality (politeness) and originates from Prakrit 𑀅𑀧𑁆𑀧𑀸 appā, which derived from Sanskrit ātman,[6] which refers to the higher self or level of consciousness.

The pronoun (तू تُو) and its grammatically plural form tum (तुम تم) (also the second person honorific plural) denote informality, familiarity or intimacy and originate respectively from tuhuṃ and tumma from Prakrit 𑀢𑀼𑀁 tuṃ and its variant 𑀢𑀼𑀫𑀁 tumaṃ, which derived from Sanskrit tvam, nominative singular of युष्मद् yuṣmad (the base of the second person plural pronoun).[7][8] In modern usage, is widely used to display a range of attitudes depending on the context, from extreme informality (impoliteness) to extreme intimacy to outright disrespect and even extreme reverence. Usage of in most contexts is considered highly offensive in the formal register except when addressing God as a display of spiritual intimacy. This is very similar to the usage of "thou" in archaic English and many other Indo-European languages showing T–V distinction.

Present "be" verb

One of the most common words in Hindustani, the copula hai (है ہے) and its plural form haiṉ (हैं ہیں) − present forms of honā (होना ہونا, meaning "to be" and originating from Prakrit 𑀪𑁄𑀤𑀺 bhodi derived from Sanskrit bhavati "to happen")[9] − rather originate from the following developments:[10]

Shortening of ahai occurred in Hindustani resulting in hai probably to fulfill the symmetry of the other grammatical forms of honā. Ahai can be found in some older works of Hindustani literature and its evidence can also be seen in other closely related Indo-Aryan languages such as Marathi (आहे āhe) or Sindhi (آهي āhe).

Perfective "go" verb

The verb jānā (जाना جانا, "to go"), which originates from Prakrit 𑀚𑀸𑀤𑀺 jādi derived from Sanskrit yāti ("to move"; root ),[10] however has its perfective form originating from another Prakrit word 𑀕𑀬 gaya derived from Sanskrit gata, past participle of gacchati ("to go"; root gam or gacch),[10] for example, in gayā (गया گیا, "went, gone").

Some other words

The word ājā (आजा آجا) has also been used in Northern India and Pakistan for "grandfather". It is indeed derived from arya meaning "sir" in this case. [citation needed] Jain nuns are addressed either as Aryika or Ajji.

The word dādā (दादा دادا) also has a similar meaning which varies by region. It is used in some regions for "father", in other regions for "older brother", or even for "grandfather" in other regions. This word is an amalgam of two sources:

The word baṛā (बड़ा بڑا "older, bigger, greater") is derived from the Sanskrit vridhha through Prakrit vaḍḍha.

Desi words

The term Desi words is used to describe the component of the lexicon in Indo-Aryan languages which is non-Indo-Aryan in origin, but native to other language families of the Indian subcontinent. Examples of Desi words in Hindustani include:[11][12] loṭā (लोटा لوٹا) "lota (water vessel)", kapās (कपास کپاس) "cotton", kauṛī (कौड़ी کَوڑی) "cowrie (shell money)", ṭhes (ठेस ٹھیس) "wound, injury", jhaṉḍā (झंडा جھنڈا) "flag", mukkā (मुक्का مُکا) "fist, punch", lakṛī (लकड़ी لکڑی) "wood", ṭharrā (ठर्रा ٹھرّا) "tharra (liquor)", čūhā (चूहा چُوہا) "mouse, rat", čūlhā (चूल्हा چُولہا) "stove, oven", pagṛī (पगड़ी پگڑی) "turban", luṉgī (लुंगी لنگی) "lungi (sarong)", ghoṭālā (घोटाला گھوٹالہ) "scam", dāṉḍī (दांडी دانڈی) "salt", jholā (झोला جھولا) "bag, satchel", ṭakkar (टक्कर ٹکر) "crash, collision, confrontation", kākā (काका کاکا) "paternal uncle", uṭpaṭāṉg/ūṭpaṭāṉg (उटपटांग/ऊट-पटांग اُوٹ پٹانگ/اُٹ پٹانگ) "ludicrous", ḍabbā/ḍibbā (डब्बा/डिब्बा ڈبہ) "box, container" and jhuggī (झुग्गी جُھگی) "hut"

Onomatopoeic words

Nouns: gaṛbaṛ (गड़बड़ گڑبڑ) "disorder, disturbance", dhaṛām (धड़ाम دھڑام) "thud", bakbak (बक-बक بک بک) "chatter/chitter-chatter", khusur pusar (खुसुर-पुसर کُھسر پُسر) "whisper", jhilmil (झिलमिल جِھلمِل) "shimmer", ṭhakṭhak (ठक-ठक ٹھک ٹھک) "knock knock", khaṭpaṭ (खटपट کھٹپٹ) "quarrel, disagreement"
Verbs: khaṭkhaṭānā (खटखटाना کھٹکھٹانا) "to knock", gaḍgaḍānā (गडगडाना گڈگڈانا) "to rumble, to fuss", jagmagānā (जगमगाना جگمگانا) "to shine/glitter", hinhinānā (हिनहिनाना ہِنہِنانا) "to neigh", phusphusānā (फुसफुसाना پُھسپُھسانا) "to whisper"
Adjectives and Adverbs: čaṭpaṭ (चट-पट چٹ پٹ) "in a jiffy", tharthar (थर-थर تھر تھر) "with jerky motion (characteristic of shaking or trembling)", čaṭpaṭā (चटपटा چٹپٹا) "dextrous, spicy", čipčipā (चिपचिपा چِپچِپا) "sticky, slimy", čiṛčiṛā (चिड़चिड़ा چِڑچِڑا) "irritable", gaṛbaṛiyā (गड़बड़िया گڑبڑیا) "chaotic, messy"

Loanwords

Due to the language's status as a lingua franca, Hindustani's vocabulary has a large inventory of loanwords, the largest number of which are adopted from Punjabi. Punjabi borrowings often bear sound changes from the parent Prakrit and Sanskrit vocabulary which did not occur in Hindustani, particularly the preservation of short vowels in initial syllables and the gemination of the following consonant. A certain amount of vocabulary from other South Asian languages, Persian, Arabic, and English has been loaned indirectly into Hindustani through Punjabi.[13] Other Indic languages which exist in a state of diglossia with Hindustani and are prone to mutual borrowing include Rajasthani, the Western Pahari languages, Haryanvi, Bhojpuri, Marathi, Nepali, and Gujarati. Besides these, common sources of loan words include those manually adopted from Classical Sanskrit, Classical Persian, Arabic, Chagatai Turkic, Portuguese and English, as well as Mandarin Chinese and French to a lesser extent.

Classical Sanskrit

Phonetic alterations

Many Classical Sanskrit words which were not learned borrowings underwent phonetic alterations. In the vernacular form, these include the merger of Sanskrit श (śa) and ष (ṣa), ण (ṇa) and न (na) as well as ऋ (r̥) and रि (ri). Other common alterations were s͟h [/ʃ/] (श ش) becoming s [/s/] (स س), v/w [/ʋ/, /w/] (व و) becoming b [/b/] (ब ب) and y [/j/] (य ی) becoming j [/dʒ/] (ज ج). Short vowels were also sometimes introduced to break up consonant clusters. Such words in Hindi (and other Indo-Aryan languages except Urdu) are called ardhatatsam (Hindi: अर्धतत्सम "semi-tatsam").

Hindustani Meaning Sanskrit Corresponding Persian loan
ardhatatsam tatsam
baras (बरस برس) varṣ (वर्ष) year वर्ष (varṣa) sāl (साल سال), san (सन سَن)
des (देस دیس) deśa (देश) country देश (deśa) mulk (मुल्क مُلک), vatan (वतन وطن)
bāsī (बासी باسی) vāsī (वासी) inhabitant वासी (vāsī) bāśindā (बाशिन्दा باشندہ)
jantar (जन्तर جنتر) yantra (यन्त्र) device यन्त्र (yantra) ālā (आला آلہ)
rāt (रात رات) rātri (रात्रि) night रात्रि (rātri) śab (शब شب), lail (लैल لَیل)
ādhā (आधा آدھا) ardh (अर्ध) half अर्ध (ardha) nisf (निस्फ़ نِصف), nem (नेम نیم)
sūraj (सूरज سُورج) sūrya (सूर्य) sun सूर्य (sūrya) śams (शम्स شمس), āftāb (आफ़ताब آفتاب)
pūrā (पूरा پورا) pūrṇ (पूर्ण) complete पूर्ण (pūrṇa) tamām (तमाम تمام), mukammal (मुकम्मल مُکمّل)
ūncā/ūm̐cā (ऊंचा/ऊँचा اُونچا) ucc (उच्च) high/tall उच्च (ucca) buland (बुलन्द بُلند), aʾalā (आ'ला اعلیٰ)
kām (काम کام) karm (कर्म) action कर्म (karma) kār (कार کار)
nēm (नेम نیم) niyam (नियम) rule नियम (niyama) qāʾedā (क़ाएदा قاعدہ)
dakhin (दखिन دکِھن) dakṣiṇa (दक्षिण) south दक्षिण (dakṣiṇa) junūb (जुनूब جُنوب)
nain (नैन نَین) nayan (नयन) eye नयन (nayana) caśm (चश्म چشم)
lāj (लाज لاج) lajjā (लज्जा) shame लज्जा (lajjā) Śarm (शर्म شرم), hayā (हया حَیا)

Classical Persian

Persian words which were not later artificially added were loaned from Classical Persian, the historical variety of the tenth, eleventh and twelfth centuries, which continued to be used as literary language and lingua franca under the Persianate dynasties of the Late Middle Ages and Early Modern Era and is not the same as Modern Persian (though the Dari Persian of Afghanistan is a direct descendant).

Borrowings

Persian loanwords in Hindustani are mainly borrowed nouns and adjectives as well as adverbs and conjunctions and some other parts of speech.

Hindustani Meaning Persian Corresponding Sanskrit loan
sāyā (साया سایہ) shadow/shade سایه (sāya) čhāyā (छाया چھایا)
pares͟hān (परेशान پریشان) anxious پرِیشان (parēšān) čintit (चिंतित چِنتِت)
hames͟hā (हमेशा ہميشہ) always/forever همِیشه (hamēša) sadaiv (सदैव سدَیو), sadā (सदा سدا)
k͟hus͟hī (ख़ुशी خوشی) happiness خوشی (xušī) ānand (आनंद آنند), sukh (सुख سُکھ)
sabzī (सब्ज़ी سبزی) vegetable سبزی (sabzī) sāg (साग ساگ), s͟hāk (शाक شاک)
mehrbān (मेहरबान مہربان) kind مهربان (meherbān) dayālu (दयालु دَیالو), karunāmaya (करुणामय کرُنامیَ)
agar (अगर اگر) if اگر (agar) yadi (यदि یدی)
dīvār (दीवार دیوار) wall دیوار (dīwār) bhīt (भीत بھیت)
darvāzā (दरवाज़ा دروازه) door/gate دروازه (darwāza) dwār (द्वार دوار)
andar (अंदर اندر) inside/in اندر (andar) bhītar (भीतर بھیتر)
tāzā (ताज़ा تازه) fresh تازه (tāza) nirjar (निर्जर نِرجر), jarhīn (जरहीन جرہین)
roz (रोज़ روز) day رُوز (rōz) din (दिन دِن), diwas (दिवस دِوس)
s͟hahr (शहर شہر) city شهر (šahr) nagar (नगर نگر)
hind (हिंद ہِند) India هند (hind) bhārat (भारत بھارت)
ki (कि کہ) that (conjunction) که (ki) -
vāh (वाह واہ) wow واه (wāh) -

From stems:

Present:

Hindustani Meaning Persian verb Non-Persian alternative
par (पर پر) wing پریدن (parīdan, "to fly") paṉkh (पंख پنکھ)
pasand (पसंद پسند) liked, liking پسندیدن (pasandīdan, "to prefer") čahit (चहित چہِت), čāhat (चाहत چاہت)
k͟hwāb/k͟hāb (ख़्वाब/ख़ाब خواب) dream خوابیدن (xābīdan, "to sleep") sapnā (सपना سپنا), swapna (स्वप्न سوَپنہ)

Past:

Hindustani Meaning Persian verb Non-Persian alternative
āmad (आमद آمد) arrival آمدن (āmadan, "to come") āgaman (आगमन آگمن)
s͟hikast (शिकस्त شِکست) defeat, defeated شکستن (šikastan, "to break") parājay (पराजय پراجَی), parājit (पराजित پراجِت), hār (हार ہار)
giraft (गिरफ़्त گِرفت) grip, gripped گرفتن (giriftan, "to grab") pakaṛ (पकड़ پکڑ), jabt (जब्त جبت)

From participles:

Present:

Hindustani Meaning Persian verb Non-Persian alternative
āyindā/āʾindā (आइन्दा آینده) future آمدن (āmadan, "to come") bhaviṣya (भविष्य بھوِشیہ), āgāmī (आगामी آگامی)
parindā (परिन्दा پرِنده) bird پریدن (parīdan, "to fly") pančhī (पंछी پنچھی), pakṣī (पक्षी پکشی)
zindā (ज़िन्दा زِنده) living, alive زیستن (zīstan, "to live") jīvit (जीवित جیوِت), jīvant (जीवंत جیونت)

Past:

Hindustani Meaning Persian verb Non-Persian alternative
bastā (बस्ता بستہ) bag, sack بستن (bastan, "to bind") thailā (थैला تھیلا)
pasandīdā (पसन्दीदा پسندیده) favorite پسندیدن (pasandīdan, "to prefer") priya (प्रिय پریہ)
murdā (मुर्दा مُرده) dead مردن (murdan, "to die") mr̥t (मृत مرت), hat (हत ہت)

By adding noun suffix ـِش (-iš):

Hindustani Meaning Persian verb Non-Persian alternative
parvaris͟h (परवरिश پرورِش) upbringing, rearing پروردن (parwardan, "to foster") pālanpoṣaṇ (पालन-पोषण پالن پوشن)
kos͟his͟h (कोशिश کوشِش) effort, attempt کوشیدن (kōšīdan, "to attempt") prayās (प्रयास پریاس)
varzis͟h (वर्ज़िश ورزِش) exercise ورزیدن (warzīdan, "to exercise") vyāyām (व्यायाम ویایام)
āzmāʾis͟h (आज़माइश آزمائش) trial, test آزمودن (āzmūdan, "to test") vičāraṇ (विचारण وچارن), parīkṣaṇ (परीक्षण پریکشن)

By forming composite words with Arabic:

Hindustani Meaning Persian affix Arabic element Non-Persian alternative
k͟hūbsūrat (ख़ूबसूरत خوبصورت) beautiful خوب (xūb, "good") صورت (sūrat, "appearance") sundar (सुंदर سُندر)
darasal (दरअसल دراصل) actually در (dar, "at, in") اصل (asl, "reality") vastutah (वस्तुत: وستُتہ), vastabik (वास्तबिक واستبِک)
fīsad (फ़ीसद فیصد) percent صد (sad, "hundred") فی (, "in, at") pratis͟hat (प्रतिशत پرتِشت), s͟hatansh (शतांश ستانش)
rahmdil (रहमदिल رحمدل) compassionate دل (dil, "heart") رحم (rahm, "mercy") kr̥pālū (कृपालु کرپالو), saday (सदय سدئے)

Loaned Verbs

A substantial number of Hindustani verbs have been loaned from Punjabi,[13] however, verb stems originating in less closely related languages are relatively rare. There are a few common verbs formed directly out of Persian stems (or nouns in some cases) listed below.

Hindustani verb Verb meaning Persian stem Stem meaning Non-Persian alternative
k͟harīdnā (ख़रीदना خریدنا) to buy خرید (xarīd) - noun buy, purchase kray karnā (क्रय करना کرئے کرنا), mol lenā (मोल लेना مول لینا)
guzārnā (गुज़ारना گُذارنا) to pass (transitive), to spend گذار (guẕār) letting bitānā (बिताना بِتانا)
navāznā (नवाज़ना نوازنا) to bestow, to patronize, to favor نواز (nawāz) playing, caressing pradān karnā (प्रदान करना پرَدان کرنا), arpit karnā (अर्पित करना ارپِت کرنا), kr̥pā karnā (कृपा करना کرِپا کرنا), sahāyatā denā (सहायता देना سہایتا دینا)
guzarnā (गुज़रना گُذرنا) to pass (intransitive), to occur گذر (guẕar) passing bītnā (बीतना بِیتنا)
farmānā (फ़रमाना فرمانا) to dictate, to say (formal) فرما (farmā) ordering, saying (formal) āgyā karnā (आज्ञा करना آگیا کرنا), ādes͟h karnā (आदेश करना آدیش کرنا)
badalnā (बदलना بدلنا) to change بدل (badl) - noun substitute, change parivartan karnā (परिवर्तन करना پرِوَرتن کرنا), vinimay karnā (विनिमय करना وِنِمئے کرنا), palṭā denā (पलटा देना پلٹا دینا)
laraznā (लरज़ना لرزنا) to tremble لرز (laraz) shivering kāṉpnā (कांपना کانبنا)
guzrānnā (गुज़रानना گُذراننا) to pass time, to present, to adduce گذران (guẕarān) passing time prastut karnā (प्रस्तुत करना پرستُت کرنا), sāmne rakhnā (सामने रखना سامنے رکھنا)

Arabic

Some of the most commonly used words from Arabic, all entering the language through Persian, include vaqt (वक़्त وقت) "time", qalam (क़लम قلم) "pen", kitāb (किताब کتاب) "book", qarīb (क़रीब قریب) "near", sahīh/sahī (सहीह/सही سہی/صحیح) "correct, right", g͟harīb (ग़रीब غریب) "poor", amīr (अमीर امیر) "rich", duniyā (दुनिया دنیا) "world", hisāb (हिसाब حساب) "calculation", qudrat (क़ुदरत قدرت) "nature", nasīb (नसीब نصیب) "fate, luck, fortune", ajīb (अजीब عجیب) "strange, unusual", qānūn (क़ानून قانون) "law", filhāl (फ़िलहाल فی الحال) "currently", sirf (सिर्फ़ صرف) "only, mere", taqrīban (तक़रीबन تقریبًا) "close to, about", k͟habar (ख़बर خبر) "news", ak͟hbār (अख़बार اخبار) "newspaper", qilā (क़िला قلعہ) "fort", kursī (कुर्सी کرسی) "chair, seat", s͟harbat (शर्बत شربت) "drink, beverage", muāf/māf (मुआफ़/माफ़ معاف) "forgiven, pardoned", zarūrī (ज़रूरी ضروری) "necessary", etc.[14]

Chagatai Turkic

There are a very small number of Turkic words in Hindustani, numbering as little as 24 according to some sources,[15] all entering the language through Persian. Other words attributed to Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language, are actually words which are common to Hindustani and Turkish but are of non-Turkic origins, mostly Perso-Arabic.[16] Both languages also share mutual loans from English. Most notably, some honorifics and surnames common in Hindustani are Turkic due to the influence of the ethnically Turkic Mughals - these include k͟hānam (ख़ानम خانم), bājī (बाजी باجی) "sister", and begam (बेगम بیگم). Common surnames include k͟hān (ख़ान خان), čug͟htāʾī (चुग़ताई چغتائی), pās͟hā (पाशा پاشا), and arsalān (अर्सलान ارسلان). Common Turkic words used in everyday Hindustani are qaiṉčī/qainčī (क़ैंची قینچی) "scissors", annā (अन्ना انّا) "governess", tamg͟hā (तमग़ा تمغا) "stamp, medal", and čaqmaq (चक़मक़ چقمق) "flint".

Mandarin Chinese

There are not many Chinese words that were loaned into Hindustani in spite of geographical proximity.

Hindustani Meaning Chinese/Sinitic Note
čāy/čāʾe (चाय چائے/چاۓ) tea 茶 (chá) Derived through Persian چای (čāy)
čīn (चीन چین) China 秦 (qín) Derived through Sanskrit चीन (cīna)
līčī (लीची لِیچی) lychee 茘枝 (lìzhī)

European languages

Portuguese

A small number of Hindustani words were derived from Portuguese due to interaction with colonists and missionaries. These include the following:

Hindustani Meaning Portuguese
anannās/anānās (अनन्नास/अनानास اناناس/انناس) pineapple ananás
pādrī (पाद्री پادری) priest padre
bālṭī (बाल्टी بالٹی) bucket balde
čābī (चाबी چابی) key chave
girjā (गिर्जा گِرجا) church igreja
almārī (अलमारी الماری) cupboard armário
botal (बोतल بوتل) bottle botelha
aspatāl (अस्पताल اسپتال) hospital Hospital
olandez/valandez (ओलंदेज़/वलंदेज़ ولندیز/اولندیز) Dutch holandês

French

A few French loans exist in Hindustani resulting from French colonial settlements in India. Other French words such as s͟hemīz (शेमीज़ شیمِیز) "chemise" and kūpan (कूपन کُوپن) "coupon" have entered the language through English.

Hindustani Meaning French
kārtūs (कारतूस کارتُوس) cartridge cartouche
restorāṉ (रेस्तोरां/रेस्तोराँ ریستوراں) restaurant restaurant

English

See also: Hinglish

Loanwords from English were borrowed through interaction with the British East India Company and later British rule. English-language education for the native administrative and richer classes during British rule accelerated the adoption of English vocabulary in Hindustani. Many technical and modern terms were and still are borrowed from English, such as ḍākṭar/ḍôkṭar (डाक्टर/डॉक्टर ڈاکٹر) "doctor", ṭaiksī (टैक्सी ٹَیکسی) "taxi", and kilomīṭar (किलोमीटर کِلومِیٹر) "kilometer".

Photo-semantic matching

Some loanwords from English undergo a significant phonetic transformation. This can either be done intentionally, in order to nativize words or to make them sound more or less "English-sounding", or happen naturally. Words often undergo a phonetic change in order to make them easier for native speakers to pronounce while others change due to a lack of English education or incomplete knowledge of English phonetics, where an alternate pronunciation becomes an accepted norm and overtakes the original as the most used pronunciation.

Hindustani English
darjan (दर्जन درجن)[17] dozen
tijorī (तिजोरी تِجوری) treasury
satalta (सतलता ستلتا) subtlety
māčis (माचिस ماچِس) match(es)
godām (गोदाम گودام) godown
bigul (बिगुल بِگُل) bugle
raṉgrūṭ (रंगरूट رنگرُوٹ) recruit
ṭamāṭar (टमाटर ٹماٹر) tomato
kābīnā (काबीना کابینہ) cabinet
ketlī (केतली کیتلی) kettle
darāz (दराज़ دراز) drawer(s)
bam (बम بم) bomb
lālṭen (लालटेन لالٹین) lantern
būčaṛ (बूचड़ بُوچڑ) butcher
ṭaṉkī (टंकी ٹنکی) tank
baksā (बक्सा بکسا) box
janvarī (जनवरी جنوری) January

References

  1. ^ "A Guide to Hindi". BBC - Languages - Hindi. BBC. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  2. ^ Kumar, Nitin (28 June 2011). "Hindi & Its Origin". Hindi Language Blog. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  3. ^ a b Grierson, George (1920). "Indo-Aryan Vernaculars (Continued)". Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies. 3 (1): 51–85. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00087152. S2CID 161798254. at pp. 67-69.
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Masica, p. 65
  6. ^ "aap". rekhta.org. Rekhta Foundation. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  7. ^ "tum". rekhta.org. Rekhta Foundation. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
  8. ^ "tu". rekhta.org. Rekhta Foundation. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
  9. ^ Platts, John T. "هونا होना honā". A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English (Digital Dictionaries of South Asia). Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  10. ^ a b c Monier-Williams, Monier; Cappeller, Carl; Leumann, Ernst; Monier-Williams, Montagu Sneade Faithfull (1899). A Sanskrit-English dictionary, etymologically and philologically arranged, with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages, by Sir Monier Monier-Williams, ... New edition, greatly enlarged and improved with the collaboration of professor E. Leumann, ... professor C. Cappeller, ... and other scholars. The Clarendon Press. OCLC 458052227.
  11. ^ "Deshaj, Videshaj and Sankar Shabd Examples, Types and Definition". www.successcds.net. 28 May 2021.
  12. ^ "देशज, संकर और विदेशी शब्द". Hindi Gyan Ganga. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  13. ^ a b Vidya Bhaskar Arun (1961), A Comparative Phonology of Hindi And Punjabi, Wikidata Q116167814
  14. ^ Platts, John T. "A قميص qamīṣ, vulg. qamīz, kamīj, s.m. A shirt; a shift; a chemise (cf. It. camicia; Port. camisa)". A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English. University of Chicago. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  15. ^ Anwer, Syed Mohammed (13 November 2011). "Language: Urdu and the borrowed words". dawn.com.
  16. ^ Maldonado García, María Isabel; Yapici, Mustafa (2014). "Common Vocabulary in Urdu and Turkish Language: A Case of Historical Onomasiology" (PDF). Pakistan Vision. 15 (1): 194–225.
  17. ^ With intrusive hypercorrectional 'r' via arhotic British English

Sources