Pakistani Urdu Braille
Script type
Print basis
Urdu alphabet
LanguagesUrdu (in Pakistan)
Related scripts
Parent systems
Indian Urdu Braille
Script type (?)
Print basis
LanguagesUrdu (In India)
Related scripts
Parent systems

Urdu Braille is the braille alphabet used for Urdu. There are two standard braille alphabets for Urdu, one in Pakistan and the other in India. The Pakistani alphabet is based on Persian Braille and is in use throughout the country, while the Indian alphabet is based on national Bharati Braille.

Differences from Persian and Bharati Braille

Besides the addition of Urdu-specific consonants analogous to the additional letters in the print Urdu alphabet compared to the Persian alphabet, Pakistani Urdu Braille differs from Persian Braille in the transcription of the print letter ژ ž, which is written as a digraph in Urdu braille rather than as Persian , which in Urdu is used for ڈ . (The use of ژ is negligible in Urdu by comparison; the only common use for it is to represent the “s” sound in the English word “division.”)

Indian Urdu Braille differs from other Bharati braille alphabets in having several letters borrowed from Persian, such as for ق q (Bharati kṣ), for ح (Bharati ), and for ع (Bharati ). Another such letter, for خ x, is shared with Gurmukhi Braille ਖ਼ x but with no other Bharati alphabet, where is otherwise the vowel o.


Note: Unlike the Perso-Arabic script, Urdu Braille is read left-to-right.[1]
Print Pakistan India
ا ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1) (?)
آ ā ⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)
ب b ⠃ (braille pattern dots-12)
بھ bh ⠆ (braille pattern dots-23) ⠘ (braille pattern dots-45)
پ p ⠏ (braille pattern dots-1234)
پھ ph ⠖ (braille pattern dots-235)
ت t ⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345)
تھ th ⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256) ⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456)
ٹ ⠪ (braille pattern dots-246) ⠾ (braille pattern dots-23456)
ٹھ ṭh ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135) ⠺ (braille pattern dots-2456)
ث /s/ ⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5)⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456)
ج j ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)
جھ jh ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356)
چ c ⠉ (braille pattern dots-14)
چھ ch ⠡ (braille pattern dots-16)
ح ⠱ (braille pattern dots-156)
خ x ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346)
د d ⠙ (braille pattern dots-145)
دھ dh ⠙ (braille pattern dots-145)⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠮ (braille pattern dots-2346)
ڈ ⠬ (braille pattern dots-346) ⠫ (braille pattern dots-1246)
ڈھ ḍh ⠬ (braille pattern dots-346)⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠿ (braille pattern dots-123456)
ذ /z/ ⠮ (braille pattern dots-2346) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5)⠮ (braille pattern dots-2346)
ر r ⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235)
ڑ ⠻ (braille pattern dots-12456)
ڑھ ṛh ⠻ (braille pattern dots-12456)⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5)⠻ (braille pattern dots-12456)
ز z ⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356)
ژ ž ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5)⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5)⠴ (braille pattern dots-356)
س s ⠎ (braille pattern dots-234)
ش š ⠩ (braille pattern dots-146)
ص /s/ ⠯ (braille pattern dots-12346)
ض /z/ ⠫ (braille pattern dots-1246) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5)⠫ (braille pattern dots-1246)
ط /t/ ⠾ (braille pattern dots-23456) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5)⠾ (braille pattern dots-23456)
ظ ż /z/ ⠿ (braille pattern dots-123456) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5)⠿ (braille pattern dots-123456)
ع ⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356)
غ ğ ⠣ (braille pattern dots-126) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5)⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)
ف f ⠋ (braille pattern dots-124)
ق q ⠟ (braille pattern dots-12345)
ک k ⠅ (braille pattern dots-13)
کھ kh ⠅ (braille pattern dots-13)⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46)
گ g ⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)
گھ gh ⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠣ (braille pattern dots-126)
ل l ⠇ (braille pattern dots-123)
م m ⠍ (braille pattern dots-134)
ن n ⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345)
ں (nasal) ⠰ (braille pattern dots-56)
و v/w ⠺ (braille pattern dots-2456) v ⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)
ū ⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256)
ō ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
au ⠪ (braille pattern dots-246)
ه h ⠓ (braille pattern dots-125)
ء ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3) (?)
ی y ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) y ⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456)
ī ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35)
ے ē ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34) ē ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
ai ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34)
َ◌ a ⠂ (braille pattern dots-2) (?)
ِ◌ i ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15) (same?)
ُ◌ u ⠥ (braille pattern dots-136) (same?)
اً an ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) (?)

It is not clear if vowels in Indian Urdu Braille follow pronunciation and their Devanagari Braille equivalents, or print orthography.


Pakistani Urdu Braille has several contractions beyond the aspirated consonants:

كو , اس , ان , و ن گ ,[2] نا , نے , يا , لا , بے , أ .[3]


Basic punctuation in Pakistan is the same as in India. See Bharati Braille#Punctuation.

See also


  1. ^ Sana Shokat; Rabia Riaz; Sanam Shahla Rizvi; Khalil Khan; Farina Riaz; Se Jin Kwon (26 July 2020). "Analysis and evaluation of Braille to text conversion methods". Mobile Information Systems. 2020. doi:10.1155/2020/3461651. ISSN 1574-017X. Wikidata Q119357615.
  2. ^ Presumably for writing the subjunctive first person singular forms of verbs, as in کروں‌گا
  3. ^ Urdu braille contractions and abbreviations. 2022-03-10. Retrieved 2023-06-11.