Countries with widespread use of the Cyrillic script: .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Sole official script   Co-official with another script (either because the official language is biscriptal, or the state is bilingual)   Being replaced with Latin, but is still in official use   Legacy script for the official language, or large minority use   Cyrillic is not widely used
Countries with widespread use of the Cyrillic script:
  Sole official script
  Co-official with another script (either because the official language is biscriptal, or the state is bilingual)
  Being replaced with Latin, but is still in official use
  Legacy script for the official language, or large minority use
  Cyrillic is not widely used

Numerous Cyrillic alphabets are based on the Cyrillic script. The early Cyrillic alphabet was developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the 9th century AD (in all probability in Ravna Monastery) at the Preslav Literary School by Saint Clement of Ohrid and Saint Naum and replaced the earlier Glagolitic script developed by the Byzantine theologians Cyril and Methodius (in all probability in Polychron). It is the basis of alphabets used in various languages, past and present, in parts of Southeastern Europe and Northern Eurasia, especially those of Slavic origin, and non-Slavic languages influenced by Russian. As of 2011, around 252 million people in Eurasia use it as the official alphabet for their national languages. About half of them are in Russia. Cyrillic is one of the most-used writing systems in the world.

Some of these are illustrated below; for others, and for more detail, see the links. Sounds are transcribed in the IPA. While these languages by and large have phonemic orthographies, there are occasional exceptions—for example, Russian ⟨г⟩ is pronounced /v/ in a number of words, an orthographic relic from when they were pronounced /ɡ/ (e.g. его yego 'him/his', is pronounced [jɪˈvo] rather than [jɪˈɡo]).

Spellings of names transliterated into the Roman alphabet may vary, especially й (y/j/i), but also г (gh/g/h) and ж (zh/j).

Unlike the Latin script, which is usually adapted to different languages by adding diacritical marks/supplementary glyphs (such as accents, umlauts, fadas, tildes and cedillas) to standard Roman letters, by assigning new phonetic values to existing letters (e.g. <c>, whose original value in Latin was /k/, represents /ts/ in West Slavic languages, /ʕ/ in Somali, /t͡ʃ/ in many African languages and /d͡ʒ/ in Turkish), or by the use of digraphs (such as <sh>, <ch>, <ng> and <ny>), the Cyrillic script is usually adapted by the creation of entirely new letter shapes. However, in some alphabets invented in the 19th century, such as Mari, Udmurt and Chuvash, umlauts and breves also were used.

Bulgarian and Bosnian Sephardim without Hebrew typefaces occasionally printed Judeo-Spanish in Cyrillic.[1]

Spread

Non-Slavic alphabets are generally modelled after Russian, but often bear striking differences, particularly when adapted for Caucasian languages. The first few of these alphabets were developed by Orthodox missionaries for the Finnic and Turkic peoples of Idel-Ural (Mari, Udmurt, Mordva, Chuvash, and Kerashen Tatars) in the 1870s. Later, such alphabets were created for some of the Siberian and Caucasus peoples who had recently converted to Christianity. In the 1930s, some of those languages were switched to the Uniform Turkic Alphabet. All of the peoples of the former Soviet Union who had been using an Arabic or other Asian script (Mongolian script etc.) also adopted Cyrillic alphabets, and during the Great Purge in the late 1930s, all of the Latin alphabets of the peoples of the Soviet Union were switched to Cyrillic as well (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia were occupied and annexed by Soviet Union in 1940, and were not affected by this change). The Abkhazian and Ossetian languages were switched to Georgian script, but after the death of Joseph Stalin, both also adopted Cyrillic. The last language to adopt Cyrillic was the Gagauz language, which had used Greek script before.

In Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, the use of Cyrillic to write local languages has often been a politically controversial issue since the collapse of the Soviet Union, as it evokes the era of Soviet rule and Russification. Some of Russia's peoples such as the Tatars have also tried to drop Cyrillic, but the move was halted under Russian law. A number of languages have switched from Cyrillic to either a Roman-based orthography or a return to a former script.

Common letters

The following table lists the Cyrillic letters which are used in the alphabets of most of the national languages which use a Cyrillic alphabet. Exceptions and additions for particular languages are noted below.

Common Cyrillic letters
Upright Italic Name(s) IPA
А а А а A /a/
Б б Б б Be /b/
В в В в Ve /v/
Г г Г г Ge /ɡ/
Д д Д д De /d/
Е е Е е
  • /je/
  • /ʲe/
Ж ж Ж ж /ʒ/
З з З з Ze /z/
И и И и I
  • /i/
  • /ʲi/
Й й Й й Short I[a] /j/
К к К к Ka /k/
Л л Л л El /l/
М м М м Em /m/
Н н Н н /n/
О о О о O /o/
П п П п Pe /p/
Р р Р р /r/
С с С с Es /s/
Т т Т т Te /t/
У у У у U /u/
Ф ф Ф ф /f/
Х х Х х /x/
Ц ц Ц ц
  • /ts/
  • (t͡s)
Ч ч Ч ч
Ш ш Ш ш /ʃ/
Щ щ Щ щ
[b]
Ь ь Ь ь /ʲ/[e]
Э э Э э E /e/
Ю ю Ю ю
  • /ju/
  • /ʲu/
Я я Я я
  • /ja/
  • /ʲa/
  1. ^ Russian: и краткое, i kratkoye; Bulgarian: и кратко, i kratko. Both mean "short i".
  2. ^ See the notes for each language for details
  3. ^ Russian: мягкий знак, myagkiy znak
  4. ^ Bulgarian: ер малък, er malâk
  5. ^ The soft sign ⟨ь⟩ usually does not represent a sound, but modifies the sound of the preceding letter, indicating palatalization ("softening"), also separates the consonant and the following vowel. Sometimes it does not have phonetic meaning, just orthographic; e.g. Russian туш, tush [tuʂ] 'flourish after a toast'; тушь, tushʹ [tuʂ] 'India ink'. In some languages, a hard sign ⟨ъ⟩ or apostrophe ⟨’⟩ just separates the consonant and the following vowel (бя [bʲa], бья [bʲja], бъя = б’я [bja]).

Slavic languages

Cyrillic alphabets used by Slavic languages can be divided into two categories:

East Slavic

Russian

Main articles: Russian alphabet and language

The Russian Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й
К к Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Т т У у Ф ф
Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Notes:

  1. In the pre-reform Russian orthography, in Old East Slavic and in Old Church Slavonic the letter is called yer. Historically, the "hard sign" takes the place of a now-absent vowel, which is still preserved as a distinct vowel in Bulgarian (which represents it with ъ) and Slovene (which is written in the Latin alphabet and writes it as e), but only in some places in the word.
  2. When an iotated vowel (vowel whose sound begins with [j]) follows a consonant, the consonant is palatalized. The Hard Sign indicates that this does not happen, and the [j] sound will appear only in front of the vowel. The Soft Sign indicates that the consonant should be palatalized in addition to a [j] preceding the vowel. The Soft Sign also indicates that a consonant before another consonant or at the end of a word is palatalized. Examples: та ([ta]); тя ([tʲa]); тья ([tʲja]); тъя ([tja]); т (/t/); ть ([tʲ]).

Before 1918, there were four extra letters in use: Іі (replaced by Ии), Ѳѳ (Фита "Fita", replaced by Фф), Ѣѣ (Ять "Yat", replaced by Ее), and Ѵѵ (ижица "Izhitsa", replaced by Ии); these were eliminated by reforms of Russian orthography.

Belarusian

Main articles: Belarusian alphabet and language

See also: Russian alphabet

The Belarusian Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з І і Й й
К к Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Т т У у Ў ў
Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я '

The Belarusian alphabet displays the following features:

Ukrainian

Main articles: Ukrainian alphabet and language

The Ukrainian Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Ґ ґ Д д Е е Є є Ж ж З з И и
І і Ї ї Й й К к Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с
Т т У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ь ь Ю ю Я я

The Ukrainian alphabet displays the following features:

Rusyn

Main article: Rusyn language

The Rusyn language is spoken by the Carpatho-Rusyns in Carpathian Ruthenia, Slovakia, and Poland, and the Pannonian Rusyns in Croatia and Serbia.

The Rusyn Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Ґ ґ Д д Е е Є є Ё ё* Ж ж З з
И и І і* Ы ы* Ї ї Й й К к Л л М м Н н О о П п
Р р С с Т т У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ѣ ѣ*
Ю ю Я я Ь ь Ъ ъ*

*Letters absent from Pannonian Rusyn alphabet.

South Slavic

Bulgarian

Main articles: Bulgarian alphabet and language

First Bulgarian Empire, 9th century (850)
First Bulgarian Empire, 9th century (850)
The Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ж ж З з И и Й й
К к Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Т т У у
Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ь ь Ю ю Я я

The Bulgarian alphabet features:

The Cyrillic alphabet was originally developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the 9th – 10th century AD at the Preslav Literary School.[2][3]

It has been used in Bulgaria (with modifications and exclusion of certain archaic letters via spelling reforms) continuously since then, superseding the previously used Glagolitic alphabet, which was also invented and used there before the Cyrillic script overtook its use as a written script for the Bulgarian language. The Cyrillic alphabet was used in the then much bigger territory of Bulgaria (including most of today's Serbia), North Macedonia, Kosovo, Albania, Northern Greece (Macedonia region), Romania and Moldova, officially from 893. It was also transferred from Bulgaria and adopted by the East Slavic languages in Kievan Rus' and evolved into the Russian alphabet and the alphabets of many other Slavic (and later non-Slavic) languages. Later, some Slavs modified it and added/excluded letters from it to better suit the needs of their own language varieties.

Serbian

Main articles: Serbian Cyrillic alphabet and language

Alternate variants of lowercase Cyrillic letters: Б/б, Д/д, Г/г, И/и, П/п, Т/т, Ш/ш.    Default Russian (Eastern) forms on the left.   Alternate Bulgarian (Western) upright forms in the middle.    Alternate Serbian/Macedonian (Southern) italic forms on the right. See also:
Alternate variants of lowercase Cyrillic letters: Б/б, Д/д, Г/г, И/и, П/п, Т/т, Ш/ш.
  Default Russian (Eastern) forms on the left.
  Alternate Bulgarian (Western) upright forms in the middle.
  Alternate Serbian/Macedonian (Southern) italic forms on the right.

See also:
Cyrillic cursive.svg
Special Cyrillics BGDPT.svg

South Slavic Cyrillic alphabets (with the exception of Bulgarian) are generally derived from Serbian Cyrillic. It, and by extension its descendants, differs from the East Slavic ones in that the alphabet has generally been simplified: Letters such as Я, Ю, and Ё, representing /ja/, /ju/, and /jo/ in Russian, respectively, have been removed. Instead, these are represented by the digraphs ⟨ја⟩, ⟨јu⟩, and ⟨јо⟩, respectively. Additionally, the letter Е, representing /je/ in Russian, is instead pronounced /e/ or /ɛ/, with /je/ being represented by ⟨јe⟩. Alphabets based on the Serbian that add new letters often do so by adding an acute accent ⟨´⟩ over an existing letter.

The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Ђ ђ Е е Ж ж З з И и
Ј ј К к Л л Љ љ М м Н н Њ њ О о П п Р р
С с Т т Ћ ћ У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Џ џ Ш ш

The Serbian alphabet shows the following features:

Macedonian

Macedonian cursive
Macedonian cursive

Main articles: Macedonian alphabet and language

The Macedonian Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Ѓ ѓ Е е Ж ж З з Ѕ ѕ И и
Ј ј К к Л л Љ љ М м Н н Њ њ О о П п Р р С с
Т т Ќ ќ У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Џ џ Ш ш

The Macedonian alphabet differs from Serbian in the following ways:

Montenegrin

Main articles: Montenegrin alphabet and language

The Montenegrin Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Ђ ђ Е е Ж ж З з З́ з́ И и
Ј ј К к Л л Љ љ М м Н н Њ њ О о П п Р р С с
С́ с́ Т т Ћ ћ У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Џ џ Ш ш

The Montenegrin alphabet differs from Serbian in the following ways:

Uralic languages

Uralic languages using the Cyrillic script (currently or in the past) include:

Karelian

The first lines of the Book of Matthew in Karelian using the Cyrillic script, 1820
The first lines of the Book of Matthew in Karelian using the Cyrillic script, 1820

Main article: Karelian alphabet

The Karelian language was written in the Cyrillic script in various forms until 1940 when publication in Karelian ceased in favor of Finnish, except for Tver Karelian, written in a Latin alphabet. In 1989 publication began again in the other Karelian dialects and Latin alphabets were used, in some cases with the addition of Cyrillic letters such as ь.

Kildin Sámi

Main article: Kildin Sami orthography

Over the last century, the alphabet used to write Kildin Sami has changed three times: from Cyrillic to Latin and back again to Cyrillic. Work on the latest version of the official orthography commenced in 1979. It was officially approved in 1982 and started to be widely used by 1987.[6]

Komi-Permyak

Main article: Komi-Permyak language § Alphabet

The Komi-Permyak Cyrillic alphabet:

А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё
Ж ж З з И и I i Й й К к Л л
М м Н н О о Ӧ ӧ П п Р р С с
Т т У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш
Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Mari alphabets

Main article: Mari alphabet

Meadow Mari Cyrillic alphabet:

А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и
Й й К к Л л М м Н н Ҥ ҥ О о Ö ö П п Р р
С с Т т У у Ӱ ӱ Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ
Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Hill Mari Cyrillic alphabet

А а Ä ä Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з
И и Й й К к Л л М м Н н О о Ö ö П п Р р
С с Т т У у Ӱ ӱ Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ
Ъ ъ Ы ы Ӹ ӹ Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Non-Slavic Indo-European languages

Iranian languages

Kurdish

Main article: Kurdish alphabets

Kurds in the former Soviet Union use a Cyrillic alphabet:

Kurdish Cyrillic script
А а Б б В в Г г Г' г' Д д Е е Ә ә
Ә' ә' Ж ж З з И и Й й К к К' к' Л л
М м Н н О о Ö ö П п П' п' Р р Р' р'
С с Т т Т' т' У у Ф ф Х х Һ һ Һ' һ'
Ч ч Ч' ч' Ш ш Щ щ Ь ь Э э Ԛ ԛ Ԝ ԝ

Ossetian

Further information: Ossetic language

The Ossetic language has officially used the Cyrillic script since 1937.

Ossetian Cyrillic script
А а Ӕ ӕ Б б В в Г г Гъ гъ Д д Дж дж
Дз дз Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й К к
Къ къ Л л М м Н н О о П п Пъ пъ Р р
С с Т т Тъ тъ У у Ф ф Х х Хъ хъ Ц ц
Цъ цъ Ч ч Чъ чъ Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь
Э э Ю ю Я я

Tajik

Main article: Tajik alphabet

The Tajik language is written using a Cyrillic-based alphabet.

Tajik Cyrillic script
А а Б б В в Г г Ғ ғ Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и
Ӣ ӣ Й й К к Қ қ Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с
Т т У у Ӯ ӯ Ф ф Х х Ҳ ҳ Ц ц Ч ч Ҷ ҷ Ш ш Ъ ъ
Э э Ю ю Я я

Other

Romance languages

Romanian Cyrillic alphabet
Romanian Cyrillic alphabet

Indo-Aryan

Romani

Romani is written in Cyrillic in Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria and the former USSR.

Mongolian

Main article: Mongolian language

The Mongolic languages include Khalkha (in Mongolia; Cyrillic is official since 1941, in practice from 1946), Buryat (around Lake Baikal; Cyrillic is used since the 1930s) and Kalmyk (northwest of the Caspian Sea; Cyrillic is used in various forms since the 1920-30s). Khalkha Mongolian is also written with the Mongol vertical alphabet, which was the official script before 1941.[7] Since the beginning of the 1990s Mongolia has been making attempts to extend the rather limited use of Mongol script and the most recent National Plan for Mongol Script aims to bring its use to the same level as Cyrillic by 2025 and maintain a dual-script system (digraphia).[8]

Overview

Main article: Mongolian Cyrillic script

This table contains all the characters used.

Һһ is shown twice as it appears at two different locations in Buryat and Kalmyk

Mongolian Cyrillic alphabets
Khalkha Аа Бб Вв Гг Дд Ее Ёё Жж Зз Ии Йй Кк Лл Мм Нн Оо
Buryat Аа Бб Вв Гг Дд Ее Ёё Жж Зз Ии Йй Лл Мм Нн Оо
Kalmyk Аа Әә Бб Вв Гг Һһ Дд Ее Жж Җҗ Зз Ии Йй Кк Лл Мм Нн Ңң Оо
Khalkha Өө Пп Рр Сс Тт Уу Үү Фф Хх Цц Чч Шш Щщ Ъъ Ыы Ьь Ээ Юю Яя
Buryat Өө Пп Рр Сс Тт Уу Үү Хх Һһ Цц Чч Шш Ыы Ьь Ээ Юю Яя
Kalmyk Өө Пп Рр Сс Тт Уу Үү Хх Цц Чч Шш Ьь Ээ Юю Яя

Khalkha

The Khalkha Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й
К к Л л М м Н н О о Ө ө П п Р р С с Т т У у
Ү ү Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э
Ю ю Я я

Long vowels are indicated with double letters. The Cyrillic letters Кк, Пп, Фф and Щщ are not used in native Mongolian words, but only for Russian or other loans (Пп may occur in native onomatopoeic words).

Buryat

The Buryat (буряад) Cyrillic script is similar to the Khalkha above, but Ьь indicates palatalization as in Russian. Buryat does not use Вв, Кк, Пп, Фф, Цц, Чч, Щщ or Ъъ in its native words (Пп may occur in native onomatopoeic words).

The Buryat Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й
Л л М м Н н О о Ө ө П п Р р С с Т т У у Ү ү
Х х Һ һ Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Kalmyk

The Kalmyk (хальмг) Cyrillic script differs from Khalkha in some respects: there are additional letters (Әә, Җҗ, Ңң), letters Ээ, Юю and Яя appear only word-initially, long vowels are written double in the first syllable (нөөрин), but single in syllables after the first. Short vowels are omitted altogether in syllables after the first syllable (хальмг = /xaʎmaɡ/). Жж and Пп are used in loanwords only (Russian, Tibetan, etc.), but Пп may occur in native onomatopoeic words.

The Kalmyk Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet
А а Ә ә Б б В в Г г Һ һ Д д Е е Ж ж Җ җ З з
И и Й й К к Л л М м Н н Ң ң О о Ө ө П п Р р
С с Т т У у Ү ү Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Ь ь Э э Ю ю
Я я

Caucasian languages

Northwest Caucasian languages

Living Northwest Caucasian languages are generally written using Cyrillic alphabets.

Abkhaz

Main article: Abkhaz alphabet

Abkhaz is a Caucasian language, spoken in the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, Georgia.

The Abkhaz Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Гь гь Ӷ ӷ Ӷь Ӷь Д д Дә дә Е е
Ж ж Жь жь Жә жә З з Ӡ ӡ Ӡә ӡә И и Й й К к Кь кь
Қ қ Қь қь Ҟ ҟ Ҟь ҟь Л л М м Н н О о П п Ԥ ԥ Ҧ ҧ
Р р С с Т т Тә тә Ҭ ҭ Ҭә ҭә У у Ф ф Х х Хь хь
Ҳ ҳ Ҳә ҳә Ц ц Цә цә Ҵ ҵ Ҵә ҵә Ч ч Ҷ ҷ Ҽ ҽ Ҿ ҿ
Ш ш Шь шь Шә шә Ы ы Ҩ ҩ Џ џ Џь џь Ь ь Ә ә

Other

Northeast Caucasian languages

Northeast Caucasian languages are generally written using Cyrillic alphabets.

Avar

Main article: Avar language

Avar is a Caucasian language, spoken in the Republic of Dagestan, of the Russian Federation, where it is co-official together with other Caucasian languages like Dargwa, Lak, Lezgian and Tabassaran. All these alphabets, and other ones (Abaza, Adyghe, Chechen, Ingush, Kabardian) have an extra sign: palochka (Ӏ), which gives voiceless occlusive consonants its particular ejective sound.

The Avar Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Гъ гъ Гь гь ГӀ гӀ Д д
Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й К к Къ къ
Кь кь КӀ кӀ КӀкӀ кӀкӀ Кк кк Л л М м Н н О о
П п Р р С с Т т ТӀ тӀ У у Ф ф Х х
Хх хх Хъ хъ Хь хь ХӀ хӀ Ц ц Цц цц ЦӀ цӀ ЦӀцӀ цӀцӀ
Ч ч ЧӀ чӀ ЧӀчӀ чӀчӀ Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь
Э э Ю ю Я я

Lezgian

Main article: Lezgin alphabet

Lezgian is spoken by the Lezgins, who live in southern Dagestan and northern Azerbaijan. Lezgian is a literary language and an official language of Dagestan.

Other

Turkic languages

Azerbaijani

Main article: Azerbaijani alphabet

The Azerbaijani Cyrillic alphabet
First version (1939–1958): Аа Бб Вв Гг Ғғ Дд Ее Әә Жж Зз Ии Йй Кк Ҝҝ Лл Мм Нн Оо
Өө Пп Рр Сс Тт Уу Үү Фф Хх Һһ Цц Чч Ҹҹ Шш Ыы Ээ Юю Яя ʼ
Second version (1958–1991):
still used today by Dagestan
Аа Бб Вв Гг Ғғ Дд Ее Әә Жж Зз Ии Ыы Јј Кк Ҝҝ Лл Мм Нн
Оо Өө Пп Рр Сс Тт Уу Үү Фф Хх Һһ Чч Ҹҹ Шш ʼ
Latin Alphabet (as of 1992)
Aa, Bb, Cc, Çç, Dd, Ee, Əə, Ff, Gg, Ğğ, Hh, Iı, İi, Jj, Kk, Ll, Mm, Nn, Oo, Öö, Pp, Qq, Rr, Ss, Şş, Tt, Uu, Üü, Vv, (Ww), Xx, Yy, Zz

Bashkir

The Cyrillic script was used for the Bashkir language after the winter of 1938.

The Bashkir Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Ғ ғ Д д Ҙ ҙ Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з
И и Й й К к Ҡ ҡ Л л М м Н н Ң ң О о Ө ө П п
Р р С с Ҫ ҫ Т т У у Ү ү Ф ф Х х Һ һ Ц ц Ч ч
Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ә ә Ю ю Я я

Chuvash

The Cyrillic alphabet is used for the Chuvash language since the late 19th century, with some changes in 1938.

The Chuvash Cyrillic alphabet
А а Ӑ ӑ Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ӗ ӗ Ж ж З з
И и Й й К к Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Ҫ ҫ
Т т У у Ӳ ӳ Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы
Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Kazakh

Main article: Kazakh alphabets

Kazakh can be alternatively written in the Latin alphabet. Latin is going to be the only used alphabet in 2022, alongside the modified Arabic alphabet (in the People's Republic of China, Iran and Afghanistan).

The Kazakh Cyrillic alphabet
А а Ә ә Б б В в Г г Ғ ғ Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з
И и Й й К к Қ қ Л л М м Н н Ң ң О о Ө ө П п
Р р С с Т т У у Ұ ұ Ү ү Ф ф Х х Һ һ Ц ц Ч ч
Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы І і Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

The Cyrillic letters Вв, Ёё, Цц, Чч, Щщ, Ъъ, Ьь and Ээ are not used in native Kazakh words, but only for Russian loans.

Kyrgyz

Main article: Kyrgyz alphabets

Kyrgyz has also been written in Latin and in Arabic.

The Kyrgyz Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й К к
Л л М м Н н Ң ң О о Ө ө П п Р р С с Т т У у
Ү ү Х х Ч ч Ш ш Ы ы Э э Ю ю Я я

Tatar

Main article: Tatar alphabet

Tatar has used Cyrillic since 1939, but the Russian Orthodox Tatar community has used Cyrillic since the 19th century. In 2000 a new Latin alphabet was adopted for Tatar, but it is used generally on the Internet.

The Tatar Cyrillic alphabet
А а Ә ә Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж Җ җ
З з И и Й й К к Л л М м Н н Ң ң О о Ө ө
П п Р р С с Т т У у Ү ү Ф ф Х х Һ һ Ц ц
Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

The Cyrillic letters Ёё, Цц, Щщ are not used in native Tatar words, but only for Russian loans.

Turkmen

Main article: Turkmen alphabet

Turkmen, written 1940–1994 exclusively in Cyrillic, since 1994 officially in Roman, but in everyday communication Cyrillic is still used along with Roman script.

The Turkmen Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж Җ җ З з И и Й й К к
Л л М м Н н Ң ң О о Ө ө П п Р р С с Т т У у Ү ү Ф ф
Х х (Ц ц) Ч ч Ш ш (Щ щ) (Ъ ъ) Ы ы (Ь ь) Э э Ә ә Ю ю Я я
Latin alphabet version 2
Aa, Ää, Bb, (Cc), Çç, Dd, Ee, Ff, Gg, Hh, Ii, Jj, Kk, Ll, Mm, Nn, Ňň, Oo, Öö, Pp, (Qq), Rr, Ss, Şş, Tt, Uu, Üü, (Vv), Ww, (Xx), Yy, Ýý, Zz, Žž
Latin alphabet version 1
Aa, Bb, Çç, Dd, Ee, Êê, Ff, Gg, Hh, Ii, Jj, Žž, Kk, Ll, Mm, Nn, Ññ, Oo, Ôô, Pp, Rr, Ss, Şş, Tt, Uu, Ûû, Ww, Yy, Ýý, Zz

Uzbek

Main article: Uzbek alphabet

From 1941 the Cyrillic script was used exclusively. In 1998 the government has adopted a Latin alphabet to replace it. The deadline for making this transition has however been repeatedly changed, and Cyrillic is still more common. It is not clear that the transition will be made at all.

The Uzbek Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й К к
Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Т т У у Ф ф Х х Ч ч
Ш ш Ъ ъ Э э Ю ю Я я Ў ў Қ қ Ғ ғ Ҳ ҳ

Other

Sinitic

Dungan language

See also: Dungan language

Since 1953.

The modern Dungan Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж Җ җ З з И и Й й
К к Л л М м Н н Ң ң Ә ә О о П п Р р С с Т т У у
Ў ў Ү ү Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э
Ю ю Я я

Tungusic languages

Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages

Eskimo-Aleut languages

The modern Aleut Cyrillic alphabet
А а А̄ а̄ Б б В в Г г Ӷ ӷ Гў гў Д д Д̆ д̆ Е е Е̄ е̄ Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Ӣ ӣ
Й й ʼЙ ʼй К к Ӄ ӄ Л л ʼЛ ʼл М м ʼМ ʼм Н н ʼН ʼн Ӈ ӈ ʼӇ ʼӈ О о О̄ о̄ П п Р р
С с Т т У у Ӯ ӯ Ф ф Х х Ӽ ӽ Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ы̄ ы̄ Ь ь Э э
Э̄ э̄ Ю ю Ю̄ ю̄ Я я Я̄ я̄ ʼ ʼЎ ʼў

Other languages

Constructed languages

International auxiliary languages
Fictional languages

Summary table

The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АА́А̀А̄ӒБВ
ГҐДЂЃЕЕ́
ЀЕ̄ЁЄЖЗЗ́
ЅИІЇИ́ЍӢ
ЙЈКЛЉМН
ЊОО́ŌПРС
С́ТЋЌУУ́Ӯ
ЎФХЦЧЏШ
ЩЪЫЬЭЮЯ
Non-Slavic letters
ӐА̊А̃Ӓ̄ӔӘӘ́
Ә̃ӚВ̌ҒГ̑Г̣Г̌
ҔӺҒ̌ӶД̣Д̆Ӗ
Е̃Ё̄Є̈ӁҖӜҘ
ӞЗ̌З̱З̣ԐԐ̈Ӡ
И̃ҊӤҚӃҠҞ
ҜК̣ԚӅԮԒӍ
ӉҢԨӇҤО̀О̆
О̂О̃ӦӦ̄ӨӨ̄Ө́
Ө̆ӪҨԤР̌ҎҪ
С̣С̱Т̌Т̣ҬУ̃Ӱ
Ӱ́ӲҮҮ́ҰХ̣Х̱
Х̮Х̑ҲӼӾҺҺ̈
ԦҴҶӴӋҸҼ
ҾЫ̆Ы̄ӸҌЭ̆Э̄
Э̇ӬӬ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈Ю̈́
Ю̄Я̆Я̄Я̈ԜӀ
Archaic letters
ҀѺ
ОУѠѼѾ
ѢѤѦ
ѪѨѬѮ
ѰѲѴѶԘ
ԀԔԖԠԢ
Ҧ
ԂԄԈԊԌ
ԎԆԞ
ԪԬГ̧Г̄
Cyrillic alphabets comparison table
Early scripts
Church Slavonic А Б В Г Д (Ѕ) Е Ж Ѕ/З И І К Л М Н О П Р С Т Оу (Ѡ) Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ѣ Ь Ю Ѥ Ѧ Ѩ Ѫ Ѭ Ѯ Ѱ Ѳ Ѵ Ҁ
Most common shared letters
Common А   Б В Г   Д     Е     Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ       Ь     Ю Я  
South Slavic languages
Bulgarian А   Б В Г   Д Дж Дз Е     Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ     Ь     Ю Я
Macedonian А   Б В Г   Д Ѓ Ѕ Е     Ж   З   И   Ј     К   Л Љ М   Н Њ   О   П   Р   С   Т Ќ У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч Џ Ш
Serbian А   Б В Г   Д Ђ   Е     Ж   З   И   Ј     К   Л Љ М   Н Њ   О   П   Р   С   Т Ћ У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч Џ Ш
Montenegrin А   Б В Г   Д Ђ   Е     Ж   З З́ И   Ј     К   Л Љ М   Н Њ   О   П   Р   С С́ Т Ћ У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч Џ Ш
East Slavic languages
Russian А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Belarusian А   Б В Г Ґ Д     Е   Ё Ж   З     І     Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У Ў   Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш   Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Ukrainian А   Б В Г Ґ Д     Е Є   Ж   З   И І   Ї Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ     Ь     Ю Я
Rusyn А   Б В Г Ґ Д     Е Є Ё Ж   З   И І Ы Ї Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ   Ѣ Ь     Ю Я
Iranian languages
Kurdish А   Б В Г Г' Д     Е Ә Ә' Ж   З   И       Й К К' Л   М   Н     О Ö П П' Р Р' С   Т Т' У     Ф Х Һ Һ'   Ч Ч' Ш Щ       Ь Э       Ԛ Ԝ
Ossetian А Ӕ Б В Г Гъ Д Дж Дз Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К Къ Л   М   Н     О   П Пъ Р   С   Т Тъ У     Ф Х Хъ Ц Цъ Ч Чъ Ш Щ Ъ Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Tajik А   Б В Г Ғ Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И   Ӣ   Й К Қ Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У Ӯ   Ф Х Ҳ     Ч Ҷ Ш   Ъ       Э   Ю Я
Romance languages
Moldovan А   Б В Г   Д     Е     Ж Ӂ З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш     Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Uralic languages
Komi-Permyak А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И І     Й К   Л   М   Н     О Ӧ П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Meadow Mari А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н Ҥ   О Ӧ П   Р   С   Т   У Ӱ   Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Hill Mari А Ӓ Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О Ӧ П   Р   С   Т   У Ӱ   Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ӹ Ь Э   Ю Я
Kildin Sami А Ӓ Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И   Й Ҋ Ј К   Л Ӆ М Ӎ Н Ӊ Ӈ О   П   Р Ҏ С   Т   У     Ф Х Һ Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь Ҍ Э Ӭ Ю Я
Turkic languages
Bashkir А Ә Б В Г Ғ Д   Ҙ Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К Ҡ Л   М   Н Ң   О Ө П   Р   С Ҫ Т   У   Ү Ф Х Һ Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы   Ь Э Ә Ю Я
Chuvash А Ӑ Б В Г   Д     Е Ё Ӗ Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С Ҫ Т   У Ӳ   Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Kazakh А Ә Б В Г Ғ Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И І     Й К Қ Л   М   Н Ң   О Ө П   Р   С   Т   У Ұ Ү Ф Х Һ Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Kyrgyz А   Б   Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н Ң   О Ө П   Р   С   Т   У   Ү   Х       Ч   Ш     Ы     Э   Ю Я
Tatar А Ә Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж Җ З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н Ң   О Ө П   Р   С   Т   У   Ү Ф Х Һ Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Uzbek А   Б В Г Ғ Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К Қ Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У Ў   Ф Х Ҳ     Ч   Ш   Ъ       Э   Ю Я
Mongolian languages
Buryat А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й     Л   М   Н     О Ө П   Р   С   Т   У   Ү   Х Һ Ц   Ч   Ш     Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Khalkha А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О Ө П   Р   С   Т   У   Ү Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Kalmyk А Ә Б В Г Һ Д     Е     Ж Җ З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н Ң   О Ө П   Р   С   Т   У   Ү   Х   Ц   Ч   Ш         Ь Э   Ю Я
Caucasian languages
Abkhaz А   Б В Г Ҕ Д Дә Џ Е Ҽ Ҿ Ж Жә З Ӡ Ӡә И     Й К Қ Ҟ Л   М   Н     О Ҩ П Ҧ Р   С   Т Тә Ҭ Ҭә У     Ф Х Ҳ Ҳә Ц Цә Ҵ Ҵә Ч Ҷ Ш Шә Щ   Ы
Sino-Tibetan languages
Dungan А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж Җ З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н Ң Ә О   П   Р   С   Т   У Ў Ү Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я

See also

References

  1. ^ Šmid (2002), pp. 113–24: "Es interesante el hecho que en Bulgaria se imprimieron unas pocas publicaciones en alfabeto cirílico búlgaro y en Grecia en alfabeto griego... Nezirović (1992: 128) anota que también en Bosnia se ha encontrado un documento en que la lengua sefardí está escrita en alfabeto cirilico." Translation: "It is an interesting fact that in Bulgaria a few [Sephardic] publications are printed in the Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet and in Greece in the Greek alphabet... Nezirović (1992:128) writes that in Bosnia a document has also been found in which the Sephardic language is written in the Cyrillic alphabet."
  2. ^ Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250, Cambridge Medieval Textbooks, Florin Curta, Cambridge University Press, 2006, ISBN 0521815398, pp. 221–222.
  3. ^ The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire, Oxford History of the Christian Church, J. M. Hussey, Andrew Louth, Oxford University Press, 2010, ISBN 0191614882, p. 100.
  4. ^ Peshikan, Mitar; Jerković, Jovan; Pižurica, Mato (1994). Pravopis srpskoga jezika. Beograd: Matica Srpska. p. 42. ISBN 86-363-0296-X.
  5. ^ Pravopis na makedonskiot jazik (PDF). Skopje: Institut za makedonski jazik Krste Misirkov. 2017. p. 3. ISBN 978-608-220-042-2.
  6. ^ Rießler, Michael. Towards a digital infrastructure for Kildin Saami. In: Sustaining Indigenous Knowledge, ed. by Erich Kasten, Erich and Tjeerd de Graaf. Fürstenberg, 2013, 195–218.
  7. ^ Veronika, Kapišovská (2005). "Language Planning in Mongolia I". Mongolica Pragensia. 2005: 55–83 – via academia.edu.
  8. ^ "Монгол бичгийн үндэсний хөтөлбөр III (National Plan for Mongol Script III)". Эрх Зүйн Мэдээллийн Нэгдсэн Систем. 2020. Archived from the original on May 8, 2021. Retrieved May 8, 2021.

Further reading